Super (2010 American film)
Super is a 2010 American superhero-themed black-comedy-drama film written and directed by James Gunn and starring Rainn Wilson, Ellen Page, Liv Tyler, Kevin Bacon and Nathan Fillion. It tells the story of Frank Darbo, a short-order cook who becomes a superhero without having any superhuman ability, calling himself the "Crimson Bolt", he sets out to rescue his wife Sarah from the hands of a drug dealer. The film premiered at the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival and was released in theaters in the United States on April 1, 2011 and on video on demand on April 13, 2011; the film was released unrated in U. S. theaters, received an R rating for its DVD/Blu-ray release. Upon release, Super received mixed reviews from critics and audiences, although the humor, direction and action scenes were praised. Alongside mixed critical reception, the film grossed around $593,933 against a budget of $2.5 million, making it Gunn's lowest-grossing film. Short-order cook Frank Darbo recalls his only two good memories from a disappointing life: marrying his wife, an incident in which he directed a police officer to catch a purse snatcher.
Frank immortalizes these two events in a pair of crayon drawings that he hangs on his wall for inspiration. Sarah, a recovering addict, leaves Frank for Jacques, a charismatic strip club owner who gets her hooked on drugs. Frank sinks into depression, where he has a vision in which he is touched by the finger of God and meets the Holy Avenger, a superhero from a public-access television show, who tells Frank that God has chosen him for a special purpose. Frank believes that God has chosen him to become a superhero and goes to a local comic book store for inspiration, his claim that he is designing a new superhero is met with enthusiastic appreciation from the store clerk, Libby. Frank creates a superhero costume and assumes the identity of "The Crimson Bolt." Armed with a pipe wrench, he begins to fight crime by delivering savage beatings to various rulebreakers, ranging from drug dealers and child molesters to a man who cuts in line at the movies. The Crimson Bolt soon becomes a media sensation.
The media view him as a violent psychopath, but he begins to gain public appreciation after the criminal backgrounds of many of his victims come to light. Frank attempts to rescue Sarah at Jacques' house, but Jacques' thugs recognize him under the costume and shoot him in the leg as he flees while climbing over a fence. A wounded Frank goes to Libby for help. Libby cajoles Frank into letting her become the Crimson Bolt's "kid sidekick," christening herself "Boltie" and designing a costume, she proves to be more unhinged than Frank, using her superhero guise to nearly kill a man who vandalized her friend's car. Frank decides to let her go, but changes his mind when Libby rescues him from some of Jacques' thugs at a gas station. Libby soon becomes enamored with Frank, but he turns down her advances, insisting that he is still married. Arguing that it is different when they are in their superhero identities, Libby rapes Frank while the two are in costume. Frank runs to vomits, where he encounters a vision of Sarah in the toilet.
He decides. Armed with guns, pipe bombs, bulletproof vests and Libby sneak into Jacques' ranch, killing the first few guards they encounter. However, they are both shot. Frank is struck in the chest, his bulletproof vest sparing him, but Libby is shot in the head and killed. Devastated by her death, Frank goes into a rage. Inside, Jacques shoots Frank, but Frank gains the upper hand and stabs Jacques to death as Sarah watches, horrified. Frank takes her home, she stays for a few months "out of a sense of obligation" for saving her life, Frank surmises; however she leaves him again. This time, she manages to overcome her addiction and uses her experiences to help others with similar problems, she has four children. Frank is convinced. Frank, now with a pet bunny, looks on his wall of happy memories; the wall is covered with pictures of his experiences from his time spent with Libby and pictures of Sarah's kids, who call him "Uncle Frank." Frank looks at Libby's picture, a tear runs down his cheek. Super was filmed between December 9, 2009, January 24, 2010, in Shreveport, with additional shooting at director James Gunn's home in Los Angeles, California.
