Marcel Gottlieb, known professionally as Gotlib, was a French comics artist/writer and publisher. Through his own work and the magazines he co-founded, L'Écho des savanes and Fluide Glacial, he was a key figure in the switch in French-language comics from their children's entertainment roots to an adult tone and readership, his series include Rubrique-à-Brac, Gai-Luron, Superdupont. Marcel Gottlieb was born on 14 July 1934 in Paris to parents of Romanian and Hungarian Jewish descent, his father, was a house painter and his mother, Regine, a seamstress. In 1942 his father was deported and died at Buchenwald after their building's concierge obligingly helped policemen to find him, a scene which made a strong impression on young Marcel, his mother sent him to hide for the rest of the war on a farm. At 17, he left school to work for a pharmaceutical agency; this led to a job as a letterer at Opera Mundi, a French publisher which translated and published US strips. After his 28-month military service, Gotlib settled as illustrator.
His first comics were accepted by Vaillant, a magazine for children renamed Pif-Gadget. His one long-running series at Vaillant started as Nanar, Jujube et Piette, renamed Nanar et Jujube Gai-Luron for the supporting character who had by taken centre stage. Gai-Luron is a dog influenced by Tex Avery's Droopy, who never laughs or displays any emotions and is incorrigibly somnolent. In 1965 Gotlib submitted strips to Pilote magazine and was greeted with open arms by its influential co-founder and editor, René Goscinny of Astérix fame. Together they created Les Dingodossiers, a series of mock lectures on random subjects which Goscinny wrote and Gotlib drew. In 1967, who worked on many strips while editing the magazine, asked Gotlib to continue the series alone. Gotlib instead launched a new one, Rubrique-à-Brac, similar to the Dingodossiers in format but progressively acquired a more adult and less formal tone. Leftover pages from both series were published in album form as Trucs-en-vrac. Rubrique-à-Brac made Gotlib famous.
It introduced several signature Gotlib gimmicks, such as the extensive use of random running gags and the presence of a miniature character, a ladybug mimicking the action, to make up for the absence of settings, which Gotlib disliked drawing. In 1971, Gotlib gave up the Gai-Luron series to his collaborator Henri Dufranne, he participated in a radio program with Goscinny, Fred and Gébé, collaborated with film director Patrice Leconte, who made a documentary about him in 1974. Gotlib created Hamster Jovial, for music monthly Rock & Folk. Hamster Jovial is an incurably naff boy-scout troop leader desperate to catch up with pop culture and impress his charges, two cubs and a girl guide. In 1972, Gotlib launched the comics magazine l'Echo des savanes with Claire Bretecher and Nikita Mandryka; the original aim was to get stories unsuitable for Pilote magazine—which was aimed at school-age readers—out of their system, but l'Echo des savanes was a huge commercial success. However, the trio's complete lack of business training meant the magazine went deep in the red and they were forced to sell it to a publishing concern.
Gotlib's contributions to the magazine were published in album form as Rhââ Rha-Gnagna. Those stories are concerned with smashing taboos and feature much sexuality and other bodily functions, as well as cod-psychoanalysis and pot shots at authority figures of all kinds including divinities. Gotlib, Mandryka and Brétécher stopped working for l'Echo des Savanes after selling it. Gotlib saw there was a strong market for adult comics and decided to start a new publication and have it run more professionally. To do this, he enrolled childhood friend, Jacques Diament, as administrator and another Pilote veteran, Alexis to help with the creative direction, founded Fluide Glacial and parent publishing company'Audie', a comically misspelled acronym of "Amusement, Derision, Ilarité Et toutes ces sortes de choses". Fluide Glacial launched the career of a number of unknown or little-known cartoonists, most of whom were influenced by Gotlib in the first place: Édika and Dupuy & Berberian. Belgian veteran André Franquin contributed his Idées Noires strip.
