Super Bowl XIII was an American football game between the American Football Conference champion Pittsburgh Steelers and the National Football Conference champion Dallas Cowboys to decide the National Football League champion for the 1978 season. The Steelers defeated the Cowboys by the score of 35–31; the game was played on January 21, 1979, at the Orange Bowl in Miami, the fifth and last time that the Super Bowl was played in that stadium. This was the first Super Bowl that featured a rematch of a previous one, both teams were attempting to be the first club to win a third Super Bowl. Dallas was the defending Super Bowl XII champion, finished the 1978 regular season with a 12–4 record, posted playoff victories over the Atlanta Falcons and the Los Angeles Rams. Pittsburgh entered the game after posting a 14–2 regular season record and playoff wins over the Denver Broncos and the Houston Oilers. Steelers quarterback Terry Bradshaw, named Super Bowl MVP, completed 17 out of 30 passes for Super Bowl records of 318 passing yards and 4 touchdown passes.
Bradshaw eclipsed Bart Starr's Super Bowl record for passing yards in the first half with 253 yards in the air as the Steelers led 21–14 at intermission. His 75-yard touchdown pass in the second quarter tied Johnny Unitas in Super Bowl V for the longest pass in a Super Bowl; the Cowboys were able to stay close, only trailing 21–17 at the end of the third quarter, but Pittsburgh scored two touchdowns in a span of 19 seconds in the fourth period. Dallas could not overcome turnovers, a controversial penalty during the second half; the Cowboys were able to score two touchdowns in the final minutes of the game, but still ended up being the first defending champion to lose in the Super Bowl and the first losing Super Bowl team to score 30 points or more. The NFL awarded Super Bowl XIII to Miami on June 1977 at the owners meetings held in New York. For the 1978–79 season, the NFL extended its schedule from 14 regular season games to 16, increased the playoffs from an 8-team tournament to 10, creating two extra playoff games.
The three division winners from each conference would be ranked first through third and be given a week off, two wild card teams from each conference, seeded fourth and fifth, would play a playoff game with the winner going on to play the first seeded team. In Super Bowls past the designated home team wore their colored jerseys, while the "visiting" team wore white; this was a rule implemented by the NFL and the teams had no choice in this matter. Super Bowl XIII was the first time. Subsequently the Cowboys chose to wear their white jerseys, Pittsburgh were forced to wear their colored since they were the designated visiting team. Home team designation had been kept the same since the beginning, thus the NFC being designated the home team in the odd years, while the AFC being designated the home team in the years; the Steelers joined the Cowboys in their attempt to be the first team to win a third Super Bowl, after wins in Super Bowl IX and Super Bowl X. Pittsburgh quarterback Terry Bradshaw had the best season of his career, completing 207 of 368 passes for 2,915 yards and 28 touchdowns, with 20 interceptions.
He ranked as the second highest rated passer in the league, his 28 touchdown passes led the league, he won the NFL Most Valuable Player Award. Wide receivers Lynn Swann and John Stallworth provided the team with a great deep threat. Swann recorded 61 receptions for 880 yards and 11 touchdowns, while Stallworth had 41 receptions for 798 yards and 9 touchdowns. Tight end Randy Grossman, who replaced injured starter Bennie Cunningham for most of the season was a big factor, recording 37 receptions for 448 yards and a touchdown. In the Steelers' rushing game, fullback Franco Harris was the team's leading rusher for the 7th consecutive season, recording 1,082 yards and 8 touchdowns, while catching 22 passes for another 144 yards. Halfback Rocky Bleier had 633 rushing yards and 5 touchdowns, while catching 17 passes for 168 yards; the Steelers' success on offense was due in large measure to their stellar offensive line, anchored by future Hall of Fame center Mike Webster. Although Pittsburgh's "Steel Curtain" defense had some new starters this season, such as linemen John Banaszak and Steve Furness, defensive back Tony Dungy, they finished first in fewest points allowed, second in the league against the run, ranked third in fewest total yards allowed.
