Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2, Thailand is the worlds 51st-largest country and it is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 66 million people. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, Thailand is a constitutional monarchy and has switched between parliamentary democracy and military junta for decades, the latest coup being in May 2014 by the National Council for Peace and Order. Its capital and most populous city is Bangkok and its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. The Thai economy is the worlds 20th largest by GDP at PPP and it became a newly industrialised country and a major exporter in the 1990s. Manufacturing and tourism are leading sectors of the economy and it is considered a middle power in the region and around the world.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens, by outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam. The word Siam has been identified with the Sanskrit Śyāma, the names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The word Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned, another theory is the name derives from Chinese, Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam, the signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut King of the Siamese, giving the name Siam official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed Siam from 1945 to 11 May 1949, after which it reverted to Thailand. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means free man in the Thai language, ratcha Anachak Thai means kingdom of Thailand or kingdom of Thai. Etymologically, its components are, ratcha, -ana- -chak, the Thai National Anthem, written by Luang Saranupraphan during the extremely patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as, prathet Thai.
The first line of the anthem is, prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai, Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh. There is evidence of habitation in Thailand that has been dated at 40,000 years before the present. Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India, Thailand in its earliest days was under the rule of the Khmer Empire, which had strong Hindu roots, and the influence among Thais remains even today. Voretzsch believes that Buddhism must have been flowing into Siam from India in the time of the Indian Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire, Thailand was influenced by the south Indian Pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta Empire. The Menam Basin was originally populated by the Mons, and the location of Dvaravati in the 7th century, the History of the Yuan mentions an embassy from the kingdom of Sukhothai in 1282
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, rain, tides and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas, electricity generation and water heating/cooling, based on REN21s 2016 report, renewables contributed 19. 2% to humans global energy consumption and 23. 7% to their generation of electricity in 2014 and 2015, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 8. 9% coming from biomass,4. 2% as heat energy,3. 9% hydro electricity and 2. 2% is electricity from wind, geothermal. Worldwide investments in renewable technologies amounted to more than US$286 billion in 2015, with countries like China, there are an estimated 7.7 million jobs associated with the renewable energy industries, with solar photovoltaics being the largest renewable employer. As of 2015 worldwide, more than half of all new electricity capacity installed was renewable, Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries.
Rapid deployment of energy and energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation. In international public opinion there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the already have renewable energy contributing more than 20 percent of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade, for example, in Denmark the government decided to switch the total energy supply to 100% renewable energy by 2050. While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are suited to rural and remote areas and developing countries, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. Renewable energy systems are becoming more efficient and cheaper. Their share of energy consumption is increasing. Growth in consumption of coal and oil could end by 2020 due to increased uptake of renewables, in its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth.
Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, ocean, biomass, geothermal resources, rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy security and economic benefits. New government spending and policies helped the industry weather the financial crisis better than many other sectors. As of 2011, small solar PV systems provide electricity to a few million households, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. Some countries have much higher long-term policy targets of up to 100% renewables, outside Europe, a diverse group of 20 or more other countries target renewable energy shares in the 2020–2030 time frame that range from 10% to 50%
A farmer is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of raising crops, vineyards, poultry. However, in the not so distant past a farmer was a person who promotes or improves the growth of by labor and attention, farming has been dated back as far as the Neolithic era. By the Bronze Age, the Sumerians had an agriculture specialized labour force by 5000–4000 BCE and they relied on three-person teams when harvesting in the spring. The Ancient Egypt farmers farmed and relied and irrigated their water from the Nile, animal husbandry, the practice of rearing animals specifically for farming purposes, has existed for thousands of years. Dogs were domesticated in East Asia about 15,000 years ago and sheep were domesticated around 8000 BCE in Asia. Swine or pigs were domesticated by 7000 BCE in the Middle East, the earliest evidence of horse domestication dates to around 4000 BCE. In the U. S. of the 1930s, one farmer fed only himself, the same farmer now feeds well over a hundred people.
More distinct terms are used to denote farmers who raise specific domesticated animals. For example, those who raise grazing livestock, such as cattle, goats, sheep and cattle farmers might be referred to respectively as shepherds and cowherds. The term dairy farmer is applied to those primarily in milk production, whether from cattle, sheep. A poultry farmer is one who concentrates on raising chickens, ducks, or geese, for meat, egg, or feather production, or commonly. A person who raises a variety of vegetables for market may be called a truck farmer or market gardener, dirt farmer is an American colloquial term for a practical farmer, or one who farms his own land. In developed nations, a farmer is usually defined as someone with an ownership interest in crops or livestock, and those who provide only labor are most often called farmhands. Alternatively, growers who manage farmland for a landowner, sharing the harvest are known as sharecroppers or sharefarmers. Historically, one subsisting in this way may have known as a peasant.
