Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino
The Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino is a multi-purpose stadium located in Turin, Italy. It is the home ground of Serie A club Torino Football Club; the stadium is located in Piazzale Grande Torino, in the district of Santa Rita, in the south-central area of the city. The stadium is rated by UEFA as a Category 4 stadium, the highest ranking possible. Constructed in the 1930s known as the "Stadio Municipale" and the "Stadio Comunale", it was the home of Juventus and Torino until 1990, when it was abandoned in favour of the Stadio delle Alpi. After a sixteen-year stint without Serie A football, the stadium was renovated and renamed the "Stadio Olimpico" on the occasion of the 2006 Winter Olympics. In a reversal of 1990, both Juventus and Torino moved back to the Olimpico, with Juventus using it until the end of the 2010–11 season, Torino retaining it as their home stadium to the present day. Named after Benito Mussolini, the stadium was built to host the Games of the year Littoriali XI, held in 1933 and the World Student Games in the same year.
The Municipal Administration, to shorten the construction time, announced a contest divided the work among three companies: the stadium was entrusted to Company Saverio Parisi Rome, the athletic field, the Tower of Marathon and the ticket to'Ing. Vannacci and Lucherini, the indoor pool to Company AN. Construction Companies Ing E. Faletti. L'Ing. Guido De Bernardi undertook the preparation of slopes. Work began in September 1932; the stadium was inaugurated on 14 May 1933 by the Secretary of the Party, Achille Starace, at the beginning of Littoriali. The first match played in the new stadium was between Juventus and Hungary's Újpest FC, the return leg of the quarter-finals of the Central European Cup, on 29 June 1933; the original design stage consisted of a vast ring ellipsoid, whose major perimeter was about 640 metres. The base consisted on which rested the socket in red plaster; the same materials were formed at 45° planes, that mark three strips of glass for lighting indoors, crowned by a white railing.
Over this, large windows overlooked, restricted by concrete pillars that supported the terminal swing, projecting more than three metres, with an inclination of 45 degrees. The approaches were practised inside through openings 27, the main one of which led to the gallery, with cover from the weather; the parterre was covered by cantilevered terraces that adjective, was higher in the most distant from the field. The playing field measures 70 x 105 metres, surrounded by an athletics track with six lanes, mass pits for the shot put and discus throw, the track for the long jump and the top corner; the curves of the athletics track were designed at three centres. After protests from the national executive Massimo Cartasegna, they were redesigned to a single centre; the end result, was that the track had an abnormal length of 446.38 metres. After the Stadium's inauguration, it hosted several matches of the 1934 FIFA World Cup, held in Italy. In the 1934–35 season, the Stadio Olimpico di Torino began to host matches for the League Cup.
From the late fifties, it hosted the home games of both Turin teams in the Italian championship, until 1989–1990, when the stadium was abandoned for the Stadio delle Alpi, built for World Cup Italy 1990. Between 1935 and 1986, Juventus were Italian champions 16 times, including five-in-a-row between 1931–1935, won 7 Italian Cups, several international titles, one UEFA Cup. For their part, between 1935 and 1976 Torino were 6 time Italian champions themselves, won 4 Italian Cups in the stadium. From 1938 until the late 1950s, the stadium housed the headquarters of the provisional Automobile Museum. In 1959 and 1970, it served as the main stadium of the Universiade and in 1980 the stadium was renamed "Vittorio Pozzo", in homage to the legendary coach, twice World Champion with the Italy national football team in 1934 and 1938. After the construction of Stadio delle Alpi, the Communal Stadium was used less and less up to be intended only to accommodate the Juventus coach And, since 2004 those of Turin.
Following the agreements with the City, which entrusted the Stadio delle Alpi to Juventus, it was assigned to Municipal Stadium Torino, for reconstruction and to be operational in time to host the opening and closing ceremonies of the Winter Olympics. However, due to the non-registration of the company grenade Championship, the City of Turin is the owner of the stadium and returned to complete the reconstructure; the renovation project, consisting of two architects Verona Architect John Work Arteco and has maintained the existing structures, subject to the constraint of the Superintendency of Environmental and Architectural Heritage, added new structures to withstand the vertical coverage of the entire plant, a third ring of tiers, structurally continuous and cooperative coverage, with the corresponding part of the previous cover part 44 host closed boxes. One third of the lining of the roof is translucent plastic, so as to avoid as much as possible that the shadow cast by itself can damage the turf due to less sunlight.