Once again, defensive tackles Joe Greene and L. C. Greenwood anchored the line, while Pro Bowl linebackers Jack Ham and Jack Lambert combined for 7 interceptions. Dungy led the team with 6 interceptions, while the rest of the secondary, defensive backs Mel Blount, Donnie Shell, Ron Johnson, combined for 11; the Cowboys became the first team to appear in five Super Bowls. Dallas was No. 2 in total yards. The defending Super Bowl champions were once again led by quarterback Roger Staubach. Staubach finished the season as the top rated passer in the NFL by throwing 231 out of 413 completions for 3,190 yards and 25 touchdowns, with 16 interceptions, he rushed for 182 yards and another touchdown. Wide receivers Drew Pearson and Tony Hill provided the deep passing threats, combining for 90 receptions, 1,537 yards, 7 touchdowns. Tight end Billy Joe DuPree contributed 34 receptions for 9 touchdowns. Running back Tony Dorsett had an
A stress field is the distribution of internal forces in a body that balance a given set of external forces. Stress fields are used in fluid dynamics and materials science. Consider that one can picture the stress fields as the stress created by adding an extra half plane of atoms to a crystal; the bonds are stretched around the location of the dislocation and this stretching causes the stress field to form. Atomic bonds farther and farther away from the dislocation centre are less and less stretched, why the stress field dissipates as the distance from the dislocation centre increases; each dislocation within the material has a stress field associated with it. The creation of these stress fields is a result of the material trying to dissipate mechanical energy, being exerted on the material. By convention, these dislocations are labelled as either positive or negative depending on whether the stress field of the dislocation is compressive or tensile. By modelling of dislocations and their stress fields as either a positive or negative charges we can understand how dislocations interact with each other in the lattice.
If two like fields come in contact with one another they will be repelled by one another. On the other hand, if two opposing charges come into contact with one another they will be attracted to one another; these two interactions will both strengthen the material in different ways. If two equivalently charged fields come in contact and are confined to a particular region, excessive force is needed to overcome the repulsive forces needed to elicit dislocation movement past one another. If two oppositely charged fields come into contact with one another they will merge with one another to form a jog. A jog can be modelled as a potential well that traps dislocations. Thus, excessive force is needed to force the dislocations apart. Since dislocation motion is the primary mechanism behind plastic deformation, increasing the stress required to move dislocations directly increases the yield strength of the material; the theory of stress fields can be applied to various strengthening mechanisms for materials.
Stress fields can be created by adding different sized atoms to the lattice. If a smaller atom is added to the lattice a tensile stress field is created; the atomic bonds are longer due to the smaller radius of the solute atom. If a larger atom is added to the lattice a compressive stress field is created; the atomic bonds are shorter due to the larger radius of the solute atom. The stress fields created by adding solute atoms form the basis of the material strengthening process that occurs in alloys. Arno Zang, Ove Stephansson, Stress Field of the Earth's Crust, Springer, 2010. Chapter 1, page 1
Colonel Joseph Charles Rodríguez was a United States Army soldier who earned the Medal of Honor – the United States' highest military decoration for his actions near Munye-ri, during the Korean War. Rodríguez, a Mexican-American born in San Bernardino, was raised in the town of San Bernardino, where he received his primary and secondary education. In October 1950, Rodriguez was drafted into the United States Army and ordered to report for induction in his hometown, he received his basic training at Camp Carson in Colorado. There he was assigned to 2nd Battalion of the 196th Regimental Combat Team. Private Rodriguez volunteered for duty in Korea, he was promoted to private first class and sent overseas and assigned to Company F, 2nd Battalion, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division. On May 21, 1951, Company F was assigned the mission of occupying some high ground near the village of Munye-ri during the UN May–June 1951 counteroffensive; the high ground was held by entrenched enemy forces.
