The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland. It began with a Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939, three months after the outbreak of World War II, ended three and a half months with the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 March 1940; the League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the organisation. The conflict began after the Soviets sought to obtain some Finnish territory, demanding among other concessions that Finland cede substantial border territories in exchange for land elsewhere, claiming security reasons—primarily the protection of Leningrad, 32 km from the Finnish border. Finland refused, the USSR invaded the country. Many sources conclude that the Soviet Union had intended to conquer all of Finland, use the establishment of the puppet Finnish Communist government and the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact's secret protocols as evidence of this, while other sources argue against the idea of the full Soviet conquest. Finland repelled Soviet attacks for more than two months and inflicted substantial losses on the invaders while temperatures ranged as low as −43 °C.
After the Soviet military reorganised and adopted different tactics, they renewed their offensive in February and overcame Finnish defences. Hostilities ceased in March 1940 with the signing of the Moscow Peace Treaty. Finland ceded 11 percent of its territory representing 30 percent of its economy to the Soviet Union. Soviet losses were heavy, the country's international reputation suffered. Soviet gains exceeded their pre-war demands and the USSR received substantial territory along Lake Ladoga and in Northern Finland. Finland enhanced its international reputation; the poor performance of the Red Army encouraged Adolf Hitler to think that an attack on the Soviet Union would be successful and confirmed negative Western opinions of the Soviet military. After 15 months of Interim Peace, in June 1941, Nazi Germany commenced Operation Barbarossa and the Continuation War between Finland and the USSR began; until the beginning of the 19th century, Finland constituted the eastern part of the Kingdom of Sweden.
In 1809, to protect its imperial capital, Saint Petersburg, the Russian Empire conquered Finland and converted it into an autonomous buffer state. The resulting Grand Duchy of Finland enjoyed wide autonomy within the Empire until the end of the 19th century, when Russia began attempts to assimilate Finland as part of a general policy to strengthen the central government and unify the Empire through russification; these attempts were aborted because of Russia's internal strife, but they ruined Russia's relations with the Finns and increased support for Finnish self-determination movements. World War I led to the collapse of the Russian Empire during the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War of 1917–1920, giving Finland a window of opportunity; the new Bolshevik Russian Government was fragile, civil war had broken out in Russia in November 1917. Thus, Soviet Russia recognised the new Finnish Government just three weeks after the declaration. Finland achieved full sovereignty in May 1918 after a 4-month civil war, with the conservative Whites winning over the socialist Reds, the expulsion of Bolshevik troops.
Finland joined the League of Nations in 1920, from which it sought security guarantees, but Finland's primary goal was co-operation with the Scandinavian countries. The Finnish and Swedish militaries engaged in wide-ranging co-operation, but focused on the exchange of information and on defence planning for the Åland Islands rather than on military exercises or on stockpiling and deployment of materiel; the Government of Sweden avoided committing itself to Finnish foreign policy. Finland's military policy included clandestine defence co-operation with Estonia; the period after the Finnish Civil War till the early 1930s proved a politically unstable time in Finland due to the continued rivalry between the conservative and socialist parties. The Communist Party of Finland was declared illegal in 1931, the nationalist Lapua Movement organised anti-communist violence, which culminated in a failed coup attempt in 1932; the successor of the Lapua Movement, the Patriotic People's Movement, only had a minor presence in national politics with at most 14 seats out of 200 in the Finnish parliament.
By the late 1930s, the export-oriented Finnish economy was growing and the nation's extreme political movements had diminished. After Soviet involvement in the Finnish Civil War in 1918, no formal peace treaty was signed. In 1918 and 1919, Finnish volunteers conducted two unsuccessful military incursions across the Soviet border, the Viena and Aunus expeditions, to annex Karelian areas according to the Greater Finland ideology of combining all Finnic peoples into a single state. In 1920, Finnish communists based in the USSR attempted to assassinate the former Finnish White Guard Commander-in-Chief, Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim. On 14 October 1920, Finland and Soviet Russia signed the Treaty of Tartu, confirming the old border between the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland and Imperial Russia proper as the new Finnish–Soviet border. Finland received Petsamo, with its ice-free harbour on the Arctic Ocean. Despite the signing of the treaty, relations between the two countries remained strained.
