Northampton County, Pennsylvania
Northampton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 297,735, its county seat is Easton. The county was formed in 1752 from parts of Bucks County, its namesake was Northamptonshire and the county seat of Easton is named for the country house Easton Neston. Northampton County is included in the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area, its northern edge borders The Poconos, its eastern section borders the Delaware River, which divides Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Northampton County borders the Delaware Valley and is included in Philadelphia's Media Market The county is industrially-oriented, producing cement, other industrial products. Bethlehem Steel, once one of the world's largest manufacturers of steel, was located there prior to its closing in 2003. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 377 square miles, of which 370 square miles is land and 7.7 square miles is water.
The climate is humid continental and the hardiness zones are 6b and 6a. Monroe County Warren County, New Jersey Bucks County Lehigh County Carbon County Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Middle Delaware National Scenic River As of the 2010 census, the county was 81.0% White Non-Hispanic, 5.0% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American or Alaskan Native, 2.4% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian, 2.2% were two or more races, 3.8% were some other race. 10.5% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 267,066 people, 101,541 households, 71,078 families residing in the county; the population density was 714 people per square mile. There were 106,710 housing units at an average density of 286 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.23% White, 2.77% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 1.37% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 3.06% from other races, 1.39% from two or more races. 6.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
24.0% were of German, 14.0% Italian, 8.8% Irish, 5.1% English and 5.1% American ancestry. 89.3% spoke English and 5.5% Spanish as their first language. There were 101,541 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.40% were married couples living together, 9.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.00% were non-families. 24.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.30% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 15.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. Northampton is one of the six counties in Pennsylvania. Instead of being run by a Board of Commissioners and several Row Officers, voters elect an Executive, a nine-person Council, a Controller, a District Attorney.
The Executive and District Attorney are elected by all voters in the County, as are five members of the Council. The other four Councilmen are elected by districts; the Row Officers are approved by county council. Elected Officials as of November 2018, there were 209,274 registered voters in Northampton County: Democratic: 96,378 Republican: 73,550 Other parties: 39,346 In recent decades, Northampton has been identified as one of Pennsylvania's "swing counties," with statewide winners carrying it in most cases. All five statewide winners carried it in November 2004 and all four statewide Democratic candidates carried it in November 2008, with District Attorney John Morganelli doing well there despite losing statewide to incumbent Attorney General Tom Corbett; the Democratic Party has been dominant most of the time in county-level politics in recent decades. In 2016, Donald Trump ended that streak when he became the first Republican presidential candidate to win Northampton County since 1988.
Kevin Lott Democrat, district 1 Ronald R. Heckman, Vice President, Democrat, at large Lori Vargo Heffner, Democrat, at large Hayden Phillips, Republican, at large William B. McGee, Democrat, at large John Cusick, district 3 Tara Zrinski, Democrat, at large Matthew Dietz, district 4 Robert Werner, district 2 Justin Simmons, Republican, 131st district Steve Samuelson, Democrat, 135th district Robert L. Freeman, Democrat, 136th district Joe Emrick, Republican, 137th district Marcia Hahn, Republican, 138th district Zach Mako, Republican, 183rd district Lisa Boscola, Democrat, 18th district Mario M. Scavello, Republican, 40th district Susan Wild, Democrat, 7th district Pat Toomey, Republican Bob Casey, Democrat Lafayette College, Easton Lehigh University, Bethlehem Moravian College, Bethlehem Northampton County Area Community College, Bethlehem Township Respect Graduate School, Bethlehem Bangor Area School District Bangor Area High School, Upper Mount Bethel Township Bethlehem Area School District Freedom High School, Bethlehem Liberty High School, Bethlehem Catasauqua Area School District Catasauqua High School, Northampton Easton Area School District Easton Area High School, Palmer Township Nazareth Area School District Nazareth Area High School, Nazareth Northampton Area School District Northampton Area
Flushing is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens in the United States. While much of the neighborhood is residential, Downtown Flushing, centered on the northern end of Main Street in Queens, is a large commercial and retail area and is the fourth largest central business district in New York City. Flushing's diversity is reflected by the numerous ethnic groups that reside there, including people of Asian, Middle Eastern and African-American ancestry, it is part of New York's Sixth Congressional District, located within Queens County. Flushing is served by five railroad stations on the Long Island Rail Road Port Washington Branch, as well as the New York City Subway's IRT Flushing Line, which has its terminus at Main Street; the intersection of Main Street and Roosevelt Avenue is the third busiest intersection in New York City, behind Times and Herald Squares. The neighborhood of Flushing is part of Queens Community Board 7 and the broader district of Flushing in Queens County.
