West Bengal is an Indian state, located in eastern region of the country on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is India's fourth-most populous state, it has an area of 88,752 km2. A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, it borders the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata, the seventh-largest city in India, center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country; as for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period; the region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas.
It was a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, powerful Hindu states, Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century; the British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which became independent Bangladesh.
Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government. The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with ₹13.14 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000. The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal is known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football, as well as cricket; the origin of the name Bengal is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE; the Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga. Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure. At the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west.
The eastern part came to be known be as East Pakistan, the eastern wing of newly born Pakistan and the western part came to be known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state. In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga; this is the native name of the state meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English, "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution. However, the central government has turned down the proposal stating that the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and the name should not be the same as that of any other territory. Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought.
The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, according to the Indian epic Mahabharata. Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh and the Suhma Kingdom. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai, located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi. According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya, a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country; the kingdom of Magadha was formed in the 7th century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of the lives of Mahavira, founder of Jainism, Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, it kingdoms. Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.
Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata, Gauda –
Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Located east of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan; the provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. Bali is the only Hindu-majority province in Indonesia, with 83.5% of the population adhering to Balinese Hinduism. Bali is Indonesia's main tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy, it is renowned for its developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, painting, leather and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali. In March 2017, TripAdvisor named Bali as the world's top destination in its Traveller's Choice award. Bali is part of the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species.
In this area alone, over 500 reef-building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about seven times as many as in the entire Caribbean. Most Bali was the host of the Miss World 2013 and 2018 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. Bali is the home of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is home to a unified confederation of kingdoms composed of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, each house ruling a specific geographic area. The confederation is the successor of the Bali Kingdom; the royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia. Bali was inhabited around 2000 BCE by Austronesian people who migrated from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines and Oceania. Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island's west. In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Siwa Shidanta, Bodha, Resi and Ganapatya.
Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. Inscriptions from 896 and 911 do not mention a king, until 914, they reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously. Mpu Sindok's great-granddaughter, married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa around 989, giving birth to Airlangga around 1001; this marriage brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Princess Sakalendukirana appeared in 1098. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150. Jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204. Balinese culture was influenced by Indian and Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD; the name Bali dwipa has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation.
Some religious and cultural traditions still practiced. The Hindu Majapahit Empire on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343; the uncle of Hayam Wuruk is mentioned in the charters of 1384–86. A mass Javanese immigration to Bali occurred in the next century when the Majapahit Empire fell in 1520. Bali's government became an independent collection of Hindu kingdoms which led to a Balinese national identity and major enhancements in culture and economy; the nation with various kingdoms became independent for up to 386 years until 1906, when the Dutch subjugated and repulsed the natives for economic control and took it over. The first known European contact with Bali is thought to have been made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão sighted its northern shores, it was the first expedition of a series of bi-annual fleets to the Moluccas, that throughout the 16th century traveled along the coasts of the Sunda Islands. Bali was mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues, aboard the expedition.
In 1585, a ship foundered off the Bukit Peninsula and left a few Portuguese in the service of Dewa Agung. In 1597, the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived at Bali, the Dutch East India Company was established in 1602; the Dutch government expanded its control across the Indonesian archipelago during the second half of the 19th century. Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island's north coast, when the Dutch pitted various competing Balinese realms against each other. In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island's south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control. In June 1860, the famous Welsh naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, travelled to Bali from Singapore, landing at Buleleng on the north coast of the island. Wallace's trip to Bali was instrumental in helping him devise his Wallace Line theory; the Wallace Line is a faunal boundary that runs through the strait between Lombok. It has been found to be a boundary between species.
In his travel memoir The Malay Archipelago, Wallace wrote of his experience in Bali, of which has strong mention of the unique Balinese irrigation methods: I was both astonished and delighted.
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River 75 kilometres west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port; the city is regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, is nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, the East India Company retook it the following year.
In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat, assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Following Indian independence in 1947, once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation; as a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, film and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges.
West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports; the word Kolkata derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata, the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was to be established. There are several explanations about the etymology of this name: The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali".
