Supergirl is an American superhero television series developed by Ali Adler, Greg Berlanti and Andrew Kreisberg that aired on CBS and premiered on October 26, 2015. It is based on the DC Comics character Supergirl, created by Otto Binder and Al Plastino, stars Melissa Benoist in the title role. Supergirl is a costumed superheroine, Superman's cousin and one of the last surviving Kryptonians; the series is the third series set in the Arrowverse, sharing continuity with the other television series of the franchise. Filming takes place in Vancouver, British Columbia; the series was picked up on May 6, 2015, after receiving a series commitment in September 2014, received a full season order on November 30, 2015. Since the second season, the series has aired on The CW; the show has received positive reviews from critics, who have praised the creative direction, the performances, the themes addressed. In January 2019, the series was renewed for a fifth season, which premiered on October 6, 2019. In January 2020, The CW renewed the series for a sixth season.
Kara Zor-El was sent to Earth from Krypton as Alura. Krypton was exploding, Kara's parents sent Kara in a spacecraft to Earth after her cousin. Kara was meant to protect her infant cousin Kal-El, but her spacecraft was knocked off course and forced into the Phantom Zone, where it stayed for 24 years. By the time the spacecraft crash landed on Earth, Kal-El had become Superman; the series begins eleven years when the now 24-year-old Kara is learning to embrace her powers and has adopted the superheroic alias "Supergirl". In the first season, Kara is forced to reveal her powers, becomes National City's protector. Kara discovers that hundreds of the criminals her mother imprisoned are hiding on Earth, including her aunt Astra and Astra's husband Non. Kara works with her adoptive sister Alex Danvers to fight these criminals, alongside the Green Martian J'onn J'onzz, her cousin's friend James Olsen, tech genius Winn Schott. In the second season and her allies deal with feuds between Earth's native populace and extraterrestrial community, investigate the shadowy organization Project Cadmus, masterminded by Lillian Luthor, mother of Lex Luthor.
At the same time, Kara befriends Lillian's stepdaughter Lena Luthor, the new CEO of LuthorCorp, struggles with romantic feelings for recent Earth arrival Mon-El, a princely survivor from Krypton's neighboring planet Daxam whose parents wish to reclaim him. James becomes the masked streetfighting vigilante Guardian. In the third season, Kara struggles with the loss of Mon-El; when Mon-El returns, he reveals that he has time-traveled to the 31st century and founded the Legion, alongside marrying Imra Ardeen. J'onn discovers his father M'yrnn J'onzz is alive and Alex deals with her heartbreak after breaking up with Maggie. Kara and Alex's new friend, Samantha Arias, is unknowingly another Kryptonian survivor, begins a transformation from a loving single mother into the world-killing weapon known as Reign, who serves a coven headed by Selena. In the fourth season, Kara deals with a new wave of anti-extraterrestrial prejudice secretly instigated by Lex Luthor from prison, forcing her to fight for the civil and political rights of aliens.
Ben Lockwood, a former college professor who suffered a series of personal tragedies at the hands of extraterrestrials, forms a human-first group called the Children of Liberty to end all aliens. Meanwhile, in the nation of Kasnia, a clone of Kara dubbed "Red Daughter" is trained by its military to fight Supergirl at Lex's request. Kara and Alex rival with the DEO's new addition, Col. Lauren Haley, sent to monitor the DEO's progress under Alex's direction. Col. Haley and the President try to force Supergirl to reveal her identity, clash with her and Alex when she refuses. Melissa Benoist as Kara Danvers / Kara Zor-El / Supergirl: A 24-year-old Kryptonian living in National City, who must embrace her powers after hiding them, she assists her adoptive sister Alex as part of the Department of Extra-Normal Operations as she discovered the truth that her adoptive father worked for the DEO so they would not take her, while Alex's co-workers at the DEO help her perfect her powers. Kara worked as Cat Grant's assistant at CatCo.
Benoist expressed her excitement over portraying the character, being able to " a story about a human being realizing their potential and their strength". At the end of season one, Kara was promoted by Cat and became a junior reporter at the beginning of season two. Malina Weissman and Izabela Vidovic portray a young Kara. Mehcad Brooks as James Olsen / Guardian: A former Daily Planet photographer, James moved to National City and became the new art director for his former colleague, Cat Grant, at CatCo Worldwide Media, he is a potential love interest for Kara. Among his reasons for moving across the country are his breakup with his fiancée, Lucy Lane, keeping an eye on the newly revealed Supergirl for Superman. While working at the Daily Planet, James received the Pulitzer Prize for taking the first photograph of Superman. In the second season, James becomes Guardian, he becomes the acting CEO of CatCo after Cat Grant leaves the company. Chyler Leigh as Alex Danvers: Kara's human adoptive sister.