Alexis died of aneurysm rupture in 1977, leaving Gotlib and Diament in charge, though he is credited to this day as "Director of conscience" of Fluide Glacial. Gotlib created two characters in Fluide Glacial: Superdupont with Pervers Pépère. Superdupont is a French patriotic answer to US super-heroes who wears a vest and beret and fights a secret organisation called Anti-France. Gotlib wrote or co-wrote Superdupont stories, though he drew a handful of them; the strip was successful enough to be made into a stage show by Jérôme Savary. Pervers Pépère is a stereotypical mac-sporting dirty old man. In the 1980s, he focused on running Fluide Glacial — in which he wrote a column — and withdrew from cartooning. However, he resuscitated Gai-Luron in 1986 when the back-catalogue was re-published by Audie and needed promoting. In 1991, Gotlib received the Angoulême Festival Grand Prix and, as per tradition, chaired the jury of the next year's festival. In 1993, he wrote an autobiography, J'existe, je me suis rencontré, focusing on his youth, in 2006 a more thorou
The Gallic rooster is an unofficial national symbol of France as a nation, as opposed to Marianne representing France as a State, its values: the Republic. The rooster is the symbol of the Wallonia region and the French Community of Belgium. During the times of Ancient Rome, Suetonius, in The Twelve Caesars, noticed that, in Latin and Gauls were homonyms. However, the association of the Gallic rooster as a national symbol is apocryphal, as the rooster was neither regarded as a national personification nor as a sacred animal by the Gauls in their mythology and because there was no "Gallic nation" at the time, but a loose confederation of Gallic nations instead, but a closer review within that religious scheme indicates that "Mercury" was portrayed with the cockerel, a sacred animal among the Continental Celts. Julius Caesar in De Bello Gallico identified some gods worshipped in Gaul by using the names of their nearest Roman god rather than their Gaulish name, with Caesar saying "Mercury" was the god most revered in Gaul.
The Irish god Lug identified as samildánach led to the widespread identification of Caesar's Mercury as Lugus and thus to the sacred cockerel, the Gallic rooster, as an emblem of France. Its association with France dates back from the Middle Age and is due to the play on words in Latin between Gallus, meaning an inhabitant of Gaul, gallus, meaning rooster, or cockerel, its use, by the enemies of France, dates to this period a pun to make fun of the French, the association between the rooster and the Gauls/French was developed by the kings of France for the strong Christian symbol that the rooster represents: prior to being arrested, Jesus predicted that Peter would deny him three times before the rooster crew on the following morning. At the rooster's crowing, Peter remembered Jesus's words, its crowing at the dawning of each new morning made it a symbol of the daily victory of light over darkness and the triumph of good over evil. It is an emblem of the Christian's attitude of watchfulness and readiness for the sudden return of Christ, the resurrection of the dead, the final judgment of humankind.
That is why, during the Renaissance, the rooster became a symbol of France as a Catholic state and became a popular Christian image on weather vanes known as weathercocks. The popularity of the Gallic rooster as a national personification faded away until its resurgence during the French Revolution; the republican historiography modified the traditional perception of the origins of France. Until the royal historiography dated the origins of France back to the baptism of Clovis I in 496, the "first Christian king of France"; the republicans rejected this royalist and Christian origin of the country and trace the origins of France back to the ancient Gaul. Although purely apocryphal, the rooster became the personification of the early inhabitants of France, the Gauls; the Gallic rooster, colloquially named Chanteclair, had been a national emblem since during the Third Republic. The rooster was featured on the reverse of French 20-franc gold pieces from 1899 to 1914. After World War I it was depicted on countless war memorials.
Today, it is used as a national mascot in sporting events such as football and rugby. The 1998 FIFA World Cup, hosted by France, adopted; the France national rugby league team are known as the Chanteclairs referring to the cockerel's song. The popularity of the symbol extends into business. Le Coq Sportif, is a French manufacturer of sports equipment using a stylized rooster and the colors of the French tricolour as its logo. Moreover, it is the logo of Pathé, a French-born, now international company of film production and distribution. Another heraldic animal used by the French nation was the French Imperial Eagle, symbol of the First and Second French Empire under Napoleon I and Napoleon III. In 1913, the Gallic rooster was adopted as the symbol of Walloon movement, it represents a "bold rooster", raising its claws, instead of the "crowing rooster", traditionally depicted in France. This symbol known as the Walloon rooster, was adopted as the symbol of Wallonia and the French Community of Belgium.