It can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Another theory is. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or "flat area"; the name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug". According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata. Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation; the discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was credited as the founder of the city.
The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village, they were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the cons
Howrah is a metropolitan city and a municipal corporation of Howrah district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the headquarters of the Howrah Sadar subdivision. Howrah is located on the western bank of the Hooghly River, it is a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority. Howrah is an important transportation hub of West Bengal and a major gateway for its twin city of Kolkata; the name came from the word Haor—Bengali word for a fluvial swampy lake, sedimentologically a depression where water and organic debris accumulate. The word itself was rather used in eastern part of Bengal, as compared to the western part; the history of the city of Howrah dates back over 500 years, but the district is situated in an area occupied by the ancient Bengali kingdom of Bhurshut. Venetian explorer Cesare Federici, who travelled in India during 1565–79, mentioned a place called Buttor in his journal circa 1578; as per his description, this was a location into which large ships could travel and a commercial port.
This place is identifiable with the modern day neighbourhood of Bator. Bator was mentioned in the Bengali poetry Manasamangal written by Bipradas Pipilai in 1495. In 1713, the Bengal Council of the British East India Company, on the accession of the Emperor Farrukhsiyar, grandson of Aurangzeb, to the throne of Delhi, sent a deputation to him with a petition for a settlement of five villages on west bank of Hooghly river along with thirty-three villages on the east bank; the list of villages appeared in the Consultation Book of the Council dated 4 May 1714. The five villages on the west bank on Hooghly river were:'Salica','Harirah','Cassundeah','Ramkrishnopoor', and'Battar': all identifiable with localities of modern-day Howrah city; the deputation was successful except for these five villages. By 1728, most of the present-day Howrah district was part of either of the two zamindaris: Burdwan or Muhammand Aminpur. After Battle of Plassey, as per the treaty signed with the Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim, on 11 October 1760, Howrah district came under control of East India Company.
In 1787, the Hooghly district was formed, till 1819, the whole of the present day Howrah district was added to it. The Howrah district was separated from the Hooghly district in 1843. Dependent on definitions and geographical boundaries Howrah is measured as either the 2nd or 3rd largest city in West Bengal; as of 2011 Indian census, Howrah had a population of 1,077,075 with 244,135 households. In the 1896 census of British India, Howrah had a population of 84,069, which grew up to 157,594 in the 1901 census; this rapid growth was due to abundance of job opportunities, which effected in a 100% increase in male population during this period, whereas the female population grew up only by 60%. Howrah has a Tropical wet-and-dry climate; the summers here have a good deal of rainfall, while the winters have little. The temperature averages 26.3 °C. Precipitation averages 1744 mm. Howrah Municipality was established in 1862. From 1896, it started supplying filter water across the city. During 1882–83, Bally Municipality was formed separating it out from Howrah.
As per the Howrah Municipal Corporation Act of 1980, Howrah became a municipal corporation, in 1984. The corporation area is divided into fifty wards; the Mayor-in-council, led by Mayor and supported by Commissioner and officers, is responsible for administration of the corporation area. As of August 2015, the Trinamool Congress is controlling the municipal board; the Howrah Police Commissionerate is responsible for law enforcement in the city. Though it is the second largest city in the state, it did not undertake appropriate infrastructure development in the last century; as a result, Howrah is continuing to face its perennial problems like traffic congestion, population explosion and pollution. The ratio of roadspace to the population is too low in this city comparatively smaller towns like Baharampur enjoy a better ratio; the emigrant labour force from the rest of the state's rural areas and neighbouring states take refuge in the cheaper quarters in Howrah, bringing the poor infrastructure to the brink of collapse.
Many times such migrations reduce a locality to a poor-infrastructure slum. The name of the novel City of Joy, the name the Kolkata metropolis been called, is based on one such slum of Howrah; however work has been done on broadening the national highways and several towns roads. These activities are expected to help in improvement of traffic conditions. Of late, Howrah has seen a lot of new industrial proposals like the Kona Truck Terminus, Kolkata West International City and relocation of the old smoky foundry plants. Termed as Sheffield of the East, Howrah is known as an engineering hub in the area of light engineering industry. There are small engineering firms all over Howrah around Belilios Road area near Howrah station; however these businesses are declining in the 21st century. Burn Standard Company, a major company in heavy engineering industry, now part of Bharat Bhari Udyog Nigam Limited, has its oldest manufacturing unit located in Howrah. In 1823, Bishop Reginald Heber described Howrah as the place "chiefly inhabited by shipbuilders".
