Vintage, in winemaking, is the process of picking grapes and creating the finished product—wine. A vintage wine is one made from grapes that were all, or grown and harvested in a single specified year. In certain wines, it can denote quality, as in Port wine, where Port houses make and declare vintage Port in their best years. From this tradition, a common, though not correct, usage applies the term to any wine, perceived to be old or of a high quality. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion of wine, not from the year denoted on the label. In Chile and South Africa, the requirement is 75% same-year content for vintage-dated wine. In Australia, New Zealand, the member states of the European Union, the requirement is 85%. In the United States, the requirement is 85%, unless the wine is designated with an AVA, in which case it is 95%. Technically, the 85% rule in the United States applies to imports, but there are difficulties in enforcing the regulation; the opposite of a vintage wine is a nonvintage wine, a blend from the produce of two or more years.
This is a common practice for winemakers seeking a consistent style of year on year. The word vintage was first used in the early 15th century, it was taken from the Old French vendage. This word was taken from demere; the importance assigned to vintage is both disputed. For wine produced in regions at the colder climatic limits of wine production, vintage can be important, because some seasons will be much warmer and produce riper grapes and better wine. On the other hand, a poor growing season can lead to grapes failing to reach optimal ripeness, resulting in grape juice, higher in acid and lower in sugar, which affects the quality of the resulting wine. In many wine regions in the New World, growing seasons are much more uniform. In dry regions, the systematic and controlled use of irrigation contributes to uniform vintages. However, such wines are labeled by vintage because of consumer demand. Wines of superior vintages from prestigious producers and regions will command much higher prices than those from average vintages.
This is the case if wines are to improve further with some age in the bottle. Some wines are only labeled with a vintage in better-than-average years, to maintain their quality and reputation, while the vast majority of wines are produced to be drunk young and fresh. In such cases, a vintage is considered less important. However, it can serve to protect consumers against buying a wine that would not be expected to improve with age and could be past its best, such as with Beaujolais nouveau, a wine style made to be consumed within months of its bottling; the importance of vintage may sometimes be exaggerated. For example, New York Times wine columnist Frank J. Prial declared the vintage chart to be dead, writing that "winemakers of the world have rendered the vintage chart obsolete", Bill Marsano wrote that "winemakers now have the technology and skills to make good and very good wines in undistinguished years". James Laube of Wine Spectator has asserted that "even an average vintage can yield some grand wines".
Roman Weil, co-chairman of the Oenonomy Society of the US and professor at the University of Chicago, tested the controversial hypothesis that experienced wine drinkers "cannot distinguish in blind tastings the wine of years rated high from those of years rated low, or, if they can, they do not agree with the vintage chart's preferences". Weil used wines ranging from four to 17 years beyond their vintage with 240 wine drinkers and found that the tasters could not distinguish between wines of good and bad vintages except for Bordeaux wines; when they could make a distinction, the match between the tasters' individual assessments and the charts' rankings were little better than tossing a coin. When the tests were replicated with wine experts, including French wine academics, the results were again the same as chance. Weil does not consider a vintage chart to be useless, he suggests using one to help "find good buys in wine. Buy wine from the Appalling years," which may be priced far below actual quality.
In Spain, wine regulators publish official classifications of each vintage. A common Bordelais saying is "The best vintage is the vintage we have to sell". Comet vintages Joshua. "Bordeaux 2005". Wine & Spirits, June 2006, 25, 24-26. Laube, James. "A caveat for Cabernet". Wine Spectator, June 15, 2006, 31, 37. Prial, Frank J. "Wine talk: So who needs vintage charts". New York Times, February 9, 2000, B1 & B14. Marsano, Bill. "Vintage nonsense". Hemisphere, May 2001. Weil, Roman L. "Parker v. Prial: The death of the vintage chart". Oenometrie VIII. Eighth annual meeting of the Vineyard Data Quantification Society in Media related to Wine vintages at Wikimedia Commons Ribeiro Denomination of Origin The Decanter's Vintage Guides
The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows and video recordings and sheet music, the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators. Among the many individuals and organizations that operate in the industry are: the songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces; the industry includes a range of professionals who assist singers and musicians with their music careers. In addition to the businesses and artists who work in the music industry to make a profit or income, there is a range of organizations that play an important role in the music industry, including musician's unions, not-for-profit performance-rights organizations and other associations; the modern Western music industry emerged between the 1930s and 1950s, when records replaced sheet music as the most important product in the music business. In the commercial world, "the recording industry"—a reference to recording performances of songs and pieces and selling the recordings–began to be used as a loose synonym for "the music industry".