The total capacity is 27,168 seats, all covered and seated, lower than the original to meet modern safety standards. For ceremonies, expansion wa
Campionato Nazionale Primavera
The Campionato Nazionale Primavera – Trofeo Giacinto Facchetti, was an Italian football youth competition. It is organised by the Lega Serie A and the participating teams that take part in Serie A and Serie B: the first edition was held in the 1962–63 season, in place of the "Campionato Cadetti". Due to ceremonial reasons, the league is called Campionato Primavera Tim – Trofeo Giacinto Facchetti. Torino have the highest number of titles. From the 2017–18 season, the league was replaced with Campionato Primavera 1 and Campionato Primavera 2. From the 2012–13 season players who are at least 15 years old and who are under 19 in the calendar year of the season ends. At the discretion of the league, teams are allowed a maximum of four "non-quota" players, of which one has no age limit and the rest must be under 20; the initial phase of the Primavera Championship consists of 3 rounds, each consisting of 14 teams, organised by geographical criteria: teams play in a true robin-round format, for a total of 26 games in the regular season.
The top two in each group have direct access to the final phase: the remaining two positions are assigned via the play-offs, with the participation of eight teams. The matching pattern is as following: First round: Best 3rd vs. second-best 5th. The final phase of the Primavera Championship is hosted every year by a different region: the winning team is awarded a trophy, like the Serie A trophy; the winners are eligible for Supercoppa Primavera, against Coppa Italia Primavera winners: if the same club wins both competitions, the runners-up of Coppa Italia are admitted in Supercoppa. Coppa Italia Primavera Supercoppa Primavera Serie A Serie B Official website
The Stadio Olimpico is the main and largest sports facility of Rome, Italy. It is located within the Foro Italico sports complex, north of the city; the structure is an asset of the Italian National Olympic Committee and it is used for association football. The Stadio Olimpico is the home stadium of Lazio and Roma and hosts the Coppa Italia final, it was rebuilt for the 1990 FIFA World Cup and it hosted the tournament final. Rated an UEFA category four stadium, it has hosted four European Cup finals, the most recent being the 2009 UEFA Champions League Final. Outside football, the stadium is used by the Italian national rugby union team and it is Italy's national athletics stadium, it hosts concerts and events. Throughout its history, the Stadio Olimpico has undergone several renovations. In its first stages, the Stadio Olimpico was called the Stadio dei Cipressi, it was designed and constructed within the larger project of the Foro Mussolini, renamed Foro Italico after the war. Construction work began in 1927 directed by the Turinese engineer Angelo Frisa and architect Enrico Del Debbio.
The construction was completed after a few variations to the original plan. For instance, the construction of masonry stands was not part of the initial plan as stands consisted of grassed terraces. In 1937, the construction of a second tier of stairs was started but was interrupted in 1940 due to the outbreak of World War II. In December 1950, the working site was reopened for the completion of the stadium; the project was entrusted to the engineer Carlo Roccatelli, a member of the Superior Council of Public Works. At first, the plan was for a stadium with a more complex structure than that realised. However, the scarcity of funds and the environmental characteristics of the area led to a less ambitious building. On the death of Roccatelli in 1951, the direction of the work was entrusted to architect Annibale Vitellozzi; the stadium now reached a capacity of about 100,000 people, hence the stadium was known as Stadio dei Centomila, until renamed for the 1960 Olympics. The building was inaugurated on 17 May 1953 with a football game between Hungary.
During the 1960 Summer Olympics, the stadium hosted the opening and closing ceremonies and the athletics competitions. Seating at ground level was eliminated with the result of an actual capacity of 65,000 spectators. Subsequently, the stadium hosted several editions of the Italian Championships of Athletics, the 1975 Summer Universiade and the 1987 World Athletics Championships, it still hosts the annual meeting of the Golden Gala. For the 1990 FIFA World Cup, for which it was the main stadium, the facility underwent an extensive renovation. While that work was underway in 1989 the Capitoline teams Lazio and Roma had to play their Serie A games at Stadio Flaminio; the work was entrusted to a team of designers including the original architect Annibale Vitellozzi. From 1987 to 1990, the construction plan was amended several times, with a consequent rise in costs; the Olimpico was demolished and rebuilt in reinforced concrete, with the exception of the Tribuna Tevere, expanded with the addition of further steps and of the curves which were closer to the field by nine metres.
All sectors of the stadium were provided with full coverage in tensostructure white. Backless seats in blue plastic were installed and two giant screens built in 1987 for the World Athletics Championships were mounted inside the curve. In the end the new version of the Olimpico had 82,911 seats, it was the 14th stadium in the world for number of seats among the football stadiums, the 29th among all stadiums and the second in Italy, just behind the San Siro Stadium of Milan. The Stadio Olimpico was host to five matches in which the Italian national team took part and the final between West Germany and Argentina. West Germany won the final match 1–0. With the same layout from 1990, the Stadio Olimpico hosted on 22 May 1996 the UEFA Champions League Final between Juventus and Ajax which saw the Bianconeri prevail in a penalty shoot-out. In 2007, a vast plan of restyling the internal design of the stadium was laid out, to conform to UEFA standards for the 2009 UEFA Champions League Final, held in Rome.
