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Super Bowl XI

Super Bowl XI was an American football game between the American Football Conference champion Oakland Raiders and the National Football Conference champion Minnesota Vikings to decide the National Football League champion for its 1976 season. The Raiders defeated the Vikings by the score of 32–14 to win their first Super Bowl; the game was played on January 1977, at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California. This remains the Super Bowl scheduled earliest during the calendar year; this was the Raiders’ second Super Bowl appearance after losing Super Bowl II. They posted a 13–1 regular season record before defeating the New England Patriots and the Pittsburgh Steelers in the playoffs; the Vikings were making their fourth Super Bowl appearance after posting an 11–2–1 regular season record and playoff victories over the Washington Redskins and the Los Angeles Rams. The Vikings became the first team to appear in four Super Bowls, a record they held until the Dallas Cowboys advanced to a Super Bowl for the fifth time in Super Bowl XIII.

They had not won in their previous three attempts, losing Super Bowl IV to the Kansas City Chiefs in the final Super Bowl before the AFL–NFL merger and following that up with losses in Super Bowls VIII and IX. The Raiders were the first original AFL team to win a Super Bowl in the post-merger era. Oakland gained a Super Bowl record 429 yards, including a Super Bowl record 288 yards in the first half, en route to winning Super Bowl XI. After a scoreless first quarter, Oakland scored on three consecutive possessions to take a 16–0 lead at halftime; the Raiders had two fourth quarter interceptions, including cornerback Willie Brown’s 75-yard return for a touchdown. Oakland wide receiver Fred Biletnikoff, who had 4 catches for 79 yards that set up three Raider touchdowns, was named the game’s Most Valuable Player. Among the wide receivers who have won the Super Bowl MVP, Biletnikoff is the only one to not have gained 100 yards in his performance; the NFL awarded Super Bowl XI to Pasadena, California on March 19, 1975 at the owners' meetings held in Honolulu.

This game marked the second Super Bowl appearance for the Oakland Raiders, who lost Super Bowl II. Two years after their Super Bowl loss, the Raiders hired John Madden as their head coach. Under Madden, the Raiders had posted in 83 -- 22 -- 7 record. Super Bowl XI was the first time Madden led his team to a league championship game, they had been eliminated in all six of their previous playoff appearances, including five losses in the AFC Championship Game. The Raiders offense was led by quarterback Ken Stabler, who finished as the top rated passer in the AFC, passing for 2,737 yards and 27 touchdowns, his 66.7 completion percentage was the second highest in the league. Stabler's main passing weapon was wide receiver Cliff Branch, who caught 46 passes for 1,111 yards and 12 touchdowns. Fred Biletnikoff was a reliable deep threat, with 43 receptions for 551 yards and 7 touchdowns, while tight end Dave Casper recorded 53 receptions for 691 yards and 10 touchdowns. In addition to their great passing attack the Raiders had a powerful running game, led by fullback Mark van Eeghen and halfback Clarence Davis.

Another reason for the Raiders' success on offense was their offensive line, led by left tackle Art Shell and left guard Gene Upshaw, as well as perennial All-Pro center Dave Dalby. Injuries early in the season forced the Raiders to switch from a 4–3 to a 3–4 defense; the switch benefited the team, as they won their last 10 games and finished the regular season with the best record in the league, 13–1. The Raiders' defense was anchored by great linebackers, such as Phil Villapiano and Ted Hendricks, while defensive end Otis Sistrunk anchored the defensive line, their defensive secondary was hard-hitting and talented, led by safeties Jack Tatum and George Atkinson, cornerbacks Skip Thomas and Willie Brown. Brown, Upshaw and running back Pete Banaszak were the only holdovers from the Oakland team, defeated nine years earlier in Super Bowl II. Many accused the Raiders defense of being overly aggressive Atkinson, who inflicted a severe concussion on Pittsburgh Steelers wide receiver Lynn Swann in the previous season's AFC Championship Game.

Atkinson added to that reputation as the Raiders advanced through the playoffs to Super Bowl XI, as Atkinson inflicted another concussion to Swann in the Raiders' 1976 season opener. In the Raiders' 24–21 playoff win over the New England Patriots, Atkinson broke the nose of Patriots tight end Russ Francis. In reaction, Pittsburgh head coach Chuck Noll complained of a “criminal element” in Atkinson's play. Atkinson himself denied deliberately trying to injure anyone and pointed out that at 6′0″ and 185 pounds, he was one of the smallest players on the field; the Raiders and their fans were known to counter these accusations against Atkinson and Jack Tatum by pointing out the physical way that Pittsburgh cornerback Mel Blount covered Oakland's speedy split end Cliff Branch. An interesting fact about the team was that two players bought marijuana from Red Hot Chili Peppers' singer Anthony Kiedis’ father, Blackie Dammett, smoked it before the game, played the game under the effects of the drug.