The Finnish Government allowed volunteers to cross the border to support the East Karelian uprising in Russia in 1921, Finnish communists in the Soviet Union continued to prepare for a revanche and staged a cross-border raid into Finland, called the Pork mutiny, in 1922. In 1
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R
Tarmo Manni was a Finnish actor. He worked for the Finnish National Theatre 41 years of his 44-year career and appeared in 65 films between 1944–2000. Manni was known on and off stage. However, in his final theatre performance, he just sat in a chair for an hour, listening to Gustav Mahler’s First Symphony. Dynamiittityttö Ihmiset suviyössä Prinsessa Ruusunen Gabriel, Come Back Omena putoaa April's Coming Kun on tunteet The Unknown Soldier Punainen viiva Koko kaupungin Vinski Da Capo Jäähyväiset presidentille Tarmo Manni on IMDb
Turku is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland. Turku, as a town, was settled during the 13th century and founded most at the end of the 13th century, making it the oldest city in Finland, it became the most important city in Finland, a status it retained for hundreds of years. After Finland became part of the Russian Empire and the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland was moved to Helsinki, Turku continued to be the most populous city in Finland until the end of the 1840s, it remains a regional capital and an important business and cultural center; because of its long history, it has been the site of many important events, has extensively influenced Finnish history. Along with Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia, Turku was designated the European Capital of Culture for 2011. In 1996, it was declared the official Christmas City of Finland. Due to its location, Turku is a notable commercial and passenger seaport with over three million passengers traveling through the Port of Turku each year to Stockholm and Mariehamn.
As of 30 September 2018, the population of Turku was 191,499 making it the sixth largest city in Finland. There were 330,192 inhabitants living in the Turku sub-region, ranking it as the third largest urban area in Finland after the Greater Helsinki area and Tampere sub-region; the city is bilingual as 5.2 percent of its population identify Swedish as a mother-tongue. The Finnish name Turku originates from an Old East Slavic word, tǔrgǔ, meaning "market place"; the word turku still means "market place" in some Finnish dialects. The Swedish word for "market place" is torg, was borrowed from Old East Slavic, was present in Old Swedish; the Swedish name Åbo may be a simple combination of bo. As this pattern does not appear in any other Swedish place names in Finland, etymologists believe there could be a different explanation. One theory is that it comes from "Aabo", the Finnish rendition of the Russian "Avram", which could be the origin of the name of the river Aura. There is however an old legal term called "åborätt", which gave citizens the inheritable right to live at land owned by the crown.
In Finnish, the genitive of Turku is Turun, meaning "of Turku". The Finnish names of organizations and institutes of Turku begin with this word, as in Turun yliopisto for the University of Turku. Turku has a long history as Finland's largest city and as the administrative center of the country, but for the last two hundred years has been surpassed by Helsinki; the city's identity stems from its status as the oldest city in Finland and the country's first capital. The word "Finland" referred only to the area around Turku. Although archaeological findings in the area date back to the Stone Age and early literary sources such as Al-Idrisi's world map from 1154 mentions Turku, the town of Turku was founded in late 13th century. Turku Cathedral was consecrated in 1300. During the Middle Ages, Turku was the seat of the Bishop of Turku, covering the eastern half of the Kingdom of Sweden until the 17th century. If Turku had no official capital status, both the short-lived institutions of Dukes and Governors-General of Finland had their Finnish residences there.
In the aftermath of the War against Sigismund, the town was the site of the Åbo Bloodbath. In 1640, the first university in Finland, the Royal Academy of Turku, was founded in Turku. Turku was the meeting place for the States of Finland in 1676. After the Finnish War, which ended when Sweden ceded Finland to Imperial Russia at the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in 1809, Turku became the official capital, but soon lost the status to Helsinki, as Emperor Alexander I felt that Turku was too far from Russia and too aligned with Sweden to serve as the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland; the change took place in 1812. The government offices that remained in Turku were moved to the new capital after the Great Fire of Turku, which completely destroyed the city in 1827. After the fire, a new and safer city plan was drawn up by German architect Carl Ludvig Engel, who had designed the new capital, Helsinki. Turku remained the largest city in Finland for another twenty years. In 1918, a new university, the Åbo Akademi – the only Swedish language university in Finland – was founded in Turku.