The broader area is bounded by Flushing Meadows–Corona Park to the west, Kissena Boulevard to the east, the Long Island Expressway to the south, Willets Point Boulevard to the north. Flushing was inhabited by the Matinecoc Indians prior to colonialization and European settlement. On October 10, 1645, Flushing was established on the eastern bank of Flushing Creek under charter of the Dutch West India Company and was part of the New Netherland colony; the settlement was named after the city of Vlissingen, in the southwestern Netherlands, the main port of the company. However, by 1657, the residents called the place "Vlishing." "Flushing", the British name for Vlissingen, was used. Despite being a Dutch colony, many of the early inhabitants were British; the original name is derived from the Dutch word "fles" which means "bottle". Unlike all other towns in the region, the charter of Flushing allowed residents freedom of religion as practiced in Holland "without the disturbance of any magistrate or ecclesiastical minister."
However, in 1656, New Amsterdam Director-General Peter Stuyvesant issued an edict prohibiting the harboring of Quakers. On December 27, 1657, the inhabitants of Flushing approved a protest known as The Flushing Remonstrance; this petition contained religious arguments mentioning freedom for "Jews and Egyptians," but ended with a forceful declaration that any infringement of the town charter would not be tolerated. Subsequently, a farmer named John Bowne held Quaker meetings in his home and was arrested for this and deported to Holland, he persuaded the Dutch West India Company to allow Quakers and others to worship freely. As such, Flushing is claimed to be a birthplace of religious freedom in the New World. Landmarks remaining from the Dutch period in Flushing include the John Bowne House on Bowne Street and the Old Quaker Meeting House on Northern Boulevard; the Remonstrance was signed at a house on the site of the former State Armory, now a police facility, on the south side Northern Boulevard between Linden Place and Union Street.
In 1664, the English took control of New Amsterdam, ending Dutch control of the colony, renamed it the Province of New York. When Queens County was established in 1683, the "Town of Flushing" was one of the original five towns which the county comprised. Many historical references to Flushing are to this town, bounded from Newtown on the west by Flushing Creek, from Jamaica on the south by the watershed, from Hempstead on the east by what became the Nassau County line; the town was dissolved in 1898 when Queens became a borough of New York City, the term "Flushing" today refers to a much smaller area, for example the former Village of Flushing. Flushing was a seat of power as the Province of New York up to the American Revolution was led by Governor Cadwallader Colden, based at his Spring Hill estate. Flushing was the site of the first commercial tree nurseries in North America, the most prominent being the Prince and Parsons nurseries. A 14-acre tract of Parsons's exotic specimens was preserved on the north side of Kissena Park.
The nurseries are commemorated in the names of west-east avenues that intersect Kissena Boulevard. Flushing supplied trees to the Greensward Project, now known as Central Park in Manhattan. Well into the 20th century, Flushing contained many horticultural greenhouses. During the American Revolution, along with most settlements in present-day Queens County, favored the British and quartered British troops, though one battalion of Scottish Highlanders is known to have been stationed at Flushing during the war. Following the Battle of Long Island, Nathan Hale, an officer in the Continental Army, was apprehended near Flushing Bay while on what was an intelligence gathering mission and was hanged; the 1785 Kingsland Homestead the residence of a wealthy Quaker merchant, now serves as the home of the Queens Historical Society. During the 19th century, as New York City continued to grow in population and economic vitality, so did Flushing, its proximity to Manhattan was critical in its transformation into a fashionable residential area.