This was revealed on Kiedis' biography from Scar Tissue. The Vikings, coached by Bud Grant, won the NFC Central for the eighth time in the last nine seasons with an 11–2–1 record, advanced to their fourth Super Bowl in eight years, they were the only team who had lost three

Chris West

Chris West is a British writer. He works in a range of genres: business and crime / general fiction, his China Quartet, four mysteries written in the 1990s, were among the first crime novels to be set in the contemporary People's Republic of China. After studying economics and philosophy at the London School of Economics, West travelled in China, leading to his first book, Journey to the Middle Kingdom in 1991. Following that, he wrote the four crime novels featuring Wang Anzhuang, a mid-ranking detective in the Beijing Xing Zhen Ke and his wife, Rosina Lin, a nurse at the Capital Hospital; these are now being reissued with Wang's name changed to Bao Zheng. On completing this series, West concentrated on co-authoring books aimed at entrepreneurs and small businesses, the first of, The Beermat Entrepreneur, co-authored with entrepreneur and speaker Mike Southon; this book was reissued in 2018 in an updated edition. West's most recent co-authored work is Think like an Entrepreneur with entrepreneur Robbie Steinhouse.

He has worked on other projects as a'ghost' writer. As a solo author he wrote Marketing on a Beermat and a guide to good, clear writing, Perfect Written English, he has written social history, using everyday objects as'ways in' to the subject. First Class, a History of Britain in 36 Postage Stamps was published in 2012, A History of America in 36 Postage Stamps followed in 2013. Eurovision! A History of Modern Europe through the World's Greatest Song Contest was published in Spring 2017; as a fiction writer he has published three novellas. West is married with lives in North Hertfordshire. Journey to the Middle Kingdom, Simon & Schuster 1991. Allison and Busby, 2000. Death of a Blue Lantern, Collins Crime 1994, Allison and Busby 1999 and 2008. Death on Black Dragon River, Collins Crime 1995 Red Mandarin, Collins Crime 1997 The Third Messiah Allison and Busby 2000 The Beermat Entrepreneur: Turn a Good Idea into a Great Business, Mike Southon and Chris West. Prentice Hall, 2002. Myths about Doing Business in China, Harold Chee and Chris West, Palgrave, 2004 The Boardroom Entrepreneur, Mike Southon and Chris West.

Random House Business Books, 2005. Sales on a Beermat, Mike Southon and Chris West. Random House Business Books, 2005. Finance on a Beermat, Stephen King, Jeff Macklin and Chris West. Random House Business Books, 2006. Marketing on a Beermat, Random House 2008 Perfect Written English, Random House 2008 Think like an Entrepreneur, Robbie Steinhouse and Chris West, Prentice Hall, 2008. First Class, A History of Britain in 36 Postage Stamps, Square Peg, 2012 A History of America in Thirty-six Postage Stamps, Picador, 2014 The Hillwalker, CWTK, 2016 The Hillwalker 2, CWTK 2016 Enlightenment, CWTK, 2016 Eurovision! A History of Modern Europe through the World's Greatest Song Contest, Melville House, 2017 Chris West author website NLP training course in London co-designed by Chris West

Leominster (UK Parliament constituency)

Leominster was a parliamentary constituency represented until 1707 in the House of Commons of England until 1801 in that of Great Britain, until 2010, when it disappeared in boundary changes, in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. From 1295 to 1885, Leominster was a parliamentary borough which until 1868 elected two Members of Parliament by the bloc vote system of election. Under the Reform Act 1867 its representation was reduced to one Member, elected by the first past the post system; the parliamentary borough was abolished under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the name was transferred to a new county constituency. Following the review by the Boundary Commission for England of parliamentary representation in Herefordshire, no longer connected for such reasons with Worcestershire, two parliamentary constituencies have been allocated to the county. Most of the Leominster seat has been replaced by the North Herefordshire seat, while the remainder of the county is covered by the Hereford and South Herefordshire seat.