Since the film was a low-budget, independent project, everyone involved in the film was paid scale. Tyler Bates worked on the soundtrack. Gunn has said in interviews that he had been working on the script for Super since 2002, but he had a hard time getting it made, as producers felt that the content was too violent and esoteric. In addition, Gunn had a hard time deciding on the right actor to play Frank. Reilly was Gunn's top choice, but he wasn't considered to be a big enough star for the film to get made. After Slither was made, Gunn had put the project on hold until his ex-wife Jenna Fischer encouraged him to go through with it and recommended Rainn Wilson, her co-star from The Office. Wilson read the script while on set and decided he wanted to join the film, in turn sent the script to Ellen Page, with whom he had worked in Juno, who accepted the role of Libby. Super was Gunn's second film dealing with superheroes, the first being The Specials in 2000 that he wrote, but did not direct. Gunn has said that examining superheroes from a different angle interests him, that he may do more films
Superannuation in Australia
Superannuation in Australia are the arrangements put in place by the Government of Australia to encourage people in Australia to accumulate funds to provide them with an income stream when they retire. Superannuation in Australia is compulsory, is further encouraged by tax benefits; the government has set minimum standards for contributions by employees as well as for the management of superannuation funds. It is compulsory for employers to make superannuation contributions for their employees on top of the employees' wages and salaries; the employer contribution rate has been 9.5% since 1 July 2014, as of 2015, was planned to increase from 2021 to 12% in 2025. People are encouraged to supplement compulsory superannuation contributions with voluntary contributions, including diverting their wages or salary income into superannuation contributions under so-called salary sacrifice arrangements. An avoidable issue with Australia’s superannuation system is employees failing to consolidate multiple accounts, thus being charged multiple account fees.
Of Australia’s 15 million superannuation fund members, 40% have multiple accounts, which collectively costs them $2.6 billion in additional fees each year. The federal budget estimates put the number of unnecessary duplicate accounts at 10 million. Plans are in place to facilitate consolidation of these accounts. An individual can withdraw funds out of a superannuation fund when the person meets one of the conditions of release, such as retirement, terminal medical condition, or permanent incapacity, contained in Schedule 1 of the Superannuation Industry Regulations 1994; as of 30 June 2018, Australians have $2.7 trillion in superannuation assets, making Australia the 4th largest holder of pension fund assets in the world. For many years until 1976, what superannuation arrangements were in place were set up under industrial awards negotiated by the union movement or individual unions. A change to superannuation arrangements came about in 1983 through an agreement between the government and the trade unions.
In the Prices and Incomes Accord, the trade unions agreed to forgo a national 3% pay increase which would be put into the new superannuation system for all employees in Australia. This was matched by employers' contributions. Employers' and employees' contributions were set at 3% of the employees' income, has been increased. Though there is general widespread support for compulsory superannuation today, at the time of its introduction it was met with strong resistance by small business groups who were fearful of the burden associated with its implementation and its ongoing costs. In 1992, under the Keating Labor Government, the compulsory employer contribution scheme became a part of a wider reform package addressing Australia's retirement income dilemma, it had been demonstrated that Australia, along with many other Western nations, would experience a major demographic shift in the coming decades, of the aging of the population, it was claimed that this would result in increased age pension payments that would place an unaffordable strain on the Australian economy.
The proposed solution was a "three pillars" approach to retirement income: compulsory employer contributions to superannuation funds, further contributions to superannuation funds and other investments, if insufficient, a safety net consisting of a means-tested government-funded age pension. The compulsory employer contributions were branded "Superannuation Guarantee" contributions; the Keating Labor Government had intended for there to be a compulsory employee contribution beginning in 1997-98, with employee contributions beginning at 1% rising to 2% in 1998-99 and reaching 3% in 1999-2000. However this planned compulsory 3% employee contribution was cancelled by the Howard Liberal Government when it took office in 1996; the employer SG contribution was allowed to continue to rise to 9%, which it did in 2002-03. The Howard Government limited employer SG contributions from 1 July 2002 to an employee's ordinary time earnings, which includes wages and salaries, as well as bonuses, shift loading and casual loadings, but does not include overtime paid.