Three times Company F attacked the ridge, three times they were thrown back. PFC Joseph C. Rodríguez was the assistant squad leader of the 2nd Platoon, his squad's advance was halted by enemy hostile fire coming from five different emplacements. Rodriguez took it upon himself to destroy these emplacements, he charged the emplacements and hurled grenades into each of the foxholes. Rodriguez killed 15 enemy soldiers; as a result, the enemy was routed and the strategic strongpoint secured. Rodriguez was nominated for the Medal of Honor. On February 5, 1952, President Harry S. Truman bestowed upon Sergeant Rodríguez the Medal of Honor in a ceremony held in the Rose Garden in the White House; the citation reads: After the Korean War, Rodríguez decided to make the military his career. He was assigned to the administrative staff at the ORC headquarters in San Bernardino. On April 24, 1952, Rodríguez and his fiancée Miss Rose Aranda were the invited guests on You Bet Your Life, a 1950s television game show hosted by Groucho Marx.
The following is part of the conversation between Rodriguez and Marx in the show: In 1953, Rodríguez married Rose and together they had three children. He subsequently became a commissioned officer in the US Army Corps of Engineers, serving more than 30 years in the military, through four Latin American assignments, unaccompanied tours in Korea and Vietnam. In 1980, Rodriguez retired from the Army with the rank of colonel. Rodríguez was residing with Rose, in El Paso, Texas, at the time of his retirement, he spent the next ten years as Facilities Director at the University of Texas. He dedicated much of his time of his last fifteen years to national speech engagements addressing young people and soldiers, encouraging them to pursue their education. Colonel Joseph C. Rodríguez died on November 1, 2005, in El Paso and was buried with full military honors at Mountain View Cemetery in San Bernardino, California. Rodriguez is survived by his wife Rose. Among Joseph C. Rodríguez's decorations and medals were the following: List of Medal of Honor recipients List of Korean War Medal of Honor recipients Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.
Joseph C. Rodríguez, Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients at Find a Grave ""Joseph C. Rodriguez" entry". Medal of Honor recipients: Korean War. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved 2007-01-01. "In Memory of Most Recently deceased MoH recipients". Retrieved September 29, 2010. "Medal of Honor recipient Stays Humble". Retrieved September 29, 2010. "Medal of Honor recipients". Retrieved September 29, 2010
Thomas Close was an English antiquarian and archaeologist. Thomas Close was born in Manchester on 12 February 1796 to John Close, a merchant of the city, his wife, Mary. Close was a keen antiquarian and archeologist, engaging in heraldic and genealogical research. Close created several illuminated pedigrees of royal and noble families, including some elaborate ones of the Tattershall and Wake families, he authored a work on the Saxon religious foundation, St Mary's Church, entitled St. Mary's Church, Nottingham: Its Probable Architect and Benefactors: With Remarks on the Heraldic Window Described by Thoroton. Close penned an unpublished work on Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, now held at the National Art Library, in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Close was the member of several societies and organisations. On 10 May 1855, he was made a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. In 1836, he was one of the founders and original members of the Reform Club - a London-based, Whig gentleman's club - and was the Grand Master of the Masonic province of Nottingham.
Close was a chevalier of the honorary Belgian Order of Leopold, a member of several other foreign orders. Close was vice-president of his local Nottingham British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1866. Close's wife died on 22 January 1881, three days on 25 January, Close died at his home in St James's Street, Nottingham. Close left less than £60,000 in his will. "Obituary". The Times. 31 January 1881. "Close, Thomas Antiquary" at the National Archives: Record Creators St. Mary's Church, Nottingham at Google Books
The Bahkauv is a mythical monster said to reside in Aachen, Germany. The creature has been featured in the folklore of the Rhineland. Depicted as a deformed calf with fangs, the Bahkauv was associated with drunken men; the Bahkauv is described as being similar to an elongated or deformed calf with sharp fangs. According to legend, the creature lurks near fountains and sewers; the Aachen city sewers and the many thermal springs found under the city have been cited as a dwelling place for the Bahkauv. One legend holds. In 1902 the city of Aachen erected a statue of the Bahkauv over an old well, associated with the monster; this statue was melted down for its metal in World War II, prompting the city to build a second statue in 1967. This statue persists to the present day; the Bahkauv is associated with harassing drunk men. In legend, the creature would ambush intoxicated men at night and latch onto their shoulders, forcing them to carry it around before attacking them
Janet Burchill is an Australian contemporary artist. She is known for her work across multiple disciplines such as painting, installation and her continued collaboration with Jennifer McCamley since the mid-1980s. Notably, Burchill's work has been included in the Cruthers Collection of Women's Art. Burchill was born on 12 December 1955, in Victoria, she resides in Melbourne, where she continues her art practices. Burchill studied Visual Arts at the Sydney College of the Arts. During her time in Sydney, Burchill established the Super 8 Collective alongside Mark Titmarsh, Ross Gibson, Lindy Lee and Deirdre Beck, after the second Sydney Super 8 Film festival. In 1983 she completed her Bachelor of Arts with an interest in film. For her honours exhibition she created the work, which spelt the word over a series of six canvases. Since this exhibition she has incorporated and explored monochromatic colour schemes that have influenced her continuing practice, her early works from 1984-1987 use industrial material, screenprinting and video-scanning processes to explore the connection between language and images.