1885–1918: The Municipal Borough of Leominster, the Sessional Divisions of Bredwardine, Kingston, Leominster and Wigmore. 1918–1950: The Municipal Borough of Leominster, the Urban Districts of Bromyard and Kington, the Rural Districts of Bredwardine, Kington, Leominster and Wigmore, parts of the Rural Districts of Hereford and Ledbury. 1950–1974: The Municipal Borough of Leominster, the Urban Districts of Bromyard and Ledbury, the Rural Districts of Bromyard, Ledbury and Weobley and Wigmore, part of the Rural District of Hereford. 1974–1983: The Municipal Borough of Leominster, the Urban District of Kington, the Rural Districts of Bromyard, Ledbury and Weobley and Wigmore, part of the Rural District of Hereford. 1983–1997: The District of Leominster, the District of Malvern Hills wards of Baldwin, Broadheath, Butterley, Frome, Frome Vale, Hegdon, Hope End, Laugherne Hill, Leadon Vale, Ledbury and Bransford, Marcle Ridge, Martley and Woodbury, the District of South Herefordshire wards of Burghill, Dinmore Hill, Magna, Munstone and Thinghill.

1997–2010: The District of Leominster, the District of Malvern Hills wards of Bringsty, Butterley, Frome, Frome Vale, Hope End, Leadon Vale and Marcle Ridge, the District of South Herefordshire wards of Backbury, Burmarsh, Dinmore Hill, Munstone and Thinghill, the District of Wyre Forest ward of Rock and Ribbesford. In its final form, the constituency consisted of northern Herefordshire and a small part of north-west Worcestershire, the boundaries having been specified when the two were joined as the single county of Hereford and Worcester. In Herefordshire it included the towns of Bromyard and Ledbury as well as Leominster, while the largest settlement of Worcestershire it included was Tenbury Wells. Wigram resigned after causing a by-election. Greenaway resigned by accepting the office of Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds, causing a by-election. Barkly resigned after being appointed Governor of British Guiana. Arkwright's death caused a by-election. Willoughby resigned after being appointed as a Member of the Council of India, causing a by-election.

Hardy was elected MP for Oxford University and opted to sit there, causing a by-election. Walsh resigned. Seat reduced to one member Arkwright resigned; some records describe Lamb as an Independent Radical. Langford was a Liberal. General Election 1939/40 Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected. British parliamentary election results 1918-1949. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X

Buckman Co. v. Plaintiffs' Legal Committee

Buckman Co. v. Plaintiffs Legal Comm. 531 U. S. 341, was a United States Supreme Court case decided in 2001. The case concerned whether the FDCA, a federal statute, pre-empted a state-law fraud-on-the-FDA claim. Although finding it on different grounds, the Court decided to reject the lawsuit attempt; the Plaintiffs' Legal Committee represented plaintiffs who claimed injuries resulting from the use of bone screws on their spines. They sued Buckman Company, alleging they made fraudulent representations to the FDA, they further argued that "but for" the false representations, the injuries would not have occurred. The District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania heard these claims and decided to dismiss the "fraud-on-the-FDA" sections of the complaint on the ground that it was pre-empted by federal law. A divided panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit reversed, arguing that there was no express pre-emption. Buckman Company appealed to the Supreme Court which heard the case in December 2000.

Chief Justice William Rehnquist wrote the decision of the Supreme Court, reversing the Third Circuit. He concluded that there was express pre-emption because holding these claims under state law would "inevitably conflict" with the FDA's duty to police fraud. Additionally, to allow such suits could chill information provided to the FDA, a concern the Court thought would hamper the FDA's evaluation of applications. Justice John Paul Stevens wrote a concurring opinion in the judgement of the Court, which Justice Clarence Thomas joined. Thus, they on different grounds. Stevens said the lawsuit could not proceed because the plaintiffs could not rebut the fact that the FDA did not remove the defective products from the market. Therefore, there was no "but for" causation in the first instance. Food and Drug Administration Federalism Text of Buckman Co. v. Plaintiffs' Legal Committee, 531 U. S. 341 is available from: CourtListener Findlaw Justia Oyez

Sir William Edge, 1st Baronet

Sir William Edge, 1st Baronet was a British Liberal National Liberal and businessman. William Edge was the son of Sir Knowles Edge, head of William Edge & Son Ltd, colour manufacturers, Mayor of Bolton from 1917 to 1918, he was educated at Bolton School and went into his father's business becoming the head of the company. However, politics was Edge's main interest, he was active in support of the Liberal Party in Lancashire, with a reputation as a good platform speaker, before getting into Parliament. In February 1916, Edge was returned unopposed as a Liberal for Bolton following the resignation of the sitting Liberal Member of Parliament in the two member constituency, Thomas Taylor. At that time he was styled Captain Edge since he held a staff appointment in the War Office and his professional background was described to the electorate as a Bolton manufacturer. Edge was returned unopposed again in the 1918 general election as was the Labour candidate and the other sitting MP, Robert Tootill.