In the 2000s, a majority of the music market is controlled by three major corporate labels: the French-owned Universal Music Group, the Japanese-owned Sony Music Entertainment, the US-owned Warner Music Group. Labels outside of these three major labels are referred to as independent labels; the largest portion of the live music market for concerts and tours is controlled by Live Nation, the largest promoter and music venue owner. Live Nation is a former subsidiary of iHeartMedia Inc, the largest owner of radio stations in the United States. In the first decades of the 2000s, the music industry underwent drastic changes with the advent of widespread digital distribution of music via the Internet. A conspicuous indicator of these changes is total music sales: since 2000, sales of recorded music have dropped off while live music has increased in importance. In 2011, the largest recorded music retailer in the world was now a digital, Internet-based platform operated by a computer company: Apple Inc.'s online iTunes Store.
Since 2011, the Music Industry has seen consistent sales growth with streaming now generating more revenue per annum than digital downloads. Spotify and Apple lead the way with online digital streaming. Printed music in Europe: Music publishing using machine-printed sheet music developed during the Renaissance music era in the mid-15th century; the development of music publication followed the evolution of printing technologies that were first developed for printing regular books. After the mid-15th century, mechanical techniques for printing sheet music were first developed; the earliest example, a set of liturgical chants, dates from about 1465, shortly after the Gutenberg Bible was printed. Prior to this time, music had to be copied out by hand. To copy music notation by hand was a costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming process, so it was undertaken only by monks and priests seeking to preserve sacred music for the church; the few collections of secular music that are extant were commissioned and owned by wealthy aristocrats.
Examples include the Squarcialupi Codex of Italian Trecento music and the Chantilly Codex of French Ars subtilior music. The use of printing enabled sheet music to reproduced much more and at a much lower cost than hand-copying music notation; this helped musical styles to spread to other cities and countries more and it enabled music to be spread to more distant areas. Prior to the invention of music printing, a composer's music might only be known in the city she lived in and its surrounding towns, because only wealthy aristocrats would be able to afford to have hand copies made of her music. With music printing, though, a composer's music could be printed and sold at a low cost to purchasers from a wide geographic area; as sheet music of major composer's pieces and songs began to be printed and distributed in a wider area, this enabled composers and listeners to hear new styles and forms of music. A German composer could buy songs written by an Italian or English composer, an Italian composer could buy pieces written by Dutch composers and learn how they wrote music.
This led to more blending of musical styles from different regions. The pioneer of modern music printing was Ottaviano Petrucci, a printer and publisher, able to secure a twenty-year monopoly on printed music in Venice during the 16th century. Venice was one of music centers during this period, his Harmoni
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time, it has been contrasted with classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has not been applied to the new music created during those revivals; this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, others. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, in U.
S. English it shares the same name, it shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music; the terms folk music, folk song, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes"; the term further derives from the German expression volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive; some do not agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning given is that of "old songs, with no known composers", another is that of music, submitted to an evolutionary "process of oral transmission....
The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character". Such definitions depend upon " processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of, found not only in the lower layers of feudal and some oriental societies but in'primitive' societies and in parts of'popular cultures'". One used definition is "Folk music is what the people sing". For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear" in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favour of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him true folk music was, in Charles Seeger's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and stratified societies.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types:'primitive' or'tribal'. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music, not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most indigenous music. From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were illiterate; this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh; the music was related to national culture. It was culturally particular. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion.
It is conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from, they commemorate personal events. On certain days of the year, such as Easter, May Day, Christmas, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Weddings and funerals may be noted with songs and special costumes. Religious festivals have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding, unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music; the songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time several generations. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing.
This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today every folk song, recorded is credited with an arranger. Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time
Historic Dead is a live album by the rock group the Grateful Dead. It was recorded at the Avalon Ballroom in San Francisco, California in late 1966, released in June 1971. Historic Dead was distributed by MGM Records. Together Records had purchased the rights to a number of concert recordings from the Avalon, including some by the Grateful Dead, for a planned anthology of Bay Area bands; when the label collapsed, MGM paid the debt owed to the studio and assumed the tapes, releasing two original albums of live Dead material. Historic Dead is therefore not a bootleg album, it reached number 154 on the Billboard 200. It has long been out of print, has never been issued on compact disc. Historic Dead was preceded by another Sunflower Records album recorded at the Avalon in 1966, Vintage Dead. Both are believed to have been recorded on September 16, 1966. In 1972 MGM released the compilation The History of the Grateful Dead on their archival imprint Pride; the album combined all of Vintage Dead with two tracks from Historic Dead and featured a new album cover.