The work was performed and completed in 2008. It included the establishment of standard structures with improvements in security, the fixing of dressing rooms and of the press room, it included the replacement of all seats, the installation of high definition LED screens, the partial removal of plexiglas fences between spectators and the field and a reduction of seating to the current capacity of 70,634. In order to enhance the comfort of the audience, part of the modernisation of the stadium involved increasing the number of restrooms and fixing the toilets; as a result of these improvements, the Stadio Olimpico was classified a UEFA Elite stadium. The stadium has a current capacity of 72,698, distributed as follows: Tribuna Monte Mario – 16,555 Tribuna Tevere – 16,397 Distinti Sud Ovest – 5,747 Distinti Sud Est – 5,637 Distinti Nord Ovest – 5,769 Distinti Nord Est – 5,597 Curva Sud – 8,486 Curva Nord – 8,520 For end stage concerts/shows it can hold up to 75,000. For center stage concerts/shows it can hold up to 78,000.
1960 Summer Olympics 1974 European Athletics Championships 1975 Summer Universiade 1977 European Cup Final UEFA Euro 1980 1984 European Cup Final 1987 World Championships in Athletics 1990 FIFA World Cup 1996 UEFA Champions League Final 2001 Summer Deaflympics 2009 UEFA Champions League Final UEFA Euro 2020 The 1968 European Championship final match saw Italy win against Yugoslavia 2–0. The 1973 Intercontinental Cup match saw Independiente win the trophy against Juventus 1-0 Th
Football in Italy
Football is the most popular sport in Italy. The Italian national football team is considered to be one of the best national teams in the world, they have won the FIFA World Cup four times, trailing only Brazil, runners-up in two finals and reaching a third place and a fourth place. They have won one European Championship appearing in two finals, finished third at the Confederations Cup, won one Olympic football tournament and two Central European International Cups. Italy's top domestic league, the Serie A, is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the world and it is depicted as the most tactical national football league. Italy's club sides have won 48 major European trophies, making them the second most successful nation in European football. Serie A hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus and Inter, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs. Juventus and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina and Parma but now Napoli are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football.
Italian managers are the most successful in European Football in competitions such as the Champions League. More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any other league in the world. Other forms of football were played in Italy in ancient times, the earliest of, Harpastum, played during the times of the Roman Empire; this game may have been influential to other forms throughout Europe due to the expansion of the Empire, including Medieval football. From the 16th century onwards, Calcio Fiorentino, another code of football distinct from the modern game, was played in the Piazza Santa Croce in Florence; some famous Florentines were amongst players of the game the Medici family including Piero and Alessandro de' Medici. As well as Popes such as Clement VII, Leo XI and Urban VIII who played the game in the Vatican; the name calcio was adopted for football in Italy. The modern variation of the game was brought to Italy during the 1880s; the title of the first Italian football club is a controversial one, the most cited in popular history is Genoa Cricket and Football Club who were formed as a cricket club to represent England abroad, founded by Englishmen in 1893.
Three years in 1896 a man named James Richardson Spensley arrived in Genoa introducing the football section of the club and becoming its first manager. However, evidence exists to suggest. Edoardo Bosio, a merchant worker in the British textile industry had visited England and experienced the game, he was motivated to help spread football in his homeland. He founded Cricket Club that year while Nobili Torino soon followed; the second club bore the name of noble because it contained the Duke of the Abruzzi and Alfonso Ferrero di Ventimiglia. The two merged in 1891 to form Internazionale Football Club Torino, By 1898 the rival federation FIGC had been formed, with its center in Turin and the first two presidents as Mario Vicary and Luigi D'Ovidio. FIGC created the Italian Football Championship with the four founder clubs being; the first competition of, held at Velodromo Umberto I in Turin on 8 May 1898 and was won by Genoa. While it was common for clubs to compete in both FIGC and FNGI competitions early on, the titles won in the FIGC championship are the only ones recognised by the modern day league.
In the following years, the tournament was structured into regional groups with the winners of each group participating in a playoff with the eventual winners being declared champions. Until to 1904 the tournament was dominated by Genoa. Between 1905 and 1908 a Final Group among regional champions was contested to award the title and the Spensley Cup. Juventus won his first title and Spensley Cup in 1905, but the two following championships were won by Milan. In November 1907, the FIF organised two championships in the same season: Italian Championship, the main tournament where only Italian players were allowed to play; the majority of big clubs withdrew from both the championships in order to protest against the autarchical policy of the FIF. The Federal Championship was won by Juventus against Doria, while The Italian Championship 1908 and Coppa Buni were won by Pro Vercelli, beating Juventus, Doria and US Milanese. However, the Federal Championship won by Juventus was forgotten by FIGC, due to the boycott made by the dissident clubs.