In France and Wallonia, the French onomatopoeia for the rooster crowing sound, "cocorico", is sometimes used to express national pride. Rooster of Barcelos Media related to Gallic rooster at Wikimedia Commons Embassy of France in the United States - additional information French Prime Minister's office - additional information Images of Footix, the cockerel mascot of the 1998 FIFA World Cup. France plucks its bird from peril, from BBC. A plan to preserve the genetic heritage of the French cockerel
Franco-Belgian comics are comics that are created for French-Belgian and/or French readership. These countries have a long tradition in comics and comic books, where they are known as BDs, an abbreviation of bandes dessinées in French and stripverhalen or strips in the Dutch-speaking part of Europe, the first non-Francophone territories where the Franco-Belgian comics became a major force on their comic scenes from 1945 onward, brought forth by the bilingual nature of Belgium. Among the most popular Franco-Belgian comics that have achieved international fame are The Adventures of Tintin, Gaston Lagaffe, Lucky Luke and The Smurfs in the humoristically drawn genres, whereas such bande dessinées as Blueberry, Thorgal, XIII, as well as the various creations of Hermann have done well internationally in the realistically drawn genres – albeit not all of them in the English-speaking world. In Europe, the French language is spoken natively not only in France and the city state of Monaco, but by about 40% of the population of Belgium, 16% of the population of Luxembourg, about 20% of the population of Switzerland.
The shared language creates an artistic and commercial market where national identity is blurred, one of the main rationales for the conception of the "Franco-Belgian comics" expression itself. The potential appeal of the French-language comics extends beyond Francophone Europe, as France in particular has strong historical and cultural ties with several Francophone overseas territories, some of which, like French Polynesia or French Guiana, still being Overseas France. Of these territories it is Quebec, where Franco-Belgian comics are doing best, due – aside from the obvious fact that it has the largest comic reading Francophone population outside Europe – to that province's close historical and cultural ties with the motherland and where French-Belgian comic publishers like Le Lombard and Dargaud maintain a strong presence, in the process influencing its own native Quebec comics scene from 1960 onwards; this is in stark contrast to the English-speaking part of the country, culturally US comics oriented.
While Flemish Belgian comic books are influenced by Francophone comics in the early years, they did evolve into a distinctly different style, both in art as well as in spirit, why they are nowadays sometimes categorized as Flemish comics, as their evolution started to take a different path from the late-1940s onward, due to cultural differences stemming from the increasing cultural self-awareness of the Flemish people. And while French language publications are habitually translated into Dutch/Flemish, Dutch/Flemish publications are less translated into French, for cultural reasons. Despite the shared language, Flemish comics are not doing that well in the Netherlands and vice versa, save for some notable exceptions, such as the Willy Vandersteen creation Suske en Wiske, popular across the border. Concurrently, the socio-cultural idiosyncrasies contained within many Dutch/Flemish comics means that these comics have seen far less translations into other languages than their French-language counterparts have due to their more universal appeal, the French language's cultural status..
Belgium is and a tri-lingual country as there is a small, yet sizable recognized German-speaking minority, though Belgian comic home market first print releases, be it in Dutch or in French, are translated into that language with German-speaking Belgians having to wait for internationally released editions for reading in their native tongue those from licensed publishers stemming from neighboring Germany. Though Dutch and German are Germanic-language cousins, German-Belgium is encapsulated by French-Belgium, resulting in that French is the most utilized language in that territory and has caused the handful of comic artist originating from there, such as Hermann and Didier Comès, to create their comics in French. Born Dieter Hermann Comès, Comès has "frenchified" his given name to this end, whereas Hermann has dispensed with his family name "Huppen" for his comics credits, though he maintained the Germanic spelling for his first name. Due to its relative modesty, both in size and in scope, despite the close historical and cultural ties, no German-Belgian artists are as of 2018 known to have created comics for the German comics world, when discounting commercial translations of their original Francophone creations.