It is not to be confused with History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One, an album known as Bear's Choice. Side one"Good Morning Little Schoolgirl" – 11:01 "Lindy" – 2:49Side two"Stealin'" – 3:00 "The Same Thing" – 12:01 Grateful DeadJerry Garcia – lead guitar, vocals Bill Kreutzmann – drums Phil Lesh – bass guitar, vocals Ron "Pigpen" McKernan – organ, vocals Bob Weir – rhythm guitar, vocalsTechnical personnelRobert Cohen – production and engineering Richard Delvy – editing and remixing Robert Hickson – album design
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in Palo Alto, California. Ranging from quintet to septet, the band is known for its eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, country, blues, modal jazz, experimental music and space rock, for live performances of lengthy instrumental jams, for their devoted fan base, known as "Deadheads". "Their music", writes Lenny Kaye, "touches on ground that most other groups don't know exists". These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world"; the band was ranked 57th by Rolling Stone magazine in its The Greatest Artists of All Time issue. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994 and a recording of their May 8, 1977, performance at Cornell University's Barton Hall was added to the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2012; the Grateful Dead have sold more than 35 million albums worldwide. The Grateful Dead was founded in the San Francisco Bay Area amid the rise of the counterculture of the 1960s.
The founding members were Jerry Garcia, Bob Weir, Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, Phil Lesh, Bill Kreutzmann. Members of the Grateful Dead had played together in various San Francisco bands, including Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions and the Warlocks. Lesh was the last member to join the Warlocks. Drummer Mickey Hart and non-performing lyricist Robert Hunter joined in 1967. With the exception of McKernan, who died in 1973, Hart, who took time off from 1971 to 1974, the core of the band stayed together for its entire 30-year history; the other official members of the band are Tom Constanten, John Perry Barlow, Keith Godchaux, Donna Godchaux, Brent Mydland, Vince Welnick. Bruce Hornsby was a touring member from 1990 to 1992, as well as a guest with the band on occasion before and after the tours. After the death of Garcia in 1995, former members of the band, along with other musicians, toured as the Other Ones in 1998, 2000, 2002, the Dead in 2003, 2004, 2009. In 2015, the four surviving core members marked the band's 50th anniversary in a series of concerts that were billed as their last performances together.
There have been several spin-offs featuring one or more core members, such as Dead & Company, the Rhythm Devils, Phil Lesh and Friends, RatDog, Billy & the Kids. The Grateful Dead began their career as the Warlocks, a group formed in early 1965 from the remnants of a Palo Alto, California jug band called Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions; the band's first show was at Magoo's Pizza located at 639 Santa Cruz Avenue in suburban Menlo Park, on May 5, 1965. They continued playing bar shows as the Warlocks, but changed its name after finding out that the Velvet Underground had put out a record under the same name; the first show under the name Grateful Dead was in San Jose on December 4, 1965, at one of Ken Kesey's Acid Tests. Earlier demo tapes have survived, but the first of over 2,000 concerts known to have been recorded by the band's fans was a show at the Fillmore Auditorium in San Francisco on January 8, 1966; that month, the Grateful Dead played at the Trips Festival, an early psychedelic rock concert.
The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen from a dictionary. According to Phil Lesh, in his autobiography, "... picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...... In that silvery elf-voice he said to me,'Hey, how about the Grateful Dead?'" The definition there was "the soul of a dead person, or his angel, showing gratitude to someone who, as an act of charity, arranged their burial". According to Alan Trist, director of the Grateful Dead's music publisher company Ice Nine, Garcia found the name in the Funk & Wagnalls Folklore Dictionary, when his finger landed on that phrase while playing a game of Fictionary. In the Garcia biography, Captain Trips, author Sandy Troy states that the band was smoking the psychedelic DMT at the time; the term "grateful dead" appears in folktales of a variety of cultures. Other supporting personnel who signed on early included Rock Scully, who heard of the band from Kesey and signed on as manager after meeting them at the Big Beat Acid Test. "We were living off of Owsley's good graces at that time....