She is a scientist and government agent who serves as Hank Henshaw's right-hand at the DEO. Having been extensively trained in combat by Henshaw, Alex in turn provides rigorous training to Kara in order to decrease her over-reliance on her powers. She
The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien, it was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. The book is recognized as a classic in children's literature; the Hobbit is set within Tolkien's fictional universe and follows the quest of home-loving Bilbo Baggins, the titular hobbit, to win a share of the treasure guarded by Smaug the dragon. Bilbo's journey takes him from rural surroundings into more sinister territory; the story is told in the form of an episodic quest, most chapters introduce a specific creature or type of creature of Tolkien's geography. Bilbo gains a new level of maturity and wisdom by accepting the disreputable, romantic and adventurous sides of his nature and applying his wits and common sense; the story reaches its climax in the Battle of Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict.
Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story, along with motifs of warfare. These themes have led critics to view Tolkien's own experiences during World War I as instrumental in shaping the story; the author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in mythology and fairy tales are noted as influences. The publisher was encouraged by the book's critical and financial success and, requested a sequel; as Tolkien's work progressed on the successor The Lord of the Rings, he made retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled; the work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, radio, board games, video games. Several of these adaptations have received critical recognition on their own merits. Bilbo Baggins, the titular protagonist, is a reserved hobbit.
During his adventure, Bilbo refers to the contents of his larder at home and wishes he had more food. Until he finds a magic ring, he is more baggage than help. Gandalf, an itinerant wizard, introduces Bilbo to a company of thirteen dwarves. During the journey the wizard disappears on side errands dimly hinted at, only to appear again at key moments in the story. Thorin Oakenshield, the proud, pompous head of the company of dwarves and heir to the destroyed dwarvish kingdom under the Lonely Mountain, makes many mistakes in his leadership, relying on Gandalf and Bilbo to get him out of trouble, but proves himself a mighty warrior. Smaug is a dragon who long ago pillaged the dwarvish kingdom of Thorin's grandfather and sleeps upon the vast treasure; the plot involves a host of other characters of varying importance, such as the twelve other dwarves of the company. Gandalf tricks Bilbo Baggins into hosting a party for Thorin Oakenshield and his band of dwarves, who sing of reclaiming the Lonely Mountain and its vast treasure from the dragon Smaug.
When the music ends, Gandalf unveils Thrór's map showing a secret door into the Mountain and proposes that the dumbfounded Bilbo serve as the expedition's "burglar". The dwarves ridicule the idea, but Bilbo, joins despite himself; the group travels into the wild, where Gandalf saves the company from trolls and leads them to Rivendell, where Elrond reveals more secrets from the map. When they attempt to cross the Misty Mountains they are caught by goblins and driven deep underground. Although Gandalf rescues them, Bilbo gets separated from the others. Lost in the goblin tunnels, he stumbles across a mysterious ring and encounters Gollum, who engages him in a game of riddles; as a reward for solving all riddles Gollum will show him the path out of the tunnels, but if Bilbo fails, his life will be forfeit. With the help of the ring, which confers invisibility, Bilbo escapes and rejoins the dwarves, improving his reputation with them; the goblins and Wargs give chase, but the company are saved by eagles before resting in the house of Beorn.
The company enters the black forest of Mirkwood without Gandalf. In Mirkwood, Bilbo first saves the dwarves from giant spiders and from the dungeons of the Wood-elves. Nearing the Lonely Mountain, the travellers are welcomed by the human inhabitants of Lake-town, who hope the dwarves will fulfil prophecies of Smaug's demise; the expedition finds the secret door. The enraged dragon, deducing that Lake-town has aided the intruder, sets out to destroy the town. A thrush had overheard Bilbo's report of Smaug's vulnerability and reports it to Lake-town defender Bard. Bard's arrow slays the dragon; when the dwarves take possession of the mountain, Bilbo finds the Arkenstone, an heirloom of Thorin's family, hides it away. The Wood-elves and Lake-men besiege the mountain and request compensation for their aid, reparations for Lake-town's destruction, settlement of old claims on the treasure. Thorin refuses and, having summoned his kin from the Iron Hills, reinforces
Robert Sibthorpe or Sibthorp was an English clergyman who gained notoriety during the reign of King Charles I of England for his outspoken defense of the divine right of kings. Sibthorpe was a fellow of Trinity College, receiving his M. A. from that institution in 1619. He became vicar of The Holy Sepulchre, Northampton in 1619, he received his D. D. ca. 1626. Sibthorpe first gained national prominence in 1627, when he gave an assize sermon in which he asserted the doctrine of passive obedience. King Charles I wanted to have Sibthorpe's sermon, along with a similar sermon delivered by Roger Maynwaring, printed. George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury opposed the publication of these sermons, but William Laud, Bishop of Bath and Wells urged George Montaigne, Bishop of London to license the publication and as a result the sermons were published. At the 1628 Parliament, John Pym moved in the House of Commons of England to impeach Sibthorpe and Maynwaring. In the House of Lords, the two were accused of subverting the commonwealth.