The SG rate was 9% from 2002-03 to 2013-14, when the Rudd-Gillard Labor Government passed legislation to increase SG contributions to 12% by 1 July 2019, as had been intended by the Keating Government in 1995. However, the succeeding Abbott Liberal Government deferred the start of this planned increase to the SG by six years, from 1 July 2015 to 1 July 2021; the SG rate has since 1 July 2014 been 9.5% of employee earnings, after 30 June 2021 the rate is planned to increase by 0.5% each year until it reaches 12% by 2025. Employers are required to pay superannuation contributions, called "superannuation guarantee" contributions, to an approved superannuation fund for their employees at 9.5% of the employees’ “ordinary time earnings”—which consists of wages and salaries, allowances but not overtime. Employers are not required to make employer contributions for employees earning less than $450 per month, nor for employees aged under 18. However, if an under 18 employee earns over $450 per month before tax or works more than 30 hours per week full-time, part-time or casual, the employer is required to contribute superannuation.
Additionally, if employees aged over 70 years work more than 40 hours in a 30-day period, the employer can pay contributions. Employer contributions are required to be paid on at least a quarterly basis. Between 1993-1996, a higher contribution rate applied for employers whose annual national payroll for the base year exceeded $1 million, with the employer's minimum superannuation contribution percentage set out in the adjacent table wi
Super (2005 film)
Super is a 2005 Telugu action heist-thriller film produced by Nagarjuna Akkineni on Annapurna Studios banner and directed by Puri Jagannadh. Starring Nagarjuna Akkineni, Ayesha Takia, Anushka Shetty and Sonu Sood in lead roles and music composed by Sandeep Chowta; the film was dubbed into Hindi and was titled Robbery. The film recorded as Below Average at the box-office. Akhil owns a call cab service, he falls in love with Siri Valli. Soon Siri Valli falls in love with Akhil as well. There is a hi-tech robber called Sonu, a big-time robber. Sonu used to work for Siri Valli's father and so he adopts her as his sister after their family fall into bad times. Incidentally and Sonu are enemies; when Sonu realizes that Siri Valli is in love with his arch enemy Akhil, he asks her to put an end to their relationship and to never see him again. Siri Valli goes to Akhil's house to find out. Akhil reveals his flashback: Akhil and Sonu meet in Mumbai in their needy days as unemployed graduates, they soon become friends.
Sasha is Sonu's sister. Sasha develops pains in her stomach and needs an appendix operation. Sonu and Akhil don't have enough money to pay for the operation. After a few days, they were forced to steal money, they decide to rob the money and make a living out of it. Sasha loves Akhil, but Akhil does not have any feelings for her. He treats her just like a friend. Akhil and Sonu are given one more task: to rob diamonds. After this one robbery, they can be settled for life. Late that same night at the biker's club, Sasha says that she will kill herself if Akhil does not love her. Being stubborn, Sasha decides to stay at the Biker's club late; when Sonu & Akhil show up, it's too late. This is. While the Artist who's trying to draw a Picture of the mysterious thief named Sonu, the Artist ends up drawing a picture of Akhil; the police arrest Akhil, who looks like 1 of the mysterious guys from a police surveillance video. According to the video, it's revealed that Sasha was murdered. Akhil lies to police; the artist says.
Sonu follows Akhil to the Biker's club. Akhil & Sonu realize that the Biker's club owner Mama's responsible for their robberies & Sasha's murder; that night when she was at the club late, Sasha heard some men talking & finds out that it was the same men who told them to rob the diamonds. The goons planned to kill Sasha right after they succeed in the robbery. Sasha overheard the goons chased Sasha, they killed her. After Sonu finds out the truth, he reconciles with Akhil. But, Mama reveals he kidnapped Siri Valli and in ransom, tells Akhil and Sonu to rob the same diamonds they were supposed to make robbery in Mumbai, they rob the diamonds by blowing up underneath the truck carrying the diamonds and falling into the sea. Akhil goes into the ocean and retrieves the diamonds; the police start chasing Akhil on motorboats. One of the police kills he falls into the ocean. Still, Akhil does not stop and he heads on over to Mama's place. Akhil gets a hold of Sonu, wearing a bullet-proof vest. Sonu rushes to get his sister from the clutches of the bad guys.