Trip was he wanted to design equipment for us, we were going to have to be in sort of a lab situation for him to do it", said Garcia. One of the group's earliest major performances in 1967 was the Mantra-Rock Dance—a musical event held on January 29, 1967, at the Avalon Ballroom by the San Francisco Hare Krishna temple; the Grateful Dead performed at the event along with the Hare Krishna founder Bhaktivedanta Swami, poet Allen Ginsberg, bands Moby Grape and Big Brother and the Holding Company with Janis Joplin, donating proceeds to the Krishna temple. The band's first LP, The Grateful Dead, was released on Warner Brothers in 1967. Classically trained trumpeter Phil Lesh performed on bass guitar. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played r
MGM Records was a record label started by the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio in 1946 for the purpose of releasing soundtrack albums of their musical films. It soon transitioned to a pop music label; the company released soundtrack albums of the music for some of their non-musical films as well, on rare occasions, cast albums of off-Broadway musicals such as The Fantasticks and the 1954 revival of The Threepenny Opera. In one instance, it released the successful soundtrack album of a film made by a rival studio, Columbia Pictures's Born Free, their first soundtrack was of Till the Clouds Roll By, a 1946 film based on the life of composer Jerome Kern. It was the first soundtrack album of a live-action film; the album was issued as a set of four 10-inch 78-rpm records. As in many early MGM soundtrack albums, only eight selections from the film were included on the original version of the album. In order to fit the songs onto the record sides the musical material needed editing and manipulation; this was before tape existed, so the record producer needed to copy segments from the playback discs used on set copy and re-copy them from one disc to another, adding transitions and cross-fades until the final master was created.
Needless to say, it was several generations removed from the original and the sound quality suffered for it. The playback recordings were purposely recorded "dry" otherwise it would come across as too hollow sounding in large movie theatres; this made these albums boxy. MGM Records called these "original cast albums" in the style of Decca's Broadway show cast albums, they coined the phrase "recorded directly from the soundtrack". Over the years the term "soundtrack" began to be applied to any recording from a film, whether taken from the actual film soundtrack or re-recorded in studio; the phrase is sometimes incorrectly used for Broadway cast recordings. While it is correct to call a "soundtrack" a "cast recording" it is never correct to call a "cast recording" a "soundtrack". Among MGM's most successful soundtrack albums were those of the films Good News, Easter Parade, Annie Get Your Gun, Singin' in the Rain, Show Boat, The Band Wagon, Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, Gigi; when the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz was first shown on television in 1956, the label issued a soundtrack album of songs and dialog excerpts recorded directly from the film, as they had done with their LP of music and dialog from Quo Vadis in 1951.
By 1950, magnetic tape had been perfected for recording use. This markedly improved the sound quality on long play albums from 1951 forward. MGM Records issued albums of film scores, including Ben-Hur, King of Kings, Doctor Zhivago, How the West Was Won, the 1967 fake-stereo 70mm re-release of Gone With the Wind, 2001: A Space Odyssey; the Ben-Hur and King of Kings albums were studio recreations of the scores, but done with the original orchestrations. MGM Records released a second soundtrack album of Quo Vadis, this one containing only music from the film. Beginning in the 1990s, authentic soundtrack albums of the musical scores to Ben-Hur and King of Kings became available; the Rhino Records editions of these albums featured the entire scores, including outtakes. Rhino released a full-length two-disc album of the score of Gone With the Wind, recorded from the soundtrack in the original mono; as in the case of the non-musical films, Rhino Records, which obtained the rights to the MGM soundtracks in the 1990s, issued longer versions of their movie musical albums, containing all of the songs and music.
Rhino's license expired at the end of 2011 and the albums Rhino issued are now out of print. Warner Bros. now owns the MGM soundtracks first issued by MGM Records and Warner Bros' WaterTower Music unit now has the rights to release the MGM soundtracks. MGM operated their own record manufacturing plant at Bloomfield, New Jersey, from 1947 until 1972. For several years in the late 1940s-early 1950s, MGM operated a radio syndication business, producing The MGM Theater of the Air and a variety of other series based on inactive movie properties such as Dr. Kildare, Andy Hardy and Crime Does Not Pay; the MGM record pressing plant manufactured the electrical transcriptions used to distribute the shows to local stations. The record manufacturing division was closed. There was a short-lived Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Records of 1928, which produced recordings of music featured in MGM movies, not sold to the general public but made to be played in movie theater lobbies; these Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer records were manufactured under contract with the studio by Columbia Records.
In the early 1950s, MGM Records was considered one of the "major" record companies due to owning its own manufacturing facilities. Subsidiary Cub Records was launched in the late 1950s and Verve Records was acquired from Norman Granz in December 1960. Other MGM subsidiaries and distributed labels included: Kama Sutra, Heritage and Metro, Leo Hickory, MGM South, Pride, CoBurt, L&R, Lionel. MGM moved into the rock a