As a result and Maywaring were imprisoned and fined. The King was furious at Parliament's actions, instructed Attorney General Robert Heath to draw up papers giving Sibthorpe and Maynwaring a royal pardon. Charles made Sibthorpe a chaplain in the Chapel Royal, signaling his intention to defend Sibthorpe against future attacks from Parliament. In 1629, Sibthorpe was appointed rector at Burton Latimer, he became commissary of the Diocese of Peterborough, in that capacity he gained a reputation as a zealous represser of Puritanism. With the outbreak of the English Civil War, in 1643 Sibthorpe joined the king at Oxford, his living was sequestrated by the Long Parliament in 1647, but restored in 1660 at the time of the English Restoration. Sibthorpe and Maynwaring remained hated by defenders of English liberty. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury and John Locke continued to denounce Sibthorpe's opinions decades after his death. Algernon Sidney spoke out against Sibthorpe and Maynwaring. In the next century, Jonathan Mayhew was continuing to denounce Maynwaring.
Joffe v. Google, Inc. is a federal lawsuit between Ben Joffe and Google, Inc.. Joffe claimed that Google broke one of the Wiretap Legislation segments when they intruded on the "public" wireless networks of private homes through their Street View application. Although Google tried to appeal their case multiple times, the courts favored Joffe's argument; the Supreme Court declined to take the case, affirming the decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit that the Wiretap Act covers the interception of unencrypted Wi-Fi communications. In 2007, Google launched its Street View project, an addendum to the Google Maps feature which captured street-level images from various cities in the US and around the world. Street View vehicles had the ability to intercept and store a vast amount of Wi-fi data from nearby home network due to the intricate technological set up Google created in order to take the pictures in the first place. Google acknowledged in May 2010 that its Street View vehicles had been collecting fragments of payload data from unencrypted Wi-fi networks.
This included any information connected to the internet, hacked, such as personal emails and passwords. In total Google collected about 600 gigabytes of information from 30 different countries; the Joffe v. Google court case was filed on in November 2010, when Ben Joffe called out Street View for breaching the Wiretap Legislation Act. Joffe, representing the voice of the complainants, configured that Google ruptured the Act, which regulates the collection of actual content of wire and electronic communications and prohibits the intentional interception, use, or disclosure of wire and electronic communications unless a statutory exception applies; the extensive procedure that involved an appeal by Google lasted until the conclusion in June 2013. The federal wiretap statute requires someone to get a wiretap order before they monitor or record an individual's or company's communication, it regulates the collection of actual content of wire and electronic communication. Under the act it is illegal to intentionally or purposefully: 1.
Intercept, disclose, or use the contents of 2. Any wire, oral, or electronic communication August 2010 cases were transferred to the judicial panel on a multi-district litigation to the Northern District of California. In 2013, Google tried to appeal the case and the court of appeal stood by their original decision because Google is not exempt from the Wire Tap Law. On September 10, 2013, the case entered federal judgment by A. Wallace Tashima, Jay S. Bybee and William H. Stafford, Jr.. It was affirmed by Judge: JSB Authoring. May 16, 2013 the case was filed and the hearing began. Attorney Michael H. Rubin represented the appellant Google; the trial takes place in the hometown of Google Corporations. Several punitive class actions lawsuits were filed shortly after; the court had to address whether data transmitted over unencrypted Wi-Fi networks is an electronic communication, accessible to the general public. Court determined that data transmitted over an encrypted Wi-fi Network is not accessible to the general public.
This means that whatever information Google was housing was done illegally, without the consent of the owner of the network The exemption does not apply to Google's conduct. The exemption applies to radio communication, not electronic communication; the Ninth Circuit affirmed the district court's holding that the Wiretap Act covers the interception of unencrypted Wi-Fi communications. The court reasoned that such communications did not fall under the ordinary definition of "radio communication" because they were not auditory. Furthermore, such communications did not fall under the "readily accessible to the general public" exception because unencrypted Wi-Fi communications are geographically limited, accessible only with "some difficulty": "the "general public" because most of the general public lacks the expertise to intercept and decode payload data transmitted over a Wi-Fi network." Google attempted to appeal to the United States Supreme Court, however, it declined to hear the case thus affirming the District's Court decision.