From 1919-1922, Edge was a Joint Lord of the Treasury with his main role being to act as liaison between the Coalition government and the Labour Party. He was re-elected for Bolton in the 1922 general election standing as a National Liberal, as a supporter of the former coalition government and the Lloyd George faction in the Liberal Party, against Conservative and Asquithian Liberal opposition. Despite the decision of the Conservative Party at the Carlton Club meeting of 19 October 1922 to end the Coalition Government, there was some goodwill remaining between the parties in Bolton as only one candidate from each stood in the election, there must have been some crossover of votes from the Conservatives to Edge; the Independent Liberal came bottom of the poll, behind the two Labour candidates. Edge was one of the National Liberal whips from 1922-23 but resigned in protest at the government's industrial policy of safeguarding, as it affected the cotton industry through a proposed duty on fabric gloves – important in his Lancashire constituency.

He was knighted in 1922. However, along with many other former National Liberals, Edge was unable to hold his seat at the 1923 general election; the Conservative votes no longer transferred, Labour and the independent Liberal party, which had reunited with many former coalitionists, were making advances. As is to be expected from a supporter of the wartime coalition, Edge was politically close to David Lloyd George. According to A. J. Sylvester, Lloyd George's private secretary, Edge was one of LG's most stalwart friends. In 1925, Edge was appointed as one of the trustees of the Lloyd George fund and he stayed a loyal supporter of Lloyd George through the years. In 1940 Edge was involved in talks with Labour about the possibility of Labour joining a coalition government to be led by Lloyd George to replace Neville Chamberlain. One of the Liberal causes Edge espoused was the Land and Nation League, a Group set up by Lloyd George in October 1925 to promote his land campaigns and in support of the report of the Liberal Land Enquiry Committee and the Nation published as the Green Book.

Edge returned to the House of Commons at a by-election for Bosworth in Leicestershire on 31 May 1927. His victory there was part of a pattern of Liberal success begun in 1926 after the General Strike, Lloyd George's taking over the leadership of the party from Asquith had changed the political scene. According to Cook and Ramsden: "As so when Lloyd George was involved, his old dynamism and energy brought a new sense of purpose. Within six months of his return, it seemed that at long last a real recovery was at hand." Between March 1927 and March 1929 the Liberals won six by-elections. Lloyd George helped his old friend by speaking for Edge at by-election meetings; the result at Bosworth was Edge 11,981, J. Minto 11,710, E. L. Spears 7,685: giving a majority of 271 after a recount demanded by Labour. Turnout was 84.6%. Edge held his seat at the 1931 general election and the 1935 general election general elections when he stood as a Liberal National, but did not contest the seat in the 1945 general election.

In the troubled period of the 1930s for Liberals, Edge's political alignment was sometimes difficult to pin down. Edge was one of the group of 22 Liberals MPs who followed Sir John Simon in declaring themselves a body to give firm support to the prime minister as the head of a National Government and for the purpose of fighting the General Election on 5 October 1931 The Liberal Nationals were associated with the Conservatives. In time they merged with the Tories. By 1929 Edge was described as a ‘near Conservative’ – although one Labour junior minister noted that he voted with the Labour government in December 1929 on the Coal Mines Bill when most Liberals were joining the Tories to oppose the introduction of a seven-and-a-half-hour working day and a National Wages Board and that Edge voted with the Labour government in January 1931 on the Trades Disputes Bill. Edge was created a baronet in the 1937 Coronation Honours. Edge was a Wesleyan Methodist. On 3 September 1932, a stone laying ceremony was held for the new Methodist Church at Stoke Golding, near Hinckley, Edge laid one of the stones.