In 1909 season, the two different championships were organised again, with Coppa Obe
Stadio Marc'Antonio Bentegodi
The Stadio Marcantonio Bentegodi is a stadium in Verona, Italy. It is the home of Hellas ChievoVerona of Serie B and Serie A, respectively, it hosts the Women's Champions League matches of Bardolino Verona, some youth team matches, rugby matches, athletics events and even musical concerts. With 39,211 total seats, of which only 31,045 approved, it is the eighth Italian stadium for capacity; the stadium is named after the historic benefactor of Marcantonio Bentegodi. Inaugurated as a state-of-the-art facility and as one of Italy's finest venues in 1963, the stadium appeared excessive for a team that had spent the best part of the previous 35 years in Serie B. For the 1990 FIFA World Cup renovations included an extra tier and a roof to cover all sections, improved visibility, public transport connections, an urban motorway connecting the city centre with the stadium and the Verona Nord motorway exit and services. A building-integrated PV system has been installed on the rooftop during a major renovation.
The PV system has a rating of 999.5 kW. 13,321 "FS 275" thin-film cadmium telluride solar modules by First Solar Inc. have been mounted on the aluminum mounting system Riverclack by ISCOM SpA. The solar modules are connected to 141 Sunny Mini Central SMC 7000HV inverters by SMA Solar Technology AG; the system was commissioned at the end of November 2009. The emergence of Chievo on the Serie A stage in recent years has split the city into two groups of archrival fans, both loyal to their respective cause, these days with Chievo battling to survive relegation in Serie A, Hellas Verona just returning in the top tier after a four-year spell in the third division, after having won a scudetto in 1985. Despite playing two divisions lower than Chievo and missing out on travelling supporters from the large Serie A teams, Hellas Verona the city's traditionally bigger team still managed to maintain higher average attendances than their rival during the 2009–10 season. In the 2013–14 season, Virtus Verona played at the Bentegodi.
The stadium was vying to participate in the Italian candidature for the 2016 European Championship awarded to France. On 2 December 2009, the municipal administration approved the restructuring plan, for a total amount of 40 million euros, with the aim of adapting the plant to the UEFA rules; the preliminary project includes the renovation of changing rooms and entrance tunnels, the expansion of the roof, the elimination of the athletics track, the modification of the external appearance of the structure and the development of public services such as bars and restaurants. As of now, the project has been shelved. Attendance figures taken from http://www.stadiapostcards.com/ The stadium was one of the venues of the 1990 FIFA World Cup, held the following matches: Stadium Journey Article
Sesto San Giovanni
Sesto San Giovanni is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Milan, northern Italy. Its railway station is the northernmost stop on the Milan Metro M1 line; the comune, informally referred to as "Sesto", has the honorary title of city, despite being a de facto suburb of Milan. An unimportant agglomerate of buildings until the 19th century, Sesto San Giovanni grew during the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century, becoming the site of several industries, including companies such as Falck, Magneti Marelli and Breda. In that period the population increased from 5,000 inhabitants in 1880 to 14,000 in 1911. After World War II, Sesto became populated by many migrants from other parts of Italy, leading to an increased population of 95,000 inhabitants in 1981. Sesto used to be referred to as the Stalingrad of Italy, due to the strong historical presence of the Italian Communist Party and to its resistance to fascism in World War Two; because of its diverse and growing industries, Sesto has drawn many migrants.
Census statistics from 2016 state. In the 1990s, Sesto San Giovanni suffered an economic crisis, most of the larger companies in the town closed their premises; the town succeeded in converting its economy from steel production to service industries. Several large companies opened offices in Sesto, such as ABB Group, WIND Telecommunications and Oracle Corporation. On 23 December 2016, Anis Amri, perpetrator of Berlin truck attack was shot fleeing in the city by the police. Sesto San Giovanni received the honorary title of city by presidential decree on 10 April 1954. Ferdinando Terruzzi, railway cyclist Nicolás Cotugno, former Roman Catholic Archbishop of Montevideo, Uruguay Gino Strada war surgeon and founder of Emergency, a UN-recognized international humanitarian organisation that gives free medical treatment to victims of war Massimo Carrera and coach Marco Saligari, cyclist Barbara Fusar-Poli, figure skater Fabio Macellari, footballer Sfera Ebbasta, rapper Saint-Denis, France Zlín, Czech Republic Santo André, Brazil Terlizzi, since 10 September 1979 Goražde, Bosnia and Herzegovina