The Calles Law, or Law for Reforming the Penal Code, was a statute enacted in Mexico in 1926, under the presidency of Plutarco Elías Calles, to enforce the restrictions against the Catholic Church in Article 130 of the Mexican Constitution of 1917. Article 130 declared that the state are to remain separate. To that end, it required all "churches and religious groupings" to register with the state and placed restrictions on priests and ministers of all religions. Priests and ministers could not hold public office, canvass on behalf of political parties or candidates, or inherit property from persons other than close blood relatives. President Calles applied existing laws regarding the separation of church and state throughout Mexico and added his own legislation. In June 1926, he signed the "Law for Reforming the Penal Code", which became known unofficially as the "Calles Law." This law provided specific penalties for priests and individuals who violated Article 130 of the 1917 Constitution. For example, wearing clerical garb in public was punishable by a fine of 500 pesos (approximately 250 U.
S. dollars at the time, or worth $4,250 in 2010. A priest who criticized the government could be imprisoned for five years; some states enacted further measures in the name of state separation. Chihuahua, for example, enacted a law permitting only a single priest to serve the entire Catholic congregation of the state. To help enforce the law, Calles seized Church property, expelled all foreign priests, closed monasteries and religious schools. One result of the Calles Law was the Cristero War, a popular uprising of Catholic peasants in regions of central Mexico against the federal Mexican government. Between 1926 and 1934, at least 40 priests were killed during the war. Whereas Mexico had some 4,500 Catholic priests prior to the Cristero War, by 1934 only 334 Catholic priests were licensed by the government to serve Mexico's 15 million people. By 1935, 17 states were left with no priest at all. Under President Lázaro Cárdenas, the Calles Law was repealed in 1938
Silas Casey was a career United States Army officer who rose to the rank of Major General during the American Civil War. Casey was born in Rhode Island, he graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1826. He fought in the Second Seminole War under William J. Worth from 1837 to 1842. During the Mexican–American War he fought at the Battle of Contreras and Battle of Churubusco, was appointed brevet major on August 20, 1847 for gallant conduct, he fought in the Battle of Molino del Rey and was wounded during the Battle of Chapultepec on September 13, 1847. In 1880 Casey became a veteran member of the Aztec Club of 1847—a military society composed of officers who had served in the occupation of Mexico City and extended its membership to all United States officers who had served during the Mexican War and their descendants. After the Mexican-American War, he performed frontier duties and escorted topographical parties, including a trip to California around Cape Horn in 1849, he commanded at Camp Picket during the Pig War on San Juan Island from August 10 to October 18, 1859.
Casey was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers on August 31, 1861, shortly after arriving on the East Coast. He was promoted to colonel in the regular army on October 9. Casey became a division commander in the IV Corps under Brig. Gen Erasmus Keyes. During the Battle of Seven Pines, Casey's division was attacked by D. H. Hill's Confederates and driven from the field in panic. Gen. George McClellan blamed them for the disaster, in spite of the fact that it was the smallest, least experienced, least well-equipped division in the army and should not have been placed in such a vulnerable location as the Seven Pines crossroads. Casey was removed from division command and replaced by Brig. Gen John J. Peck. For the remainder of the Peninsula Campaign and his former division were relegated to a post around army headquarters at Harrison's Landing and kept away from the front lines. After the Seven Days battles, when McClellan conducted a review of the army, the soldiers in Casey's division turned their backs and refused to cheer him.
He was promoted to major general of volunteers on July 27 in general promotion of all the army's corps and division commanders. He wrote the three-volume System of Infantry Tactics, including Infantry Tactics volumes I and II, published by the army on August 11, 1862, Infantry Tactics for Colored Troops, published on March 9, 1863; the manuals were used by both sides during the Civil War. In December 1862 he was appointed to the board that convicted Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter of disobedience and cowardice for his actions at the Second Battle of Bull Run. At the end of the war, Casey received a brevet to the rank of major general date March 15, 1865, he was mustered out of volunteer service and reverted to his regular army rank of colonel on August 24, 1865. Casey retired from the army on July 8, 1868, at the age of 61, having served over 40 years on active duty. In 1870, he became a hereditary member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati in succession to his uncle Dr. Lincoln Goodale.
In 1880 he was succeeded by his son, Silas III, upon his death. General Casey was a member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States as were all three of his sons. Casey died of a digestive system ailment in Brooklyn, New York on January 22, 1882, is buried at Casey Farm in Saunderstown, Rhode Island. Casey's sons included Silas Casey III, who served as Rear Admiral of the Pacific Squadron, 1901-1903. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "article name needed". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Casey's Infantry Tactics Casey's Infantry Tactics