In these works, words such as: MUTE, RETURN, APORIA, EQUIVALENCE are enamelled on aluminium and canvas boards to highlight the limits of language and representation. In 1983, Burchill and McCamley’s working partnership began. McCamley studied film and philosophy, which supplemented Burchill’s training in sculpture and film, they were both concerned with critiquing the histories of art, film and culture, working through a feminist, pyschoanalytic lens. In 1984, Burchill and McCamley created a Super 8 film titled Bath girls a critique of Andy Warhol’s Tub Girls; the film was fifteen minutes in length, was screened at The Fifth Sydney Super 8 Film Festival, L’eight No 2 in Sydney. Influenced by the Pictures Generation their early work, Temptation To Exist shows two film stills of Tippi Hedren after being attacked by birds in Hitchock’s 1963 film, The Birds; the two stills are separated by a black bar. Burchill and McCamley, through appropriated imagery, make reference to key ideas expressed in Laura Mulvey’s 1973 essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.
In 1991, Burchill and McCamley were awarded the Australian Council’s Kunstlerhaus Bethanien Residency and Scholarship and the duo lived and worked in Berlin until 1997. During this period, Burchill completed the photographic series Freiland; this series documented the changes an outdoor meeting area underwent both after the collapse of the Berlin Wall, over the decade they were photographed. The sad and stale appearance of these photographs allowed Burchill to illustrate the social and political divide East Germany experienced during this period; the site was constructed by Turkish immigrants that worked in Germany during the divide, had not gained citizenship. These works were exhibited in 2017 at the National Gallery of Australia. In 2001 and 2002, Burchill’s installation pieces Pre-paradise sorry now, as well as Wall Unit, combined the uses of Waferweld timber with bronze and neon; these works referenced modernism and 1930’s Bauhaus hanging sideboards. Wall Unit was entered for the National Gallery of Victoria’s National Sculpture Prize and Exhibition in 2001.
Throughout the early 2010s, Burchill's work was concerned with symbols from activism. Her 2013 exhibition in collaboration with McCamley, combines the iconic Guy Fawkes mask associated with the hacktivist group Anonymous, with tribal Papua New Guinean shields. In 2019, Heide Museum of Modern Art reflected on the 35 year collaboration between Burchill and McCamley through the exhibition, Temptation to Co-Exist; this collection of backlogged work is named after an earlier installation and photographic series, Temptation to Exist. The exhibition commemorates the ouvre of Burchill and McCamley retrospectively. 1981-1985 80 Slides 1982 Soft Geometry 1982 Silver Bullets 1984 Bathgirls ‘84 1986 Temptation to Exist 1986-1996 SCUM tapes 1992 Dedication 1992-2002 Freiland 1994 Worlds Part 1: Nature nature 1998 Orange Race Riot 2000 Room with my soul left out 2001 Pre-paradise sorry now 2001 Wall Unit 2002 Natural Born Killers 2003 Fear eats the soul 2004 All that rises must converge 2005 SAFE 2007 Total Economy 2008 Inland Empire 2013 Legion 2015 Falling Water 2016 Point Blank 2016 Bricks and Buttercups 2019 Throw Field 2018 NAVA Visual Arts Fellowship 1984 Future UnperfectArtspace, Sydney 1984 Rites of Decay1985 Virtually there.