On April 15, 1837, the Village of Flushing was incorporated within the Town of Flushing. The official seal was the words, "Village of Flushing", surrounded by nondescript flowers. No other emblem or flag is known to have been used; the Village of Flushing included the neighborhoods of Flushing Highlands, Bowne Park, Murray Hill and Flushing Park. By the mid-1860s, Queens County had 30,429 residents; the Village of Co
Columbus School of Law
The Columbus School of Law known as CUA Law, is the law school of The Catholic University of America, in Washington, D. C. More than 450 Juris Doctor students attend CUA Law. Incoming classes are composed of about 150 students, including day and evening programs. Around 1,900 students apply annually. CUA Law is located more than two miles north of the United States Capitol and is a five-minute walk from the Brookland-CUA metro station. According to CUA Law's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 49% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, employment requiring bar passage nine months after graduation. Catholic University of America began offering instruction in law in 1895 as part of its decision to open "faculties for the laity." The department was turned into an official school in 1898. Catholic University’s law school has established a progressive history of inclusion, its first African-American student was enrolled in 1902. In 1919, the Knights of Columbus founded an educational program known as Columbus University which provided an evening education program for Catholic war veterans returning from World War I.
This institution was affiliated with Catholic University and shared faculty at both institutions' Washington, D. C. locations. In 1954 Columbus University merged with Catholic University's law school to form the Columbus School of Law; the law school has been accredited by the Association of American Law Schools since 1921 and the American Bar Association since 1925. Catholic University's J. D. program can be completed over three years of full-time day study or four years of part-time evening study. The first-year curriculum is prescribed for all students; the day-division curriculum consists of seven required courses totaling 29 credit hours. Evening-division students are required to complete the same basic courses within the first two years of their law school career. Revised for 2013, the new curriculum is designed to strengthen first-year doctrinal courses, to support the development of practice-area concentrations, to emphasize training that will help graduates transition to the real world of practice.
The upper-division curriculum comprises several requirements, courses that are recommended, elective options. CUA Law students must complete a minimum of 84 credits to earn the J. D. degree. Required upper division courses include Constitutional Law II, Professional Responsibility, Professional Skills, Upper-Level Writing; the law school is developing a Transition-to-Practice requirement for students. This new requirement is expected to be fulfilled by taking either a clinical course, or a capstone course. Foundational courses for all areas of legal practice—and thus recommended for all Upper Division students— include Evidence and Criminal Procedure. To respond to increasing demand for specialized legal services, the Law School has developed practice-area concentrations for upper division students in Civil Litigation, Criminal Litigation, Family Law, Intellectual Property and Employment Law and Securities Regulation. In addition to the J. D. program, the school offers LL. M. Programs in Law & Technology, Securities Law, Comparative and International Law.
The school offers an LL. M. program in American law with the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland. It allows Jagiellonian law students and students enrolled in the CUA-JU LL. M. program to study the essential substantive and procedural elements of the legal system of the United States. The school offers a M. L. S. degree program, which enhances the ability of professionals to work with lawyers and legal issues, to gain a deeper knowledge of a particular legal field, to understand laws and regulations. Students can choose to concentrate in the fields of Compliance and Corporate Responsibility and Human Resources, or Intellectual Property. Alternatively, students may choose a General U. S. Law option, which provides a broad overview of the law and legal practice. CUA Law had 42 full-time faculty members as of 2013; the school's student-faculty ratio was 10.27 to 1. CUA Law offers five opportunities for specialized legal study; the programs are designed to give students the opportunity to pursue a specified concentration of courses.
Each institute accepts 15 students each academic year. They are: Law and Technology Institute Comparative and International Law Institute Law and Public Policy Program Securities and Corporate Law Program Interdisciplinary Program in Law and Religion Founded in 1969, Columbus Community Legal Services offers four legal clinics that offer students hands-on learning; the Columbus Community Legal Services clinics include the General Practice Clinic. In addition, the school offers the Criminal Prosecution Clinic, the Immigration Litigation Clinic, the Innocence Project Clinic and Clemency Project, the Virginia Criminal Defense Clinic, an SEC Student Observer Program; the Columbus School of Law has an extensive legal externship program through which about 200 upperclass students per year earn course credits during the fall and summer by working in nonprofit organizations. C. area. The Columbus School of Law has two student-edited law journals: Catholic University Law Review Catholic University Journal of Law and Technology CUA Law enrolled a total of 519 students for the 2013-2014, 65.9% of whom were full-time students.
