An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation, the passing of comprehensive examinations. It is known by the Latin phrases honoris causa or ad honorem; the degree is a doctorate or, less a master's degree, may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration; the degree is conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in one's curriculum vitae as an award, not in the education section. With regard to the use of this honorific, the policies of institutions of higher education ask that recipients "refrain from adopting the misleading title" and that a recipient of an honorary doctorate should restrict the use of the title "Dr" before their name to any engagement with the institution of higher education in question and not within the broader community.
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime; the practice dates back to the Middle Ages, when for various reasons a university might be persuaded, or otherwise see fit, to grant exemption from some or all of the usual statutory requirements for the awarding of a degree. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford, he became Bishop of Salisbury. In the latter part of the 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common on the occasion of royal visits to Oxford or Cambridge. On the visit of James I to Oxford in 1605, for example, forty-three members of his retinue received the degree of Master of Arts, the Register of Convocation explicitly states that these were full degrees, carrying the usual privileges. Honorary degrees are awarded at regular graduation ceremonies, at which the recipients are invited to make a speech of acceptance before the assembled faculty and graduates – an event which forms the highlight of the ceremony.
Universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees. Those who are nominated are not told until a formal approval and invitation are made; the term honorary degree is a slight misnomer: honoris causa degrees are not considered of the same standing as substantive degrees earned by the standard academic processes of courses and original research, except where the recipient has demonstrated an appropriate level of academic scholarship that would ordinarily qualify him or her for the award of a substantive degree. Recipients of honorary degrees wear the same academic dress as recipients of substantive degrees, although there are a few exceptions: honorary graduands at the University of Cambridge wear the appropriate full-dress gown but not the hood, those at the University of St Andrews wear a black cassock instead of the usual full-dress gown. An ad eundem or jure officii degree is sometimes considered honorary, although they are only conferred on an individual who has achieved a comparable qualification at another university or by attaining an office requiring the appropriate level of scholarship.
Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation. The "dissertation et jure dignitatis" is considered to be a full academic degree. See below. Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc. are awarded honoris causa, in many countries it is possible formally to earn such a degree. This involves the submission of a portfolio of peer-refereed research undertaken over a number of years, which has made a substantial contribution to the academic field in question; the university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. The applicant must have some strong formal connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff, or graduates of several years' standing; some universities, seeking to differentiate between substantive and honorary doctorates, have a degree, used for these purposes, with the other higher doctorates reserved for formally examined academic scholarship.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees. These "Lambeth degrees" are sometimes, thought to be honorary. Between the two extremes of honoring celebrities and formally assessing a portfolio of research, some universities use honorary degrees to recognize achievements of intellectual rigor; some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy — see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the same way as
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Panmunjeom, now located in Kaesong, North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, was a village just north of the de facto border between North and South Korea, where the 1953 Korean Armistice Agreement that paused the Korean War was signed. The building where the armistice was signed still stands, its name is used as a metonym for the nearby Joint Security Area, where discussions between North and South Korea still take place in blue buildings that straddle the Military Demarcation Line. As such, it is considered one of the last vestiges of the Cold War; the site of the former village is 53 kilometers north-northwest of Seoul and 10 kilometers east of Kaesong. The village, a small cluster of fewer than ten huts, is on the south side of the Kaesong-Seoul road on the west bank of the Sa'cheon stream. Meetings of the Military Armistice Commission took place in several tents set up on the north side; the eighteen copies of Volume I and II of the armistice were signed by the Senior Delegates of each side in a building constructed by both sides over a 48-hour period.
After the Armistice Agreement was signed, construction began in September 1953 on a new site, the JSA, located one kilometer east of the village. All meetings between North Korea and the United Nations Command or South Korea have taken place here since its completion; the JSA is referred to as Panmunjeom. After the war, all civilians were removed from the Korean Demilitarized Zone, except for two villages near the JSA on opposite sides of the Military Demarcation Line. After that, the empty village of Panmunjeom fell into disrepair and disappeared from the landscape. There is no evidence of it today. However, the building constructed for the signing of the armistice has since been renamed by North Korea as the Peace Museum. United Nations forces met with North Korean and Chinese officials at Panmunjeom from 1951 to 1953 for truce talks; the talks dragged on for many months. The main point of contention during the talks was the question surrounding the prisoners of war. Moreover, South Korea was uncompromising in its demand for a unified state.