The Howrah plant of Shalimar Paints was the first large-scale paint manufacturing plant to be set up not only in India but in entire South East Asia. The jute industry suffered during the Part
University of London
The University of London is a collegiate federal research university located in London, England. As of October 2018, the university contains 18 member institutions, central academic bodies and research institutes; the university has over 52,000 distance learning external students and 161,270 campus-based internal students, making it the largest university by number of students in the United Kingdom. The university was established by royal charter in 1836, as a degree-awarding examination board for students holding certificates from University College London and King's College London and "other such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as shall be established for the purpose of Education, whether within the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom", allowing it to be one of three institutions to claim the title of the third-oldest university in England, moved to a federal structure in 1900, it is now incorporated by its fourth royal charter and governed by the University of London Act 1994.
It was the first university in the United Kingdom to introduce examinations for women in 1869 and, a decade the first to admit women to degrees. In 1948 it became the first British university to appoint a woman as its vice chancellor; the university's colleges house the oldest teaching hospitals in England. For most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the constituent colleges operate on an independent basis, with many awarding their own degrees whilst remaining in the federal university; the largest colleges by enrolment as of 2016/17 are UCL, King's College London, Queen Mary, the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway, Goldsmiths, each of which has over 9,000 students. Smaller, more specialist, colleges are the School of Oriental and African Studies, St George's, the Royal Veterinary College, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Academy of Music, the Courtauld Institute of Art, the Institute of Cancer Research.
Imperial College London was a member from 1907 before it became an independent university in 2007, Heythrop College was a member from 1970 until its closure in 2018. City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016; as of 2015, there are around 2 million University of London alumni across the world, including 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 84 Nobel laureates, 6 Grammy winners, 2 Oscar winners, 3 Olympic gold medalists and the "Father of the Nation" of several countries. University College London was founded under the name “London University” in 1826 as a secular alternative to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which limited their degrees to members of the established Church of England; as a result of the controversy surrounding UCL's establishment, King's College London was founded as an Anglican college by royal charter in 1829. In 1830, UCL applied for a royal charter as a university; this was rejected, but renewed in 1834. In response to this, opposition to "exclusive" rights grew among the London medical schools.
The idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. And in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education. However, the blocking of a bill to open up Oxford and Cambridge degrees to dissenters led to renewed pressure on the Government to grant degree awarding powers to an institution that would not apply religious tests as the degrees of the new University of Durham were to be closed to non-Anglicans. In 1835, the government announced the response to UCL's petition for a charter. Two charters would be issued, one to UCL incorporating it as a college rather than a university, without degree awarding powers, a second "establishing a Metropolitan University, with power to grant academical degrees to those who should study at the London University College, or at any similar institution which his Majesty might please hereafter to name". Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the new University of London started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837.
The death of William IV in June, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted "during our Royal will and pleasure", meaning it was annulled by the king's death. Queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837; the university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to King's College. The university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, considered the senior faculty in the other three English universities. In medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training. In arts and law, by contrast, it would examine students from UCL, King's College, or any other school or college granted a royal warrant giving the government control of which colleges could affiliate to the university. Beyond the right to submit students for examination, there was no other connection between the affiliated colleges and the university.