Something similar applies to France, where there exist several regional languages, of which Breton and Occitan are two of the more substantial ones. But while these languages are culturally recognized as regional languages, they are, contrary to Belgium in regard to German, not recognized as official national languages, with similar consequences as in Belgium for comics and their artists. On rare occasions though, independent local and regional publishers obtain licenses from the main comic publisher to release comic books, or rather comic albums, of the more popular comi
A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative serialized, with text in balloons and captions. Traditionally, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, these have been published in newspapers and magazines, with horizontal strips printed in black-and-white in daily newspapers, while Sunday newspapers offered longer sequences in special color comics sections. With the development of the internet, they began to appear online as webcomics. There were more than 200 different comic strips and daily cartoon panels in South Korea alone each day for most of the 20th century, for a total of at least 7,300,000 episodes. Strips are drawn by a comics artist or cartoonist; as the name implies, comic strips can be humorous. Starting in the late 1920s, comic strips expanded from their mirthful origins to feature adventure stories, as seen in Popeye, Captain Easy, Buck Rogers and The Adventures of Tintin. Soap-opera continuity strips such as Judge Parker and Mary Worth gained popularity in the 1940s.
All are called, comic strips, though cartoonist Will Eisner has suggested that "sequential art" would be a better genre-neutral name. In the UK and the rest of Europe, comic strips are serialized in comic book magazines, with a strip's story sometimes continuing over three pages or more. Comic strips have appeared in American magazines such as Liberty and Boys' Life and on the front covers of magazines, such as the Flossy Frills series on The American Weekly Sunday newspaper supplement. Storytelling using a sequence of pictures has existed through history. One medieval European example in textile form is the Bayeux Tapestry. Printed examples emerged in 19th-century Germany and in 18th-century England, where some of the first satirical or humorous sequential narrative drawings were produced. William Hogarth's 18th century English cartoons include both narrative sequences, such as A Rake's Progress, single panels; the Biblia pauperum, a tradition of picture Bibles beginning in the Middle Ages, sometimes depicted Biblical events with words spoken by the figures in the miniatures written on scrolls coming out of their mouths—which makes them to some extent ancestors of the modern cartoon strips.
In China, with its traditions of block printing and of the incorporation of text with image, experiments with what became lianhuanhua date back to 1884. The first newspaper comic strips appeared in North America in the late 19th century; the Yellow Kid is credited as one of the first newspaper strips. However, the art form combining words and pictures developed and there are many examples which led up to the comic strip. Swiss author and caricature artist Rodolphe Töpffer is considered the father of the modern comic strips, his illustrated stories such as Histoire de M. Vieux Bois, first published in the USA in 1842 as The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck or Histoire de Monsieur Jabot, inspired subsequent generations of German and American comic artists. In 1865, German painter and caricaturist Wilhelm Busch created the strip Max and Moritz, about two trouble-making boys, which had a direct influence on the American comic strip. Max and Moritz was a series of moralistic tales in the vein of German children's stories such as Struwwelpeter.
Max and Moritz provided an inspiration for German immigrant Rudolph Dirks, who created the Katzenjammer Kids in 1897. Familiar comic-strip iconography such as stars for pain, sawing logs for snoring, speech balloons, thought balloons originated in Dirks' strip. Hugely popular, Katzenjammer Kids occasioned one of the first comic-strip copyright ownership suits in the history of the medium; when Dirks left William Randolph Hearst for the promise of a better salary under Joseph Pulitzer, it was an unusual move, since cartoonists deserted Pulitzer for Hearst. In a unusual court decision, Hearst retained the rights to the name "Katzenjammer Kids", while creator Dirks retained the rights to the characters. Hearst promptly hired Harold Knerr to draw his own version of the strip. Dirks renamed his version Fritz. Thus, two versions distributed by rival syndicates graced the comics pages for decades. Dirks' version distributed by United Feature Syndicate, ran until 1979. In the United States, the great popularity of comics sprang from the newspaper war between Pulitzer and Hearst.