On June 8, 1953, an agreement to the POW problem was reached. Those prisoners who refused to return to their countries were allowed to live under a neutral supervising commission for three months. At the end of this period, those who still refused repatriation would be released. Among those who refused repatriation were 22 American and British POWs, all but two of whom chose to defect to the People's Republic of China. A final armistice agreement was reached on July 27, 1953; the United Nations Command, Chinese Peoples Liberation Army, North Korea Peoples Army agreed to an armistice ending the fighting. The agreement established a 4-kilometer-wide demilitarized zone along the armistice line dividing Korea into two separate countries. Although most troops and all heavy weapons were to be removed from the area, it has been armed by both sides since the end of the fighting. North Korea Uncovered Daeseong-dong – a village within the DMZ Kijŏng-dong – a village within the DMZ Peace House April 2018 inter-Korean summit May 2018 inter-Korean summit 2018 Inter-Korean Summit The official website of the 2018 Inter-Korean Summit 2018 Inter-Korean Summit The official website of the 2018 Inter-Korean Summit http://llukasz.com/North_Korea.htm Traveller's blog with pictures from North Korea, with web-page dedicated to Panmunjeom Travel in Korea: Panmunjeom information about the village and its history.
Video of Panmunjeom DMZ 360° interactive virtual tour of Panmunjeom Panmunjom at Curlie
The six-party talks aimed to find a peaceful resolution to the security concerns as a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program. There was a series of meetings with six participating states in Beijing: North Korea South Korea Japan United States of America China RussiaThese talks were a result of North Korea withdrawing from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 2003. Apparent gains following the fourth and fifth rounds were reversed by outside events. Five rounds of talks from 2003 to 2007 produced little net progress until the third phase of the fifth round of talks, when North Korea agreed to shut down its nuclear facilities in exchange for fuel aid and steps towards the normalization of relations with the United States and Japan. Responding angrily to the United Nations Security Council's Presidential Statement issued on April 13, 2009 that condemned the North Korean failed satellite launch, the DPRK declared on April 14, 2009 that it would pull out of Six Party Talks and that it would resume its nuclear enrichment program in order to boost its nuclear deterrent.
North Korea expelled all nuclear inspectors from the country. The main points of contention were: Security guarantee – this issue has been raised by North Korea since the Bush administration took office. North Korea labeled the Bush administration as hostile and accused it of planning to overthrow the North Korean government by force; this concern was elevated when President George W. Bush named North Korea as part of an "axis of evil" in his 2002 State of the Union Address; the construction of light water reactors – under the 1994 Agreed Framework two light-water reactors would be built in return for the closure of North Korea's graphite-moderated nuclear power plant program at Yongbyon. This agreement broke down after both sides defaulted since 2002. Peaceful use of nuclear energy – whilst the NPT allows states the right to use nuclear energy for civilian purposes, this was thought to have been used by North Korea as a cover for their nuclear weapons program. Diplomatic relations – North Korea wanted normalization of diplomatic relations as part of the bargain for giving up its nuclear weapons program.
The U. S. has at times disagreed and at times agreed to this condition, providing North Korea irreversibly and verifiably disarms its nuclear weapons program. Financial restrictions / Trade normalization – The U. S. placed heavy financial sanctions on North Korea for what they see as an uncooperative attitude and unwillingness to dismantle its nuclear weapons program. In addition, other parties such as China took actions such as the freezing of North Korean assets in foreign bank accounts, such as the US$24 million in Macau's Banco Delta Asia. With the nuclear test on October 9, 2006, UNSCR 1718 was passed, which included a ban on all luxury goods to North Korea; these funds were unfrozen by the US on March 19, 2007 to reciprocate actions by their North Korean counterparts. The United States removed North Korea from its list of state sponsors of terrorism in October 2008. Verifiable and Irreversible disarmament – Members of the six-party talks disagreed on this. Japan and the U. S. demanded that North Korea dismantle its nuclear program so that it may never be restarted, that it can be verified by the six members of the talks before aid is given.
South Korea and Russia agreed on a milder, step-by-step solution which involves the members of the six-party talks giving a certain reward in return for each step of nuclear disarmament. North Korea wanted the U. S. to concede some of the conditions first before it will take any action in disarming their weapons program, which they see as the only guarantee to prevent a U. S. attack on their soil. Representatives: South Korea: Lee Soo-hyuk, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade North Korea: Kim Young-il, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs United States: James Kelly, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs People's Republic of China: Wang Yi, Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs Japan: Mitoji Yabunaka, Director-General of Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau Russia: Alexander Losyukov, Deputy Minister of Foreign AffairsObjectives achieved A Chairman's Summary agreed upon for a further round of talks. No agreement between parties made. Representatives: South Korea: Lee Soo-hyuk, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade North Korea: Kim Gye-gwan, Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs United States: James Kelly, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs People's Republic of China: Wang Yi, Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs Japan: Mitoji Yabunaka, Director-General of Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau Russia: Alexander Losyukov, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Objectives achieved A Chairman's Statement announced with seven articles, including: Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula Peaceful Coexistence of Participating States, stressing the use of mutually coordinated measures to resolve crises.
Agreement to hold the third round of talks with full participation during the second quarter of 2004. Representatives South Korea: Lee Soo-hyuk, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade North Korea: Kim Gye-gwan, Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs United States: James Kelly, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs People's Republic of China: Wang Yi, Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs Japan: Mitoji Yabunaka, Director-General of Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau Russia: Alexander Alexeyev, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Objectives achieved A Chairman's Statement announced with eight articles, including: Reconfirming the commitment to denuclearising the Korean Peninsula, stressing specification of the scope and time and method of verification Agreement to hold fourth round of talks in Beijing before September 2
Seoul the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris. Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BCE by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the city was designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city; as with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. More Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction – major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, the IFC Seoul.
Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. As the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism. Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from the South Korean economic boom - referred to as the Miracle on the Han River - which transformed it into the world's 7th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.
Seoul is an expensive real estate market, ranked 5th in the world for the price of apartments in the downtown center. With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, more the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit; the city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong, Hanseong, Keijō. During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" was renamed "Keijō" by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja'漢', which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China", its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", believed to have descended from an ancient word, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Ancient Gyeongju was known in documents by the Chinese-style name Geumseong, but it is unclear whether the native Korean-style name Seorabeol had the same meaning as Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja. On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng, still in common use, to Shou'er. Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BCE. Seoul is first recorded as the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall located southeast Seoul, is believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site; as the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, referred to as the "Southern Capital".
It was only from this period. When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty; the Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872. After Joseon changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong designated Seoul; the city was surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands, the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dong
Joseph Y. Yun
Joseph Yuosang Yun is a former top American diplomat and one of the nation's leading experts on North Korea. From October 2016 to March 2018, he served as the United States Special Representative for North Korea Policy and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Korea and Japan. Previous senior diplomatic assignments include United States Ambassador to Malaysia, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary in the State Department Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Deputy Assistant Secretary. Born in Seoul, Yun left South Korea for Nigeria in 1964, following his father, a doctor with the World Health Organization. Yun was educated from middle school on in the United Kingdom, earning his bachelor's degree from Cardiff University in 1976, Master of Science and Master of Philosophy degrees from the London School of Economics, he met his wife, Melanie Billings-Yun, at LSE and they were married in 1977. They have Matthew Yun. Yun joined the United States Foreign Service in 1985. In 2000, following tours in Hong Kong, Washington, DC, Seoul, he was appointed Economic Counselor in the U.
S. Embassy in Bangkok, managing economic and environmental issues. In 2004 he attended the Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies took a 6-month assignment as senior adviser on the State Department Korea Desk, he returned to the U. S. Embassy in Seoul, in 2005 as the Minister-Counselor for Political Affairs, in charge of domestic and bilateral political issues. In 2009 Yun was posted back in Washington as Director of the State Department Office of Maritime Southeast Asia; the following year he was named Deputy Assistant Secretary for Southeast Asia, in 2011 he was appointed Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. During his time in EAP, Yun worked on President Obama's Asian rebalance policy in Southeast Asia. Notable accomplishments included the diplomatic normalization of American relations with Myanmar, the establishment of a US mission for ASEAN, the inauguration of United States participation in the annual East Asian Summit. For his work, the State Department has honored him with a Presidential Meritorious Service Award, three Superior Honors Awards, nine Foreign Service Performance Awards.
Nominated by President Barack Obama to serve as Ambassador to Malaysia on July 23, 2013, Yun was confirmed by the U. S. Senate on August 1; as Ambassador, Yun emphasized stronger bilateral ties between the United States and Malaysia in all aspects: security, diplomatic and people-to-people. During his three-year tenure, President Obama visited Malaysia twice, in 2014 and 2015. Prior to those trips, the last US President to visit Malaysia was Lyndon B. Johnson in 1966. During his 2014 visit, President Obama and Prime Minister Najib Razak signed the Comprehensive Partnership Agreement, pledging the United State and Malaysia to work together on security, business and technology issues. Yun inaugurated the Oregon-Sabah Collaborative, bringing together private citizens, local governments and civil society from the two states to promote educational exchange and wildlife conservation, business ties. For his work in this area, Yun received the Individual Achievement Award from the Oregon Consular Corps in 2016.
On October 17, 2016, Yun assumed the office of United States Special Representative for North Korea Policy, heading all coordination and implementation of US policy toward North Korea concerned with denuclearization. Concurrently, he held the office Deputy Assistant Secretary for Korea and Japan, managing relations with America's principal allies in developing a coordinated policy toward North Korea. Yun was the key diplomat securing the release of American student Otto Warmbier, imprisoned in North Korea for nearly a year and a half. In May 2017, Yun met secretly in Oslo with North Korean officials to gain diplomatic access to the four American prisoners held in Pyongyang. Learning on June 6 that Warmbier had been in a coma for the past 15 months, Yun flew with a medical team on an emergency mission to Pyongyang to secure his immediate release on "humanitarian grounds", he and the team returned Warmbier to his parents' care in the United States on June 12. While in Pyongyang, Yun conducted a consular visit with the remaining American prisoners, the first since March 2016.
Yun retired from the US State Department on March 2, 2018. He is now a Senior Advisor with The Asia Group and the United States Institute of Peace, is a Global Affairs Analyst for CNN. Human rights in North Korea Korean Americans in New York City North Korea-United States relations Media related to Joseph Y. Yun at Wikimedia Commons Biography, US Department of State