In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at Somerset House following a petition to the senate from the graduates, who had received their degrees without any ceremony. About 250 students graduated at this ceremony; the London academic robes of this period were distinguished by their "rich velvet facings". The list of affiliated colleges g
Rajnarayan Basu was an Indian writer and intellectual of the Bengal Renaissance. He was born in Boral in 24 Parganas and studied at the Hare School and Hindu College, both premier institutions in Kolkata, Bengal at the time. A monotheist at heart, Rajnarayan Basu converted to Brahmoism at the age of twenty. After retiring, he was given the honorary title of sage; as a writer, he was one of the best known prose writers in Bengali in the nineteenth century, writing for the Tattwabodhini Patrika, a premier Brahmo journal. Due to his defence of Brahmoism, he was given the title "Grandfather of Indian Nationalism" Rajnarayan Basu was born on 7 September 1826 in the Borhal village of South 24 Parganas of West Bengal, his father Nanda Kishore Basu was a disciple of a Raja Ram Mohan Roy and one of his secretaries. A bright student since childhood, Rajnarayan was brought to Calcutta and was admitted to Hare School Society's School, he studied there till the age of 14, was notified by the teachers for his brilliance and intellect.
Rajnarayan Basu was an enemy of Michael Madhusudan Dutt, a prominent poet of the time, the introducer of free verse in Bengali. Both were responsible for introducing classical Western elements into Bengali literature, he tutored Asia's first Nobel Prizewinner, Rabindranath Tagore and spent three years translating the Upanishads into English on the earnest request and co-operation of Devendranath Tagore. As a member of Young Bengal, Rajnarayan Basu believed in "nation-building" at the grassroots level. To do his part, after teaching at Vidyasagar's Sanskrit College as the second master of the English Department, he moved to Midnapore to teach in the mofussil district town, he served as the headmaster of Midnapore Zilla School, the forerunner of Midnapore College. He had joined the school on 21 February 1851 preceded by Mr. Sinclare, during whose time the school lost its glory and was in a deplorable condition. Rajnarayan's first goal was to reestablish the school in the firmament of education.
The great teacher and educationist took some wonderful steps: He had abolished corporal punishment and introduced a friendly and cooperative atmosphere among the teachers and students to make education more interesting to them. He had immense hatred against the well-practiced procedure of " committing to memory and vomiting to paper", he always followed the rule of teaching through interaction of both teachers. His eloquent speeches with humorous jokes attracted the heart of the most dull student in the class, he put stress on interrogative teaching. He understood that the students need place for physical exercise and sports so that there mental and physical power can be properly manifested, so he made a Lawn Tennis Court and a Gymnasium in the school premises, he wanted students to be educated in " Character Making Education", so he advised teachers to look after the moral development of the students, so that they can be " Man in a true sense." He observed that students sitting in benches without back-support, cannot keep there back straight, so their attention span becomes shorter while studying.
So he introduced. Being an active leader of Young Bengal, he was moved by the'Academic Association' of Henry Louis Vivian Derozio. So he introduced Debate Associations and Mutual Improvement Association in school level, he established the first arch of women education in Midnapore, the first girls school and a night school for educating the illiterates. He established a public library, still in use, although now it is known as the Rishi Rajnarayan Basu Smriti Pathagar, the oldest public library in West Bengal, he was the first person to suggest using Bengali at meetings of the Vangiya Sahitya Parishad. The Parishad was established to promote Bengali language literature yet conducted meetings in English until Basu's request; as an intellectual, he founded the Brahmo Samaj house and inaugurated Nabagopal Mitra's Hindu Mela, an organisation created to spread nationalist feelings among Indians. He was a member of the Indian Association and a member of a political group called the Sanjibani Sabha, he lamented that there were no schools promoting the learning of Indian music among the middle-class and he himself started one in Midnapore.
In 1868, he moved to Deoghar where he spent the last years of his life. His grandson, eminent philosopher and freedom-fighter, Sri Aurobindo has inscribed his tribute to Rajnarayan in a beautiful sonnet. Brahmo Sadhon Dharmatatvo Dipika Hindudhormer srestotto Sekal aar eikaal Hindu othoba Presidency College-er itibritto Bibidho probondho Rajnarayan Basur Attocharit A defence of Brahmoism and the Brahmo Samaj Brahmic Advice and Help The Adi Brahmo Samaj, its views and principles The Adi Brahmo Samaj as a Church Rajnarayan Basu was the maternal grandfather of Sri Aurobindo, he was the maternal grandfather of Sri Aurobindo, whose mother was Swarnalata Bose Chronology of Life-events
The term "British Malaya" loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration, with the exception during the immediate post-war period when a British military became the temporary administrator of Malaya. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States. Under British rule, Malaya was one of the most profitable territories of the Empire, being the world's largest producer of tin and rubber. Japan ruled a part of Malaya as a single unit from Singapore during the Second World War.