He placed in a cavity a sealed bottle containing the current preaching plan, an issue of the Hinckley Times and other documents. On a lighter note, in 1930 Edge agreed to take part in a race against some homing pigeons released from the Palace of Westminster by Ibstock Homing Association, he raced by motor-car and rail, but his train was delayed and got in late at L


Neelathamara is a 1979 Malayalam language romance film directed by Yusuf Ali Kechery and written by M. T. Vasudevan Nair. Produced at a shoe string budget of ₹ 5 lakhs, the film stars Ambika and Ravikumar in the lead roles; the film deals with the romance between the employer. It was remade with several changes in 2009 by Lal Jose with the same title; the widow Malooty Amma is living a peaceful life in her house. Her son Haridasan is studying in town. Achuthan Nair is a steward to her house. Malootty Amma is quiet aged and she is unable to manage the household works by her own, she asks Nair to find a housemaid for her. She has a little caste bias, but the difficulty of getting a maid these days force her to accept anybody, out of her caste. One day Kunjumalu with her grandma comes to ` Kizhakkampattu' Malootty Amma's house. On their way they hear a beautiful humming, revealed as a musician’s near the temple; when they reach ‘Kizahkkampattu’ her grandma reveals to Malootty Amma that they are a different caste or family named ‘Veluthedathu’.

The girl soon gets acquainted with the duties of the house and she gains the appeal of Malootty Amma. Kunjimalu, the maid befriends a girl named Ammini and they maintain a good friendship. Ammini has some mysterious problems. Anyway, she talks elaborately about her sister's their children at home. One day Haridasan returns home, he soon gets attracted with the housemaid Kunjimalu. One day he asks her to come to his room in night, she has an inner torment. But after she puts money in the holy steps of the temple and pray to show her a sign whether to follow his words by blooming the Blue Lotus of the pond, she decides to go to her room, and the two have a physical relationship. Kunjimalu prays to show the sign of Blue Lotus. In all of these pleasant occasions a beautiful humming of the musician is heard, but he never appears. Haridas gets a job in town. In a letter sent by Haridas after some days he coolly asks about the wellbeing of the family members and informs about his stay there; this letter is read by Kunjimalu, in bereavement after Haridas left.

She is disappointed to find. But she consoles herself with the belief that Haridas will not be able to enquire about her since she is just a maid. Plans for Haridas’ marriage go on, they find an alignment with Haridas’ cousin Ratnam. Kunjimalu is quiet worried and is sad but she goes on with her chores. After this she comes to know that the musician lost his sound from a man who sits under the banyan tree near the temple. Haridas visits his cousin Ratnam’s house and stays a night there; that night, just like, with Kunjimalu he tries to make Ratnam come to his room. But she rejects the idea telling that it will not be good for them to have physical relationship before the marriage, their marriage takes place and Kunjimalu understands Haridasan was cheating her. On the first night Kunjimalu tells Ratnam things to take care in their room including the creaking sound in one of the steps to his room. Ratnam becomes suspicious about Kunjimalu’s concern for him, she finds some letters and notes written by Haridas and one of his photos in Kunjimalu’s belongings.

She asks Kunjimalu to come with them to their rented house in town. Haridas who has a difficulty of meeting Kunjimalu after the marriage rejects his wife’s idea, she questions her husband and she is now sure that her husband Haridas had relationship of all means with Kunjimalu. But Ratnam is sympathetic toward Kunjimalu. Next day Malootty Amma asks Kunjimalu to leave her house. After that day they find, they are a little worried now. News come to the house. Everyone worries. Ratnam blames Haridas for. Haridas finds that it was not Kunjimalu's body but her friend Ammini's, he comes home. Next day they plan to leave Ratnam bid farewell Kunjimalu. In the end Kunjimalu is taken back home by her cousin, going to marry her and who knows much of the story between Haridas and his cousin. On their way back, near the river they meet two people who ask them the way to ‘Padinjattu’ for sending the younger girl as a servant there. At this question Kunjimalu and her cousin look at each other, it is written on screen ‘End’ ‘But there is no End’.

The film was produced by Abbas under the banner of Charisma Films. The budget of the film was just ₹ 5 lakhs; the film was shot at Koodalloor and Thrithala. Principal production was completed in a single schedule in 18 days. Jayabharathi was approached for the heroine role. Ambika as Kunjimalu Ravikumar as Haridas Bhavani as Ratnam Sathar as Appu Sarojam as Amminikutty Kozhikode Santha Devi as Maluamma Bahadoor as Achuthan Nair Adoor Bhavani as Sharathe Amma Kuthiravattom Pappu as the old man sitting under the banyan tree Neelathamara on IMDb