The Little Bears was the first American comic strip with recurring characters, while the first color comic supplement was published by the Chicago Inter-Ocean sometime in the latter half of 1892, followed by the New York Journal's first color Sunday comic pages in 1897. On January 31, 1912, Hearst introduced the nation's first full daily comic page in his New York Evening Journal; the history of this newspaper rivalry and the rapid appearance of comic strips in most major American newspapers is discussed by Ian Gordon. Numerous events in newspaper comic strips have reverberated throughout society at large, though few of these events occurred in recent years, owing to the declining role of the newspaper comic strip as an entertainment form; the longest-running American comic strips are: The Katzenjammer Kids Gasoline Alley Ripley's Believe It or Not! Barney Google and Snuffy Smith Thimble Theater/Popeye Blondie Bringing Up Father (1913–2000.
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier refers to a monument dedicated to the services of an unknown soldier and to the common memories of all soldiers killed in any war. Such tombs can be found in many nations and are high-profile national monuments. Throughout history, many soldiers have died in war with their remains being unidentified. Following World War I, a movement arose to commemorate these soldiers with a single tomb, containing the body of one such unidentified soldier, it is a tomb for unknown people. During the First World War, the British and French armies who were allies during the war jointly decided to bury soldiers themselves. In the UK, under the Imperial War Graves Commission, the Reverend David Railton had seen a grave marked by a rough cross while serving in the British Army as a chaplain on the Western Front, which bore the pencil-written legend "An Unknown British Soldier", he suggested the creation at a national level of a symbolic funeral and burial of an "Unknown Warrior", proposing that the grave should in the UK include a national monument in the form of what is but not in this particular case, a headstone.
The idea received the support of the Dean of Westminster, Prime Minister David Lloyd George, from King George V, responding to a wave of public support. At the same time, a similar concern grew in France. In November 1916, a local officer of Le Souvenir français proposed the idea of burying "an ignored soldier" in the Panthéon. A formal bill was presented in Parliament in November 1918; the decision was voted into law on September 1919. The United Kingdom and France conducted services connected with their'monumental' graves on Armistice Day 1920. In the UK, the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior was created at Westminster Abbey, while in France La tombe du soldat inconnu was placed in the Arc de Triomphe; the idea of a symbolic Tomb of the Unknown Soldier spread to other countries. In 1921, the United States unveiled its own Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Portugal its Túmulo do Soldado Desconhecido, Italy its La tomba del Milite Ignoto. Other nations have created their own tombs. In Chile and Ukraine, second'unknown tombs' were unveiled to commemorate The Unknown Sailor.
The Tombs of the Unknown Soldiers contain the remains of a dead soldier, unidentified. These remains are considered impossible to be identified, so serve as a symbol for all of a country's unknown dead wherever they fell in the war being remembered; the anonymity of the entombed soldier is the key symbolism of the monument. At least one unknown has been identified by DNA analysis; this was an airman from the Vietnam War. Tombs of the Unknown Soldiers from around the world and various wars include the following: World War I memorials Copernicus Organization, World Veterans Federation, "Tombs of the Unknown Soldier in Central and Eastern Europe" by Prof. Michał Chilczuk, Working Group on Central and Eastern Europe, SCEA Vivaboo.com, "Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Around The World"
Gauloises, "Gaul women" in French, is a brand of cigarette of French manufacture. It is produced by the company Imperial Tobacco following its acquisition of Altadis in January 2008 in most countries, but produced and sold by Reemtsma in Germany. Gauloises was launched in 1910. Traditional Gauloises were short, wide and made with dark tobaccos from Syria and Turkey which produced a strong and distinctive aroma; the brand is most famous for its cigarettes' strength in its original unfiltered version. Forty years filtered Gauloises cigarettes debuted. In 1984, the Gauloises brand was expanded to include a American-type tobacco with a filter; the original non-filter, Gauloises Caporal, have been discontinued and replaced with Gauloises Brunes, which are filterless but less strong. Gauloises Brunes have low tar and nicotine levels, because of European tobacco laws, but the tobacco is still dark and strong-tasting; as of 2018, the Gauloises cigarettes are produced in Poland after the last manufacturing plant in Riom, Puy-de-Dôme closed its doors in the end of 2017.