The Malayan Union was dissolved and replaced by the Federation of Malaya in 1948, which became independent on 31 August 1957. On 16 September 1963, the federation, along with North Borneo and Singapore, formed into a larger federation of Malaysia; the British first became involved with Malay politics formally in 1771, when Great Britain tried to set up trading posts in Penang a part of Kedah. The British were in complete control of the state at that time. In the mid-18th century, British firms could be found trading in the Malay Peninsula. In April 1771, Sulivan and de Souza, a British firm based in Madras, sent Francis Light to meet the Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin II, to open up the state's market for trading. Light was a captain in the service of the East India Company; the Sultan faced external threats during this period. Siam, at war with Burma and which saw Kedah as its vassal state demanded that Kedah send reinforcements. Kedah, in many cases, was a reluctant ally to Siam.
Through negotiation between the Sultan and Light, the Sultan agreed to allow the firm to build a trading post and to operate in Kedah, if the British agreed to protect Kedah from external threats. Light conveyed this message to his superiors in India; the British, decided against the proposal. Two years Sultan Muhammad Jiwa died and was succeeded by Sultan Abdullah Mahrum Shah; the new Sultan offered Light the island of Penang in return for military assistance for Kedah. Light informed the East India Company of the Sultan's offer; the Company, ordered Light to take over Penang and gave him no guarantee of the military aid that the Sultan had asked for earlier. Light took over Penang and assured the Sultan of military assistance, despite the Company's position. Soon the Company told Light that they would not give any military aid to Kedah. In June 1788, Light informed the Sultan of the Company's decision. Feeling cheated, the Sultan ordered Light to leave Penang. Light's refusal caused the Sultan to strengthen Kedah's military forces and to fortify Prai, a stretch of beach opposite Penang.
Recognising this threat, the British razed the fort in Prai. The British thereby forced the Sultan to sign an agreement that gave the British the right to occupy Penang. On 1 May 1791 the Union Flag was raised in Penang for the first time. In 1800, Kedah ceded Prai to the British and the Sultan received an increase of 4,000 pesos in his annual rent. Penang was named Prince of Wales Island, while Perai was renamed Province Wellesley. In 1821, Siam invaded Kedah, sacked the capital of Alor Star, occupied the state until 1842. Before the late 19th century, the British practised a non-interventionist policy. Several factors such as the fluctuating supply of raw materials, security, convinced the British to play a more active role in the Malay states. From the 17th to the early 19th century, Malacca was a Dutch possession. During the Napoleonic Wars, between 1811 and 1815, like other Dutch holdings in Southeast Asia, was under the occupation of the British; this was to prevent the French from claiming the Dutch possessions.
When the war ended in 1815, Malacca was returned to the Dutch. In 1824 the British and the Dutch signed a treaty known as the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824; the treaty, among other things transferred Malacca to British administration. The treaty officially divided the Malay world into two separate entities and laid the basis for the current Indonesian-Malaysian boundary. Modern Singapore was founded by Sir Stamford Raffles with a great deal of help from Major William Farquhar. Before establishing Singapore, Raffles was the Lieutenant Governor of Java from 1811 till 1815. In 1818 he was appointed to Bencoolen. Realising how the Dutch were monopolising trade in the Malay Archipelago, he was convinced that the British needed a new trading colony to counter Dutch trading power. Months of research brought him to an island at the tip of the Malay Peninsula; the island was ruled by a temenggung. Singapore was under the control of Tengku Abdul Rahman, the Sultan of the Johore-Riau-Lingga Sultanate, in turn under the influence of the Dutch and the Bugis.
The Sultan would never agree to a British base in Singapore. However, Tengku Abdul Rahman had become a sultan only because his older brother, Tengku Hussein or Tengku Long, had been away getting married in Pahang when their father, the previous sultan, died in 1812. In Malay cultural traditions, a person