Akhil and Sonu manage to keep the diamonds. The artist draws Sonu's picture, but the police don't believe the artist; the police captain got transferred to another town. It's hilarious because the lie-detector expert scares away the artist, who's unable to get the reward. Outside, Akhil & Sonu give a diamond to the Artist; the artist receives good training to draw a picture of Siri. Nagarjuna Akkineni as Akhil Ayesha Takia as Siri Valli "Siri" Anushka Shetty as Sasha Sonu Sood as Sonu Sayaji Shinde as Police Officer Piyush Mishra as Mama (Voice dubbed by: Surya Brahmanandam as lie-detector expert Ali as Artist Sunil as Journalist Venu Madhav as Tattoo designer Khayyum as Akhil's friend Paruchuri Venkateswara Rao as Siri's father Sumitra as Akhil's mother Music composed by Sandeep Chowta. All songs are blockbusters. Music was released by MARUTHI Music Company. Filmfare Awards SouthBest Comedian - Ali Super on IMDb Super at AllMovie
Supernumerary actors are amateur character actors in opera and ballet performances who train under professional direction to create a believable scene. The term's original use, from the Latin supernumerarius, meant someone paid to appear on stage in crowd scenes or in the case of opera as non-singing small parts; the word can still be found used for such in opera. It is the equivalent of "extra" in the motion picture industry. Any established opera company will have a supernumerary core of artists to enhance the opera experience; the Metropolitan Opera in New York and the Washington National Opera are known for the high profile and seasoned supernumeraries. The WNO saw its supernumerary golden age under the direction of English actress Jennifer Crier Johnston, supernumerary director for eight years. Ms. Johnston appeared in classic Hollywood movies such as My Fair Lady, The Unsinkable Mollie Brown, The Americanization of Emily, The Sound of Music; the Washington Times ran an exhaustive article on supernumeraries in November 2002, in which a Jennifer Johnston describes in detail the fine craft of a supernumerary in the opera.
The WNO has had some major supernumerary personalities on stage such as U. S. Supreme Court Justices Ginsberg and Kennedy who made their last appearance in the opening of Strauss comedic opera Die Fledermaus. New and exciting supernumeraries at the Washington National Opera include: Marlene Hall, David Brindley, Michael Walker, Emily Cohen, Eric Schultz, Felipe Lagos, Victor Yager, John Tinpe, Rey Rivera, Samantha Smith, Liam McKenna, Toni Smiley. Other long time famed supernumeraries include Fernando Varisco, Karl Moeller, Patrizia DiZebba, Harry Spence, Peter Whitten, Alex Riley, Gary Nooger, Alain Letort. In 2005 Walker and Varisco were invited by the well known opera director Cindy Oxberry, assistant director for the WNO for over 10 years, to work in a brand new production of The Washington Savoyards' The Mikado. Oxberry's style and force were obvious in these performances and the Washington Post agreed that "The Savoyards captured the energy of Arthur Sullivan's inimitable melodiousness and the thrust of William Schwenck Gilbert's satiric dialogue, riddled -- a little too -- with updated political jabs."
Supernumeraries are amateur character artists who train under professional direction to create a believable scene. They become part of the props and give a sense of credibility to scenes where crowds, court assistants, peasants or a variety of period characters are needed. Ms. Johnston's style emerged through her experiences in Hollywood and the British theater and she coached all of her supernumeraries until the character, the movements and demeanor matched the period of the opera being presented. Rehearsals can last from 2 weeks to several months depending on the complexity of the performances; some operas require over 50 supernumeraries. Work is assigned according to the ability to look the part and in many cases by the costume size since many of the productions are borrowed from other major opera houses; the Varisco-Johnston style of "supering" emphasizes an understated performance that doesn't "steal focus from the main actors" but it is still vibrant and effusive. Other styles have evolved like the method acting of Walker.