Between the World Wars the smoking of Gauloises in France was considered patriotic and an affiliation with French "heartland" values. The brand was associated with the cigarette-smoking poilu and the resistance fighters during the Vichy Regime, their slogan was "Liberté toujours". George Orwell tells of how he "squandered two francs fifty on a packet of Gaulois Bleu" in his 1933 book Down and Out in Paris and London. In 1939-40 some packets of cigarettes were given a distinctive "troop brand". In March 1954 SEITA launched the "Gauloise Disque Bleu" brand, with CEO Pierre Grimanelli proud of the new packaging that would, he argued, increase sales; the brand was linked to high-status and inspirational figures representing the worlds of art and the intellectual elite. In popular music, for example French pianist and composer Maurice Ravel, American singer Jim Morrison and British Beatles icon John Lennon. American artist Robert Motherwell used Gauloises packets and cartons in many collages, including an extensive series with the packets surrounded by bright red acrylic paint with incised lines in the painted areas.
In the introduction to his 2015 book Robert Motherwell, The Making of an American Giant, gallery owner Bernard Jacobson says, "Motherwell smoked Lucky Strikes, but in his collage life he smokes Gauloises, around whose blue packets he now organises one composition after another,'exotic to me because in the normal course of things I don't smoke French cigarettes'." And by incorporating Gauloises packets he makes deft and condensed allusion to "French blue": to the Mediterranean and the palette of Matisse... to the smoke coiling up in a Cubist assemblage."Henri Charrière, French author and convict references the smoking of Gauloises in his autobiography Papillon. This, together with the romantic associations of France, made Gauloises a popular brand among some writers and artists: in every story and novel written by Julio Cortázar set in Paris, the protagonists smoke Gauloises. John Lennon was a noted smoker of Gauloises Bleues. Frank O'Hara in his poem "The Day Lady Died" writes of going to "the tobacconist in the Ziegfeld Theatre" in New York and casually asking "for a carton of Gauloises."
Smoking Gauloises is mentioned in the teen series Gossip Girl. D/Sgt Mort Cooperman smokes Gauloises in several mystery novels by Richard "Kinky" Friedman. Smoking Gauloises was promoted as a contribution to the national good: a portion of the profits from their sale was paid to the Régie Française des Tabacs, a semi-governmental corporation charged with controlling the use of tobacco by minors, directing its profits towards beneficial causes; the designers of the traditional Gauloise packet reinforced national identity by selecting a peculiarly French shade of blue. John Frusciante, former guitarist of the Red Hot Chili Peppers, smoked Gauloises, as noted in the book Scar Tissue by friend and bandmate Anthony Kiedis. During his time at Marlborough College in the early 1960s English singer-songwriter Nick Drake would enjoy smoking Disque Blue cigarettes with his friend Jeremy Mason, in the High Street of the town. In July 2016, the French government considered a ban on both the Gauloises and Gitanes cigarette brands because they were deemed "too stylish and cool".
The ban would apply to brands including Marlboro Gold, Lucky Strike and Fortuna. It is the result of a new public health law based on a European directive that says tobacco products "must not include any element that contributes to the promotion of tobacco or give an erroneous impression of certain characteristics". Four major tobacco companies have written to the government seeking clarification on the potential law, calling for an urgent meeting to discuss the details of the plan. In the letter they accuse French health minister Marisol Touraine of an "arbitrary and disproportionate" application of EU directives; the cigarette was manufactured by SEITA but 1999 proved to be a landmark year. The legal difficulties crystallised when a French health insurance fund filed a 51.33 million franc lawsuit against four cigarette companies, including SEITA, to cover the estimated and continuing costs of treating the illnesses linked to cigarette smoking. This was followed by an action filed by the family of a deceased heavy smoker and the French state health insurer, Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie, claiming compensation for the cost of the deceased's me
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona