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Supergiant star

Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars. Supergiant stars occupy the top region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram with absolute visual magnitudes between about −3 and −8; the temperature range of supergiant stars spans from about 3,450 K to over 20,000 K. The title supergiant, as applied to a star, does not have a single concrete definition; the term giant star was first coined by Hertzsprung when it became apparent that the majority of stars fell into two distinct regions of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. One region contained larger and more luminous stars of spectral types A to M and received the name giant. Subsequently, as they lacked any measurable parallax, it became apparent that some of these stars were larger and more luminous than the bulk, the term super-giant arose adopted as supergiant. Supergiant stars can be identified on the basis of their spectra, with distinctive lines sensitive to high luminosity and low surface gravity. In 1897, Antonia C. Maury had divided stars based on the widths of their spectral lines, with her class "c" identifying stars with the narrowest lines.

Although it was not known at the time, these were the most luminous stars. In 1943 Morgan and Keenan formalised the definition of spectral luminosity classes, with class I referring to supergiant stars; the same system of MK luminosity classes is still used today, with refinements based on the increased resolution of modern spectra. Supergiants occur in every spectral class from young blue class O supergiants to evolved red class M supergiants; because they are enlarged compared to main-sequence and giant stars of the same spectral type, they have lower surface gravities, changes can be observed in their line profiles. Supergiants are evolved stars with higher levels of heavy elements than main-sequence stars; this is the basis of the MK luminosity system which assigns stars to luminosity classes purely from observing their spectra. In addition to the line changes due to low surface gravity and fusion products, the most luminous stars have high mass-loss rates and resulting clouds of expelled circumstellar materials which can produce emission lines, P Cygni profiles, or forbidden lines.

The MK system assigns stars to luminosity classes: Ib for supergiants. In reality there is much more of a continuum than well defined bands for these classifications, classifications such as Iab are used for intermediate luminosity supergiants. Supergiant spectra are annotated to indicate spectral peculiarities, for example B2 Iae or F5 Ipec. Supergiants can be defined as a specific phase in the evolutionary history of certain stars. Stars with initial masses above 8-10 M☉ and smoothly initiate helium core fusion after they have exhausted their hydrogen, continue fusing heavier elements after helium exhaustion until they develop an iron core, at which point the core collapses to produce a Type 2 supernova. Once these massive stars leave the main sequence, their atmospheres inflate, they are described as supergiants. Stars under 10 M☉ will never form an iron core and in evolutionary terms do not become supergiants, although they can reach luminosities thousands of times the sun's, they cannot fuse carbon and heavier elements after the helium is exhausted, so they just lose their outer layers, leaving the core of a white dwarf.

The phase where these stars have both hydrogen and helium burning shells is referred to as the asymptotic giant branch, as stars become more and more luminous class M stars. Stars of 8-10 M☉ may fuse sufficient carbon on the AGB to produce an oxygen-neon core and an electron-capture supernova, but astrophysicists categorise these as super-AGB stars rather than supergiants. There are several categories of evolved stars which are not supergiants in evolutionary terms but may show supergiant spectral features or have luminosities comparable to supergiants. Asymptotic-giant-branch and post-AGB stars are evolved lower-mass red giants with luminosities that can be comparable to more massive red supergiants, but because of their low mass, being in a different stage of development, their lives ending in a different way, astrophysicists prefer to keep them separate; the dividing line becomes blurred at around 7–10 M☉ where stars start to undergo limited fusion of elements heavier than helium. Specialists studying these stars refer to them as super AGB stars, since they have many properties in common with AGB such as thermal pulsing.

Others describe them as low-mass supergiants since they start to burn elements heavier than helium and can explode as supernovae. Many post-AGB stars receive spectral types with supergiant luminosity classes. For example, RV Tauri has an Ia luminosity class despite being less massive than the sun; some AGB stars receive a supergiant luminosity class, most notably W Virginis variables such as W Virginis itself, stars that are executing a blue loop triggered by thermal pulsing. A small number of Mira variables and other late AGB stars have supergiant luminosity classes, for example α Herculis. Classical Cepheid variables have supergiant luminosity classes, although only the most luminous and massive will go on to develop an iron core; the majority of them are intermediate mass stars fusing helium in their cores and will transition to the asymptotic giant branch. Δ Cephei itself is an example with a luminosity of 2,000 L☉ and a mass of 4.5 M☉. Wolf–Rayet stars are high-mass luminous evolved stars, hotter than most supergiants and smaller, visually less


In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux received by a surface per unit area. The SI unit of irradiance is the watt per square metre; the CGS unit erg per square centimetre per second is used in astronomy. Irradiance is called intensity, but this term is avoided in radiometry where such usage leads to confusion with radiant intensity. In astrophysics, irradiance is called radiant flux. Spectral irradiance is the irradiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength; the two forms have different dimensions: spectral irradiance of a frequency spectrum is measured in watts per square metre per hertz, while spectral irradiance of a wavelength spectrum is measured in watts per square metre per metre, or more watts per square metre per nanometre. Irradiance of a surface, denoted Ee, is defined as E e = ∂ Φ e ∂ A, where ∂ is the partial derivative symbol. If we want to talk about the radiant flux emitted by a surface, we speak of radiant exitance.

Spectral irradiance in frequency of a surface, denoted Ee,ν, is defined as E e, ν = ∂ E e ∂ ν, where ν is the frequency. Spectral irradiance in wavelength of a surface, denoted Ee,λ, is defined as E e, λ = ∂ E e ∂ λ, where λ is the wavelength. Irradiance of a surface is according to the definition of radiant flux, equal to the time-average of the component of the Poynting vector perpendicular to the surface: E e = ⟨ | S | ⟩ cos ⁡ α, where < • > is the time-average. For a propagating sinusoidal linearly polarized electromagnetic plane wave, the Poynting vector always points to the direction of propagation while oscillating in magnitude; the irradiance of a surface is given by E e = n 2 μ 0 c E m 2 cos ⁡ α = n ε 0 c 2 E m 2 cos ⁡ α, where Em is the amplitude of the wave's electric field. This formula assumes that the magnetic susceptibility is negligible, i.e. that μr ≈ 1 where μr is the magnetic permeability of the propagation medium. This assumption is valid in transparent media in the optical frequency range.

The global irradiance on a horizontal surface on Earth consists of the direct irradiance Ee,dir and diffuse irradiance Ee,diff. On a tilted plane, there is another irradiance component, Ee,refl, the component, reflected from the ground; the average ground reflection is about 20% of the global irradiance. Hence, the irradiance Ee on a tilted plane consists of three components: E e = E e, d i r + E e, d i f f + E e, r e f l; the integral of solar irradiance over a time period is called "solar exposure" or "insolation". Illuminance Spectral flux density Albedo Fluence Insolation Light diffusion PI curve Solar azimuth angle Solar irradiance Solar noon Stefan–Boltzmann law

TEN (TV station)

TEN is Network 10's Sydney flagship station. It was owned and operated by United Telecasters Sydney Limited, began transmission on 5 April 1965 with the highlight of the opening night being the variety special TV Spells Magic. TEN lagged in the ratings behind the more established commercial channels TCN and ATN who had dominated viewing habits in Sydney for eight years; the turning point came in 1972 with the premiere of the raunchy soap opera series Number 96 which lifted TEN's overall profile and helped raise the ailing network to No. 1 position by 1973. TEN launched Australia's first metropolitan nightly one-hour news bulletin in 1975, while NBN-3 in Newcastle was first to air a one-hour news service in Australia in 1972. In 1978, Katrina Lee became only the third female TV newsreader on Australian TV – the first being Melody Illiffe on QTQ-9; the current anchor for the 10 News First 5pm Sydney news bulletin on weeknights is Sandra Sully. TEN commenced digital television transmission in January 2001, broadcasting on VHF Channel 11 while maintaining analogue transmission on VHF Channel 10.

The analogue signal for TEN was shut off at 9.00am AEDST, Tuesday, 3 December 2013. TEN's broadcast facilities have been in the inner city suburb of Pyrmont since 1997; these studios feature a large open plan newsroom and news-set where all Ten's national and local Sydney news bulletins are produced. This facility is the network's head office and broadcasts the network signal to other cities; when TEN-10 opened in 1965, it operated from newly built studio facilities at North Ryde, these were sold in the 1990s when the network underwent financial turmoil. The North Ryde complex, used by Global Television in recent years, was demolished in September 2007. Following the move from North Ryde in 1990, TEN relocated to a small warehouse in Ultimo, to new studios in nearby Pyrmont in May 1997. Most series are produced on location or at external studios by external companies, but a few programs are made in-house by TEN. North Ryde Ultimo Pyrmont 10 News First 10 News First The Loop on 10 Peach Studio 10 RPM The Sunday Project Hughesy, We Have a Problem Sports Tonight Celebrity Name Game The Living Room Pointless Show Me the Movie!

Family Feud Cram! Rugby coverage F1 coverage Wake Up 10 News First Early 10 News First Morning Ten Eyewitness News Late Revealed Wanted The Bachelor Australia: After the Final Rose Special Ready Steady Cook Breakfast 6.30 with George Negus The Game Plan World Football News The Pro Shop Overtime MVP Thursday Night Live Friday Night Download The Ronnie Johns Half Hour Big Brother: Uncut Big Brother: The Insider 10 News First Cheez TV Meet the Press Video Hits Good Morning Australia Number 96 Aweful Movies with Deadly Earnest TEN-10 produces a 60-minute local news program on weeknights from its studios at Pyrmont. 10 News First Sydney is presented by Sandra Sully with sport presenter Matt Burke, weather presenter Tim Bailey and traffic reporter Vic Lorusso. The 5pm bulletin was presented for eleven years by Ron Wilson and Jessica Rowe, between 1996 and 2005, when Rowe moved to present the Nine Network's Today, she was replaced by the network's US correspondent Deborah Knight from 2006. Wilson anchored the nightly Sydney news until January 2009 when he became a presenter of the national Early News and was replaced by Bill Woods.

Knight was replaced by Sully in October 2011 following the axing of the network's long-running late night news program, as a result with Knight's decision to move to the Nine Network. Sully became sole anchor after Bill Woods' departure on 30 November 2012, following the network's decision not to renew his contract. Fill-in presenters include Natarsha Belling, Emma Lawrence, Scott Mackinnon and Amanda Duval or Amanda Hart. Television broadcasting in Australia

Wu Chun-li

Wu Chun-li is a Taiwanese politician from Taitung county. He was elected Taitung County Magistrate in 2005 but was barred from taking office due to a corruption conviction. Wu Chun-li entered politics in 1998 as a KMT representative and became Taitung Council Speaker the following year, he was known for his opposition to the Taitung incinerator and was instrumental in having the budget for the incinerator frozen. In 1999 he was charged with corruption in relation to a budget skimming scheme. In 2001 Wu Chun-li lost to Hsu Ching-yuan. In 2002 Wu was sentenced to 16 years jail in relation to the 1999 corruption charge; this was reduced to eight months following a High Court review in Hualien. Wu appealed the decision. In 2005 Wu again ran for this time as an independent; the incumbent, Hsu Ching-yuan quit the race weeks before the election date, whereupon he faced Liu Chao-hao affiliated with the DPP, but running as an independent. Following a tip-off during the campaign, Wu was charged with ‘vote-buying’.

He was released on NT$1 million bail. “Wu told local reporters that he was innocent and he would continue his campaign after his release.” Despite comfortably winning the election, Wu faced the prospect of suspension by the Ministry of Interior due to his corruption conviction. Wu maintained “there was no issue of suspension” because the law applied to mayors and magistrates but his corruption lawsuit was related to his time as a county councillor, "As such, the law does not apply to me." However, Wu was subsequently “suspended from his post upon assuming office” Wu appointed his wife, Kuang Li-chen, to the position of Deputy Magistrate so she could take over as Magistrate, but this was blocked due to nepotism regulations. Wu divorced his wife to bypass these regulations. However, the Ministry of Interior ruled that as he was disqualified from the position of Magistrate, he lacked the authority to appoint a Deputy Magistrate. Subsequently, a new Magistrate election was called for April 1, 2006.