The repertory at any established opera house includes operas with lots of supernumeraries. Setting a record, with 227 supers, was a new production of Prokofiev's War and Peace, which had its last performance of the season on March 19, 2006. Other operas at the Met and other great opera houses awash in supers include Aida and Puccini's La Bohème, according to François Giuliani, press director of the Met, but the chance of being a super is pretty much limited to those with experience and people who can take direction, said Bob Diamond, administrator of supernumeraries at the Met. We don't take people off the street, he added, it is accepted that an opera will use 10 men as extras for every woman. That's opera, we have no control, Mr. Diamond said; the commitment in terms of time can range from as little as one two-hour rehearsal and a dress rehearsal—but supers do have to agree to take part in a minimum number of performances—to as much as five hours a day for four or five weeks for, say, a newly staged opera.
Supernumerary work keeps evolving. There has been a merger of techniques used in Broadway and opera. A good illustration of this type of merging is seen for the second time at the WNO 2006 Fall opera season with the presentation of Puccini's Madama Butterfly, wherein Polish director Mariusz Treliński a movie director, presented his innovative production which used an extensive cast of supernumeraries as Japanese fishermen and live statues; the Washington Blade took notice of these statues and described them effectively: "A wall of Japanese statues come to life and drop flower petals from the heights of the opera stage at Pinkerton’s impending return..." Having said this, directors sometimes take too many artistic liberties with some operas and the final result is not what is to be expected. This can be illustrated with Marta Domingo's production of La Traviata presented at the Washington National Opera in May 2004. Supernumerary Varisco played the part of death during the last act, this is what the Washington Post said about this supernumerary character: Stage director Marta Domingo seems to have taken the Hippocratic oath as her inspiration for this "Traviata": She does no harm.
Her conception is pretty generic, though—ballrooms and sickbeds, bright lig
A honey super is a part of a commercial or other managed beehive, used to collect honey. The most common variety is the "Illinois" or "medium" super with a depth of 65⁄8 inches, in the length and width dimensions of a Langstroth hive. A honey super consists of a box. Western honeybees collect nectar and store the processed nectar in honeycomb, which they build on the frames; when the honeycomb is full, the bees will reduce the moisture content of the honey to 17-18% moisture content before capping the comb with beeswax. Beekeepers will extract the honey. Periods when there is an abundant nectar source available and bees are bringing back the nectar, are called a honey flow. During a honey flow, beekeepers may put several honey supers onto a hive so the bees have enough storage space. Honey supers are removed in the fall when the honey is extracted, before the hive is winterized, but enough honey is left for the bees to consume during winter. Using 3⁄4 inch wood the outside dimensions are 197⁄8" × 161⁄4" × height.
In the metric system 25mm wood may be used which makes the outside dimensions 515mm × 425mm × height. Media related to Honey supers at Wikimedia Commons
Zabdiel Judah is an American professional boxer. He is a multiple-time former world champion in two weight classes, having held the IBF and WBO junior welterweight titles between 2000 and 2004. Judah began boxing at the age of six and compiled an amateur record of 110–5, he was three-time New York Golden Gloves Champion. He won the 1996 PAL National Championship. Judah beat Ishe Smith and Hector Camacho, Jr. but lost to David Díaz in the finals of the Olympic trials, thus failing to qualify for the Olympic boxing team. Judah made his professional debut as an 18-year-old on September 20, 1996, in Miami and defeated Michael Johnson by technical knockout in the second round. On April 14, 1998, Judah defeated Angel Beltre in the second round. Judah accidentally butted heads with Esteban Flores in a fight in March 1999. Flores was cut on his forehead, the match was halted in the third round; the bout was recorded as a technical draw, but the result was changed to a no contest in May 1999. Judah defeated Micky Ward by unanimous decision for the USBA Light Welterweight title.