In developed nations, however, a person using such techniques on small patches of land might be called a gardener, Farmers are often members of local, regional, or national farmers unions or agricultural producers organizations and can exert significant political influence. The Grange movement in the United States was effective in advancing farmers agendas, especially against railroad, the FNSEA is very politically active in France, especially pertaining to genetically modified food
Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, is the capital of Japan and one of its 47 prefectures. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government, Tokyo is in the Kantō region on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Formerly known as Edo, it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto in 1868, Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. The Tokyo metropolitan government administers the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo, the metropolitan government administers 39 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture and the two outlying island chains. The population of the wards is over 9 million people. The prefecture is part of the worlds most populous metropolitan area with upwards of 37.8 million people, the city hosts 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world.
Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development IndexEdit, the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo ranked first in the Global Economic Power Index and fourth in the Global Cities Index. The city is considered a world city – as listed by the GaWCs 2008 inventory – and in 2014. In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle, the Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo ranked first in the world in the Safe Cities Index, the 2016 edition of QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, and the 1993 G-7 summit, and will host the 2020 Summer Olympics, Tokyo was originally known as Edo, which means estuary. During the early Meiji period, the city was called Tōkei, some surviving official English documents use the spelling Tokei.
However, this pronunciation is now obsolete, the name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, Tokyo was originally a small fishing village named Edo, in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified by the Edo clan, in the twelfth century
P. crysan, P. sorbilis) is a climbing plant in the maple family, native to the Amazon basin and especially common in Brazil. Guarana features large leaves and clusters of flowers, and is best known for the seeds from its fruit, as a dietary supplement, guarana is an effective stimulant, its seeds contain about twice the concentration of caffeine found in coffee seeds. As with other plants producing caffeine, the concentration of caffeine is a defensive toxin that repels herbivores from the berry. The guarana fruits colour ranges from brown to red and contains seeds which are partly covered by white arils. The colour contrast when the fruit has split open has been likened to eyeballs. According to a myth attributed to the Sateré-Maué tribe, guaranas domestication originated with a deity killing a village child. To console the villagers, a benevolent god plucked the left eye from the child and planted it in the forest. The god plucked the right eye from the child and planted it in the village, the Guaranís would make an herbal tea by shelling and drying the seeds, followed by pounding them into a fine powder.
The powder is kneaded into a dough and shaped into cylinders and this product is known as guarana bread, which would be grated and immersed into hot water along with sugar. This plant was introduced to European colonizers and to Europe in the 16th century by Felip Betendorf, Hernández and other Spaniard chroniclers. The table contains a listing of some of the chemicals found in guarana seeds. According to the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, guaranine is found in guarana, and is identical to caffeine derived from sources, like coffee, tea. Guaranine and mateine are all synonyms for caffeine when the definitions of words include none of the properties. The main natural phenols found in guarana are -catechin and -epicatechin, guarana is used in sweetened or carbonated soft drinks and energy shots, an ingredient of herbal teas or contained in dietary supplement capsules. Generally, South America obtains most of its caffeine from guarana, the third-largest consumer of soft drinks in the world, produces several soft drink brands from guarana extract.
Paraguay is a producer of soft drinks with several brands operating in its market. The word guaraná is widely used in Brazil and Paraguay as a reference to soft drinks containing guarana extract
Gwangju is the sixth largest city in South Korea. It is a metropolitan city under the direct control of the central governments Home Minister. The city was the capital of South Jeolla Province until the office moved to the southern village of Namak in Muan County in 2005. Gwang means light and Ju means province, areas of scenery along the outskirts of the city gave birth to gasa, a form of Korean classical poetry. Located in the center of the agricultural Jeolla region, the city is famous for its rich. The city was established in 57 BC and it was one of the administrative centres of Baekje during the Three Kingdoms Period. Modern industry was established in Gwangju with the construction of a railway to Seoul, some of the industries that took hold include cotton textiles, rice mills and breweries. Construction of an industrial zone in 1967 encouraged growth in industry. In May 1980, peaceful demonstrations took place in Gwangju against a head of Shingunbu, the demonstrations were suppressed by military forces, including elite units of the Special Operations Command.
The situation escalated after a violent crackdown, resulting in the Gwangju Uprising, by the time that the uprising was suppressed, many hundred civilians and several policemen / soldiers were dead. After civilian rule was reinstated, a cemetery was established honouring the victims of the incident. In 1986, Gwangju separated from Jeollanam-do to become a Directly Governed City, Gwangju is the main campaign capital of the liberal Democratic United Party, and its predecessors. Arts, Automobile and democracy are some of the keywords that can represent Gwangju, Gwangju is divided into 5 districts. According to the census of 2005, of the people of Gwangju 32. 7% follow Christianity and 14. 4% follow Buddhism,52. 9% of the population is mostly not religious or follow Muism and other indigenous religions. The population model of Gwangju is as follows, Chonnam National University, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Honam Univ, Gwangju University, Gwangshin University, Gwangju Womens University, Nambu University, Chosun University, and Honam Christian University are private universities.