Kuang Li-chen became the KMT nomination. She achieved a landslide victory receiving 42,578 votes, more than double the 19,110 votes of her closest rival, former Taitung Deputy Magistrate Liu Chao-hao. Then-KMT Chairman Ma Ying-jeou was criticised “for campaigning for the ex-wife of a man, convicted of corruption and vote-buying.” It's unclear. During her term, Kuang's administration closed down the Taitung incinerator, but she became unpopular after she was “accused of wasting public funds on several trips abroad”, including a trip to Thailand with Wu Chun-li and other government officials, another to Europe “despite forecasts that Typhoon Fung-wong was heading for Taiwan”. Kuang was a strong supporter of the controversial Taitung Miramar Resort. In 2009, Judge Lin Teh-sheng, one of the judges assigned to Wu Chun-li's ongoing corruption case, was photographed visiting Wu's home “while the case was being reviewed at the High Court.” According to a Taipei Times report, “Investigators suspected that Lin may have accepted bribes from Wu in exchange for influencing the outcome of the judicial review in Wu’s favor.”

Wu had been placed under surveillance in May “after being suspected of having relations with various individuals involved with the case.” Kuang Li-chen, having relinquished the position of Magistrate in 2009 in favour of Justin Huang, was a surprise nomination as an independent for the 2018 Magistrate election. Wu Chun-li was “furious” when he learned of the move; as a KMT member and head of an association backing KMT Magistrate candidate Rao Ching-ling, he joined younger sister, Wu Hsiu-hua, head of the KMT's Taitung branch, outgoing Magistrate Justin Huang condemning her candidacy, which Huang called, “a DPP... divide and conquer tactic.” Wu Chun-li said he would “get to the bottom of the incident”

St Nicholas Church, North Walsham

St Nicholas Church is a parish church in the Church of England in the centre of North Walsham, England. The building is well known for its landmark collapsed tower; the present church was commenced in about 1330, although the Saxon church was enlarged and altered in around 1275, as a temporary measure to meet the needs of a expanding town. Work was interrupted by the'Black Death' plague in 1348 and again in 1361; these fatal epidemics resulted in a lack of skilled craftsmen, a fact which necessitated the austere simple tracery in most of the windows. There was another delay at the time of the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, following the Battle of North Walsham, when a large group of rebellious local peasants was confronted and defeated by the armed forces led by the warlike bishop of Norwich, Henry le Despenser; the completed church was consecrated by le Despenser by the end of the fourteenth century. The church was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the change to St. Nicholas only happening in years after the English Reformation.

The pinnacled entrance porch is richly carved and decorated with colourful statues and heraldic emblems. During the medieval period the south chapel area of the church contained a shrine to Thomas Becket, popular with pilgrims en route to Bromholm Priory at Bacton; the building is one of Britain's largest parish churches and contains many unusual features and artifacts which include the intricately carved telescopic baptismal font cover, a massive iron-bound chest with seven locks, medieval misericord seats, remains of a decorated parclose screen with an array of painted saints, a unique Communion Table, the ornate marble tomb of Sir William Paston, 1st Baronet, 1528-1610. The ruinous tower stands to a height of 85 feet; the steeple was one of Norfolk's tallest and attained a height of 147 feet to the parapet, with a lead-covered timber spire to 180 feet. Local folklore suggests that the spire was added as an act of local rivalry after the completion of the 158-feet tower at Cromer; the tower collapsed on the morning of Saturday 16 May 1724 between 9 and 10 o'clock when the entire south-west corner of the structure containing the stairwell failed.

The distressed state of the building had been noticed by the Sexton the previous evening when he ascended the tower to wind the clock. That day had seen the bells rung for several hours during the Ascensiontide Fair, which seems to have caused a resonance throughout the structure; the Vicar Thomas Jeffery noted the catastrophe in the parish register: "Memorandum May 16. Between nine and ten o'clock in the forenoon on the Sat. fell down the north and south sides of the steeple and no person man woman nor child'yt we hear of yet getting any mischief thereby. Thanks to be to God for his goodness therein." Once open to the elements the building deteriorated further. At 6pm on Wednesday 17 February 1836 heavy gales brought down the north side of the ruin, sending a quake like tremor through the town; the remaining east belfry wall was dismantled to a reduced height. One large silence chamber window with its distinctive reticulated tracery remains in situ; the Paston Way starts at the parish church. The Church of England website for St. Nicholas' Church, North Walsham The Norfolk Churches article on St Nicholas includes a large number of photographs.