He defended the USBA title by stopping Darryl Tyson in the eleventh round on October 15, 1998. Judah defeated Wilfredo Negron in January 1999 with a fourth-round knockout to win the Interim IBF Light Welterweight title. On February 12, 2000, he defeated Jan Piet Bergman to win the vacant IBF Light Welterweight title. Bergman recovered in the second round, knocking Judah down. Judah knocked out Bergman in the fourth round to win the title. On June 20, 2000, Judah made his first title defense against Junior Witter in Scotland, it was an awkward fight for Judah, as Witter engaged in an extended exchange of punches. Witter switched between fighting right-handed and left-handed, making him an elusive opponent. Judah's consistent body punching slowed Witter down, in the fifth round, Judah caught Witter with a straight left hand that hurt Witter and sent his mouthpiece skittering across the ring. Judah defeated Witter by unanimous decision. Two months on August 5, 2000, at the Mohegan Sun in Connecticut, Judah defeated former IBF Light Welterweight Champion Terron Millett by fourth-round knockout.
Judah was knocked down in the first round from a left hand. Judah rose and from that point on he dominated the fight. Judah hurt Millett with two combinations near the end of the first round. In round two, Judah sent Millett down with a right hand to the chin. Millett survived the round, but he was hurt. In round four, Judah charged across the ring and inflicted a series of blows on Millett, knocking him down again. Millett got up. Millett rose at the count of four, but his legs were unsteady and the referee decided to stop the bout. In his third title defense, Judah stopped Hector Quiroz in the eighth round on October 20, 2000, at The Palace of Auburn Hills in Auburn Hills, Michigan. On January 13, 2001, Judah defeated Reggie Green by tenth-round technical knockout at the Mohegan Sun in Connecticut. Judah had trouble landing punches against Green for the majority of the fight, but in round ten, he knocked Green down with a left hook. Green beat the count, but Judah ran across the ring and sent Green down to the canvas with a right hand, forcing the referee to stop the fight.
On June 23, 2001, Judah defeated Allan Vester by third-round knockout in his fifth successful defense of the IBF title. In round two, Judah put Vester down to the canvas twice. In the third round, Judah knocked out Vester with a left hand. Vester nearly lost his mouthpiece; the referee stopped the fight right before the closing bell. The fight would set up a unification match between Judah and WBC and WBA Light Welterweight Champion Kostya Tszyu, who defeated Oktay Urkal on the undercard; the much anticipated matchup between Judah and Tsyzu took place on November 3, 2001, at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas, Nevada for the Undisputed Light Welterweight Championship. Judah entered the fight as a 3-to-1 favorite to win. With 10 seconds left to go in round two, Tszyu landed a right hand clean on Judah's chin and he backed away from Tszyu with his hands down. Tszyu went after Judah, throwing another right hand that landed on his chin and sent Judah crashing to the canvas. Judah jumped up instinctively and tried to signal that he was fine to referee Jay Nady, but was still dazed by the punch and fell down a second time.
When Judah collapsed, Nady waved the fight over, resulting in a technical knockout victory for Tsyzu and Judah's first professional loss. While Tszyu celebrated in his corner, Judah was in disbelief of what just happened and became infuriated. Judah hurled it towards center ring. While being restrained by his father and trainer, Yoel Judah, he broke loose and walked up to Nady and stuck his gloved fist into his neck and had to be pulled off by cornermen. A few minutes Jimmy Lennon, Jr. announced the official decision and Judah screamed out and again had to be restrained by a growing number of security guards and cornermen. Judah was suspended for six months by the Nevada State Athletic Commission. After defeating Omar Weis by unanimous decision in July 2002, Judah challenged DeMarcus Corley for the WBO Light Welterweight title on July 12, 2003, at the Orleans Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas. Judah knocked Corley down with a left hand in the third round en route to defeating Corley by split decision.