Two years the Finnish language University of Turku was founded alongside it. These two universities are the third to be founded in Finland, both by private donations. In the 20th century, Turku was called "Finland's gateway to the West" by historians such as Jarmo Virmavirta; the city enjoyed good connections with other Western European countries and cities since the 1940s with Stockholm across the Gulf of Bothnia. In the 1960s, Turku became the first Western city to sign a twinning agreement with Leningrad in the Soviet Union, leading to greater inter-cultural exchange and providing a new meaning to the city's'gateway' function. After the fall of Communism in Russia, many prominent Soviets came to Turku to study Western business practices, among them Vladimir Putin Leningrad's deputy mayor; as for architecture in the city, both the body of architectural styles as well as the prevalent way of living have experienced significant changes in the 20th century. While having survived intact throughout the years of war 193
M. A. Numminen
Mauri Antero Numminen known as M. A. Numminen, is a Finnish artist, who has worked in several different fields of culture. In the 1960s Numminen was known as an avantgarde, underground artist, stirring controversy with such songs as Nuoren aviomiehen on syytä muistaa and Naiseni kanssa eduskuntatalon puistossa, he was a member of the band Suomen Talvisota 1939-1940. In his early days Numminen tried to provoke people. Here he succeeded well, for example by his interpretations of Franz Schubert's lieder, sung with his own idiosyncratically creaking voice, or managing to create a scandal at the Jyväskylän kesä festival of Jyväskylä in 1966 with his song lyrics taken from a sex guide. Numminen composed music to the writings of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Numminen founded in 1966 with Pekka Gronow the record label Eteenpäin!, which released Numminen's own music. Numminen's records were published under the umbrella of the legendary Finnish label Love Records. Numminen has been one of the unsung pioneers of Finnish electronic music, known for his collaborations with the composer and inventor Erkki Kurenniemi who built for Numminen a "singing machine" with which Numminen participated in a singing contest in 1964, in the late 1960s the electronic instrument Sähkökvartetti, the performance of which wreaked havoc in a youth festival in Sofia, Bulgaria.
Sähkökvartetti can be heard on Numminen's track'Kaukana väijyy ystäviä'. In 1970 Numminen founded with the pianist Jani Uhlenius a jazz band called Uusrahvaanomainen Jatsiorkesteri, still in existence. Now retired from the band are the members Aaro Kurkela and Kalevi Viitamäki; the current line-up consists alongside Numminen and Uhlenius of the accordion player Pedro Hietanen, the fiddler Jari Lappalainen and the bassist Heikki "Häkä" Virtanen. In the 1970s Numminen became a popular favourite with his children's songs in the 1973 film Herra Huu - Jestapa Jepulis, Penikat Sipuliks, where he played the main role, in the 1977 TV series Jänikset maailmankartalle, where he played a hare. At the same time Numminen gained success in Sweden with his song'Gummiboll': Numminen has recorded Swedish versions of many of his songs, he has made several songs in English and Esperanto. In 1989 Numminen released a vinyl album, The Tractatus Suite, consisting of extracts from the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus set to music, on the Forward! label.
The tracks were "The world is all, the case", "In order to tell whether a picture is true or false", "A thought is a proposition with a sense", "A proposition is a truth-function of elementary propositions", "The general form of a truth-function", "Wovon man nicht sprechen kann". It was recorded at Finnvox Studios, Helsinki between February and June 1989; the "lyrics" were provided in German, Esperanto, French and Swedish. The music was reissued as a CD in 2003, M. A. Numminen sings Wittgenstein. Numminen has made a return to electronic music and modern club sound. In 2003 Numminen started M. A. N. Scratch Band featuring his long-time collaborator Pedro Hietanen with young jazz musicians Olavi Uusivirta, Lasse Lindgren and DJ Santeri Vuosara; the duo M. A. Numminen & DJ Sane was started in 2004. Numminen has appeared on Radio Suomi since 1984 together with playwright Juha Siltanen on their night show Yömyöhä. In 1986 he published a book called Baarien mies on Finnish keskiolut lager culture, for which he visited 350 bars around Finland.
The book had a considerable role in the birth of 1980s keskiolut beer culture in Finland. Numminen has taken part in over 30 films, either as an actor, composer or cinematographer. Uudet lastenlaulut 1 M. A. Nummisen suosituimmat M. A. Nummisen 60-luku Den flygande mannen The Tractatus Suite Klassikot - Ne Parhaat Den eviga årgången - M. A. Numminens bästa Suosituimmat lastenlaulut Kiusankappaleita 1: 1966-70 Kiusankappaleita 2: 1973-88 Kiusankappaleita 3: 1989-2001 Dägä Dägä Finnwelten Valtava Jänis – Gommin ja Pommin kaikki seikkailut Suomihuiput – lastenlaulut M. A. Numminen sings Wittgenstein Tunnelmassa - M. A. Nummisen Uusrahvaanomaisen Jatsiorkesterin parhaat Kauneimmat runot 1970 Lastuja 1971 Satuja 1975 Jänikset maailmankartalle! 1977 Terässinfonia 1981 Passio Libertatis 1983 Baarien mies 1986 Kirjeitä virolaiselle runoilijalle 1987 Etsivätoimisto Andrejev & Milton 1991 Tango on intohimoni 1998 Helsinkiin 1999 Der Weihnachtsmann schlägt zurück 2001 Naapuri 2002 Rehtorin päiväkirja – Interaktiivinen kalenteri vuodelle 2004 2003 Official website Unofficial discography M.
A. Numminen @ pHinnWeb
Markku Into was a Finnish poet and one of the main members in Finnish 1960s underground movement of Turku. Markku Into has written collections of poetry and plays, he has translated into Finnish such American Beat generation writers as Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Gregory Corso. He wrote lyrics for the band Suomen Talvisota 1939-1940, his literary debut was Tuonela Rock of 1971. Markku Into has received the Eino Leino Prize in 2001. Alongside Suomen Talvisota 1939-1940, he has performed in the 21st century with Turku's band Turun Romantiikka. Tuonela Rock Tänään kotona Etäisten lauseiden mies U Päästä minut lihasta Um Tut Sut Tuskin tulee ilta Yön kevyt polttoöljy Elvis eli elämänsä yksin Etsivätoimisto Andrejev ja Milton Mies ja painovoima Raivoava takakirves Naapuri Hyvä yö Kiivaat tyvenet - valitut runot 1964-2005
Rauli "Badding" Somerjoki was a Finnish rock singer born in Somero to a family of five children. His nickname Badding was derived from Paddington Bear, his records were published on such labels as Love Records. Badding Somerjoki founded his first band, The Five Yes in 1963 and worked in the group Suomen Talvisota 1939-1940. Together with M. A. Numminen, he caused some scandal with provocative songs like "Mitä nuoren aviomiehen tulee muistaa" and "Jenkka ulkosynnyttimistä". Badding's most famous songs include "Fiilaten ja höyläten", "Paratiisi", "Bensaa suonissa", "Ikkunaprinsessa", "Tähdet, tähdet" and "Laivat". Badding started his solo career in 1970, he competed in the Syksyn sävel song contest with "Ja rokki soi" written by Matti ja Teppo. During his career, Badding worked with the Agents, his last gig took place in Seinäjoki on 28 December 1986. During the autumn, he had suffered many bouts of bronchitis, in January 1987 he died in Helsinki of alcohol-related ailments, he was only 39 years of age.
Synnyin rokkaamaan Näin käy rock & roll Sydän lämpöä täys Rakkaudella – Raulilta / Sävel rakkauden / Bussi Somerolle Ikkunaprinsessa Tähdet, tähdet Laivat Several compilation albums and a tribute album have been released. Aki Kaurismäki has used Somerjoki's music in his films and published a biography of Somerjoki titled Badding: Rauli Somerjoen elämä ja laulut written by Heikki Metsämäki and Juha Miettinen. Somerjoki appeared in the film The Worthless by Mika Kaurismäki in 1982. In 2000 Markku Pölönen directed the film Badding. Heikki Metsämäki and Juha Miettinen: Badding: Rauli Somerjoen elämä ja laulut. Sputnik, 1996. ISBN 951-97431-0-3. List of best-selling music artists in Finland Tony Latva and Petri Tuunainen, Iskelmän tähtitaivas, WSOY 2004, ISBN 951-0-27817-3 Media related to Rauli Somerjoki at Wikimedia Commons