The Story of St. Nicholas' Church, North Walsham, Norfolk, by F. A. Chase

Hans Schauder

Dr Hans Schauder, medical adviser and counsellor, co-founder of Camphill Community, founder of Garvald School & Training Centre Hans Schauder was born in Vienna of assimilated Jewish parents, a Polish father and Austrian mother. He remembered learning the Lord’s Prayer from a housemaid his family employed. School life, which began for him in the Scottish School in the Old City, introduced Schauder to the joys of music and literature, he embraced all the joys of the arts and literature that Vienna had to offer. The love of the art and nature, an insatiable desire for knowledge remained throughout his life, he had a deep concern for human beings, their troubles and difficulties. As a boy, people confided in him, or would ask for advice because of his ability to listen with sympathy and understanding, he and his friends spent much time climbing in the mountains, reading plays together and making music. As a child, he had wanted to become a monk. At the Wasa-Gymnasium, he met his friends Rudi Lissau, Edi Weissberg and Bronja Hüttner, through whom he met and fell in love with Lisl Schwalb, a fellow Viennese Jew.

Through them came into touch with Anthroposophy, which opened up a path to spiritual knowledge and understanding as a result of which he no longer desired the monastic life but decided to become a doctor. At the age of 20, he enrolled at the University of Vienna’s school of medicine, at 22 met Dr Karl König in Arlesheim, at a conference for medical students before König moved to Vienna; when he did, Hans joined the youth group around him that included most of his friends and who stayed in contact through most of their lives and between them started many initiatives. Although he had by this time converted to Christianity, in 1938 Schauder’s Jewish background forced him to flee Austria after its annexation by the Nazis. A few weeks Lisl had left, finding sanctuary with a Quaker couple near Aberdeen. Schauder struggled living in poverty and suffering chronic chest problems. Though many of his family and friends died in concentration camps and he himself suffered both physically and psychologically, struggling with his health for the rest of his life, he never became embittered or lost his trusting and open nature, which always looked for and fostered the best in people.

He was convinced that in order to be a positive influence in the world one must not only do good, but be active on a spiritual dimension. Those who strengthen their inner being through prayer and meditation do not wage war or hate other nations. In Vienna when Schauder and his fiancé had joined the group of young, idealistic people led by Dr Karl Koenig, their dream was to found a community in which they could live on an equal footing with people in need of special care; this became a reality in Scotland. Here, after completing his medical studies in Basle and his young wife joined the group of founders of the Camphill Community near Aberdeen, to become the nucleus of a worldwide organisation and was a model of community living. While at Camphill, their twin girls were born and not long afterwards another daughter. In 1944, Schauder left Camphill to start a new anthroposophical community, Garvald School and Training Centre, near West Linton together with others from the Camphill group, turning an empty mansion house into the centre of a vibrant community.

Though he was the medical doctor at Garvald, Schauder did everything from cleaning and cooking to singing lessons and Bible study. In 1949, after five years and his family left to settle in nearby Edinburgh, he had been diagnosed with Tuberculosis and for some time Lisl had to support the family while he was recovering. Thereafter, he became the medical adviser at another anthroposophical organisation, the Rudolf Steiner School, Edinburgh, it was a welcome breathing space within the peaceful environment of his own home as opposed to the bustle of community living and there Schauder developed faculties that focused on the individual and his or her deeper problems. In Garvald, people had recognised and valued Schauder’s diagnostic abilities and assessment of young people with neurotic or psychotic traits or those in crisis situations. Both colleagues and others in the medical profession admired his creative and unusual way of working, inspired by the image of the illness and the challenges that it presented.

In the late fifties, Schauder expanded his work to wider social problems, volunteering to counsel prisoners at Edinburgh’s Saughton Prison, advising Samaritans staff on problem case, counselling parents on their children’s problems and progressing to doing adult counselling. In doing so he developed his own unique approach to counselling – an attempt to build up as complete a picture as possible of the client so as to identify with them and together work towards a solution. After years of experience, he met a Dominican friar, Marcus Lefébure who worked as a counsellor at the University; the two men analysed the structure of Schauder’s therapeutic approach pinpointing the archetypal elements in the interview process. These are described in their book and Counselling, published in 1982; the book won high praise in the United Kingdom, was translated into German. “These dialogues present counselling as a form of contemporary spirituality, arguing that counselling facilitates spiritual experience and that psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic concepts can be understood in spiritual terms.

However, the dialogues present a critique of the authorisation of subjectivity within both counselling and spirituality. After th