Judah broke his left
History of the Teller–Ulam design
This article chronicles the history and origins of the Teller–Ulam design, the technical concept behind modern thermonuclear weapons known as hydrogen bombs. This design, the details of which are military secrets known to only a handful of major nations, is believed to be used in all modern nuclear weapons which make up the arsenals of the major nuclear powers; the idea of using the energy from a fission device to begin a fusion reaction was first proposed by the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi to his colleague Edward Teller in the fall of 1941 during what would soon become the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort by the United States and United Kingdom to develop the first nuclear weapons. Teller soon was a participant at Robert Oppenheimer's summer conference on the development of a fission bomb held at the University of California, where he guided discussion towards the idea of creating his "Super" bomb, which would hypothetically be many times more powerful than the yet-undeveloped fission weapon.
Teller assumed creating the fission bomb would be nothing more than an engineering problem, that the "Super" provided a much more interesting theoretical challenge. For the remainder of the war, the effort was focused on first developing fission weapons. Teller continued to pursue the "Super", to the point of neglecting work assigned to him for the fission weapon at the secret Los Alamos lab where he worked. Teller was given some resources with which to study the "Super", contacted his friend Maria Göppert-Mayer to help with laborious calculations relating to opacity; the "Super", proved elusive, the calculations were difficult to perform since there was no existing way to run small-scale tests of the principles involved. After the atomic bombings of Japan, many scientists at Los Alamos rebelled against the notion of creating a weapon thousands of times more powerful than the first atomic bombs. For the scientists the question was in part technical — the weapon design was still quite uncertain and unworkable — and in part moral: such a weapon, they argued, could only be used against large civilian populations, could thus only be used as a weapon of genocide.
Many scientists, such as Teller's colleague Hans Bethe, urged that the United States should not develop such weapons and set an example towards the Soviet Union. Promoters of the weapon, including Teller and Berkeley physicists Ernest Lawrence and Luis Alvarez, argued that such a development was inevitable, to deny such protection to the people of the United States — when the Soviet Union was to create such a weapon itself — was itself an immoral and unwise act. Still others, such as Oppenheimer thought that the existing stockpile of fissile material was better spent in attempting to develop a large arsenal of tactical atomic weapons rather than squandered on the development of a few massive "Supers"; when the Soviet Union exploded their own atomic bomb in 1949, it caught Western analysts off guard, in early 1950 President Harry S. Truman ordered a program to develop a hydrogen bomb. Many scientists returned to Los Alamos to work on the "Super" program, but the initial attempts still seemed unworkable.
In the "classical Super", it was thought that the heat alone from the fission bomb would be used to ignite the fusion material, but this proved to be impossible. For a while, many scientists thought; the exact history of the Teller–Ulam breakthrough is not known, due in part to numerous conflicting personal accounts and continued classification of documents which would reveal, closer to the truth. Previous models of the "Super" had placed the fusion fuel either surrounding the fission "trigger" or at the heart of it in the hopes that the closer the fuel was to the fission explosion, the higher the chance it would ignite the fusion fuel by the sheer force of the heat generated. In 1951, after still many years of fruitless labor on the "Super", a breakthrough idea from the Polish émigré mathematician Stanislaw Ulam was seized upon by Teller and developed into the first workable design for a megaton-range hydrogen bomb; this concept, now called "staged implosion" was first proposed in a classified scientific paper, On Heterocatalytic Detonations I.
Hydrodynamic Lenses and Radiation Mirrors by Teller and Ulam on March 9, 1951. The exact amount of contribution provided from Ulam and Teller to what became known as the "Teller–Ulam design" is not definitively known in the public domain—the degree of credit assigned to Teller by his contemporaries is exactly commensurate with how well they thought of Teller in general. In an interview with Scientific American from 1999, Teller told the reporter: I contributed. I'm sorry. Ulam was rightly dissatisfied with an old approach, he came to me with a part of an idea which I had worked out and difficulty getting people to listen to. He was willing to sign a paper; when it came to defending that paper and putting work into it, he refused. He said, "I don't believe in it." The issue is controversial. Bethe in his “Memorandum on the History of the Thermonuclear Program” cited Teller as the discoverer