The average number of students per household is 0.8, the city is served by the Gwangju Subway. An extension was completed in April 2008 with another due for completion in 2012, there are two KTX stations in the city, Gwangju Station and Gwangju Songjeong Station. Gwangju Songjeong station connects to the Gwangju Subway and local bus system, now the Songjeong station is mainly used
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
Leipzig is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 570,087 inhabitants it is Germanys tenth most populous city, Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire. The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became an urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War. Leipzig played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, through events which took place in, Leipzig today is an economic center and the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centerpiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system, Leipzig is currently listed as Gamma World City and Germanys Boomtown.
Outside of Leipzig the Neuseenland district forms a lake area of approximately 300 square kilometres. Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means settlement where the linden trees stand, an older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic. The Latin name Lipsia was used, the name is cognate with Lipetsk in Russia and Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government officially renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig, the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt. de. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city, Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, became an event of international importance and is the oldest remaining trade fair in the world. During the Thirty Years War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls, the first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642.
Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side, on 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and a coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden. It was the largest battle in Europe prior to the First World War, in 1913 the Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed. The railway station has two entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways and the western one for the Prussian state railways
Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt
The Schirn Kunsthalle is an exhibition hall in Frankfurt, located in the old city between the Römer and the Frankfurt Cathedral. The Schirn exhibits both modern and contemporary art and it is the main venue for temporary art exhibitions in Frankfurt. Exhibitions in recent years included retrospectives of Wassily Kandinsky, Marc Chagall, Frida Kahlo, Alberto Giacometti, Bill Viola, the Kunsthalle opened in 1986 and is financially supported by the city and the state. Historically, the German term Schirn denotes an open-air stall for the sale of goods, the area was destroyed in 1944 during the Second World War and was not redeveloped until the building of the Kunsthalle. Guggenheim Museum, the Hermitage Museum, or the Museum of Modern Art, the Kunsthalle Schirn was designed and built beginning in 1983 by the Architekturbüro BJSS. The opening took place on February 28,1986, the Kunsthalle has an overall exhibition space of more than 1,400 square meters. The Schirn is located in Frankfurt’s historic city center, faced with light sandstone, it consists of several interlocking structures, each of which features a geometric floor plan.
The most prominent structural element is an approximately 140-meter-long and 10-meter-wide 6-story hall, the exhibition building. Bangert designed the longhouse to resemble the Uffizi building in Florence and it is the Schirn’s highest structure and consists of a single open space, through which one enters the Schirn. After passing through the rotunda, a cut into the building runs along the old Bendergasse. A further semicircular structural element follows to the north, beyond Bendergasse and this structure, separated from the main exhibition building by Bendergasse, houses the Schirn Café. The Schirn has had a new interior since 2012 that was designed by the Kuehn Malvezzi architectural office and it bathes the foyer in alternating colors of light with the aid of modern RGB lighting technology. The name “Schirn” derives from the history of its location, the word originally denoted an “open sales booth. ”The site on which the Schirn Kunsthalle is currently situated was Frankfurt’s densely populated historic city center until it was destroyed on March 22,1944.
The sales booths of the city’s butchers’ guild stood in the alleys between today’s Schirn and the Main River until the mid-19th century. Christoph Vitali was the director of the Schirn from 1985 to 1993 and he established the Schirn as an exhibition venue. The Austrian Max Hollein has been directing the Schirn since October 2001, in 2006 he took over the directorship of the Städel Museum and the Liebieghaus. With exceptional exhibitions, provocative titles, and improved financial resources he has increased the number of visitors to the Schirn threefold, to date, more than five million people have visited the Schirn. Some of the exhibitions with the most visitors in the history of the Schirn include Edvard Munch, the Modern Eye, Wassily Kandinsky—The First Soviet Retrospective, Esprit Montmartre
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen is an art museum in Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It is located at the Museumpark in the district Rotterdam Centrum, close to the Kunsthal and it houses the collections of Frans Jacob Otto Boijmans and Daniël George van Beuningen. In the collection, ranging from medieval to contemporary art, are works of Rembrandt, Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, in 2013, the museum had 292,711 visitors and was the 14th most visited museum in the Netherlands. The museum was established in 1849 as Museum Boymans with the collection of Frans Jacob Otto Boijmans, the painter and art dealer, Arie Johannes Lamme, was named the museums first Director. Much of the original collection was destroyed in a fire in 1864. The collection of businessman Daniël George van Beuningen was added in 1958, the spelling was changed to Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen in 1996. The museum has a diverse collection ranging from medieval to contemporary art, much of the collection came to the museum through the two private collections mentioned above, but many others have contributed throughout the years.
The collection includes one of the richest assembly of works on paper in the world from the Middle Ages to the present times, aRTtube is a website with videos about art and design. Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen produces, together with TV Rijnmond, a series on art. Boijmans TV is based on an idea by Wilfried de Jong, Boijmans TV is created by a team of creative specialists in different disciplines. It is more than an art magazine, apart from the artists, the visitor, the attendant. Each episode of Boijmans TV can be viewed on ArtTube after it has been broadcast, sjarel Ex has been the museum director since 2004. The museum had 292,711 visitors in 2013 and that year it was the most visited museum in Rotterdam and the 14th most visited museum in the Netherlands. It had an estimated 270,000 visitors in 2015, media related to Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen at Wikimedia Commons Official website