The school's incoming class included 161 students. CUA Law had the third
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania
The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the highest court in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's Unified Judicial System. It claims to be the oldest appellate court in the United States, a claim, disputed by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court; the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania began in 1684 as the Provincial Court, casual references to it as the "Supreme Court" of Pennsylvania were made official in 1722 upon its reorganization as an entity separate from the control of the royal governor. Today, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania maintains a discretionary docket, meaning that the Court may choose which cases it accepts, with the exception of mandatory death penalty appeals, certain appeals from the original jurisdiction of the Commonwealth Court; this discretion allows the Court to wield powerful influence on the formation and interpretation of Pennsylvania law. The original Pennsylvania constitutions, drafted by William Penn, established a Provincial Court under the control of his British governors.
The General Assembly, espoused the principle of separation of powers and formally called for a third branch of government starting with the 1701 Judiciary Bill. In 1722, the appointed British governor needed the House to raise revenues. House leaders agreed to raise taxes in return for an independent Supreme Court; the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania predates the United States Supreme Court by more than 100 years. Interpreting the Pennsylvania Constitution, it was the first independent Supreme Court in the United States to claim the power to declare laws made by an elected legislative body unconstitutional; the court meets in Philadelphia and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court consists of each elected to ten year terms. Supreme Court judicial candidates may run on party tickets; the justice with the longest continuous service on the court automatically becomes Chief Justice. Justices must step down from the Supreme Court when they reach the age of 75, but they may continue to serve part-time as "senior justices" on panels of the Commonwealth's lower appellate courts until they reach 78, the age of mandatory retirement.
Prior to 2002, judicial candidates in Pennsylvania were prohibited from expressing their views on disputed legal or political issues. However, after a similar law in Minnesota was struck down as unconstitutional, the Pennsylvania rules were amended, judicial candidates may now express political viewpoints as long as they do not "commit or appear to commit the candidate with respect to cases, controversies or issues that are to come before the court." After the ten-year term expires, a statewide yes or no vote for retention is conducted. If the judge is retained, he/she serves another ten-year term. If the judge is not retained, the governor, subject to the approval of the State Senate, appoints a temporary replacement until a special election can be held; as of 2005, only one judge has failed to win retention. Justice Russell M. Nigro received a majority of no votes in the election of 2005 and was replaced by Justice Cynthia Baldwin, appointed by Governor Rendell in 2005. Only one Supreme Court Justice, Rolf Larsen, has been removed from office by impeachment.
In 1994, the State House of Representatives handed down articles of impeachment consisting of seven counts of misconduct. A majority of the State Senate voted against Larsen in five of the seven counts but only one charge garnered the two-thirds majority needed to convict. Under the 1874 Constitution and until the Pennsylvania state constitution of 1968, Supreme Court justices were elected to 21 year terms. At the time, it was the longest term of any elected office in the United States. Superior Court of Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Unified Court System page on the Supreme Court
Temple University Beasley School of Law
The Temple University James E. Beasley School of Law is one of the professional graduate schools of Temple University, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1895, the law school has an enrollment of about 530 students. In 2018, Temple Beasley School of Law was ranked the 47th best law school overall and 2nd best for Trial Advocacy training by US News & World Report. Temple Law boasts a top-three national ranking in Trial Advocacy, is a perennial powerhouse in national Mock Trial competition. Temple Law offers a rated evening program for working students. S. News & World Report; the admission for the fall 2017 entering class was competitive, with 223 applicants being enrolled from a pool of 2,099. The class represented 109 different colleges, came from 23 states and countries. In the 2017 entering class, women represented 54% of the class, 29% were minority students and the average age was 25; the median GPA was 3.49 and the median LSAT score was 160. The 25th/75th percentile of entrants had GPAs of 3.24/3.70, LSAT scores of 156/162.
Temple Law School employs 68 full-time faculty members and retains numerous local attorneys as adjuncts. The faculty is well diverse. Gregory N. Mandel, a noted intellectual property law scholar, was named Dean in May 2017. JoAnne A. Epps, a professor at Temple Law since 1985, served as Dean from 2008-2016, when she was appointed Provost of Temple University. Robert J. Reinstein served as Dean of the Law School from 1989 to 2008. Integrated Trial Advocacy Program Integrated Transactional Program The Law & Public Policy Program Temple Law School offers two study abroad programs that are open to students from any ABA approved law school: the summer session in Rome and the spring semester in Tokyo; the Tokyo program is the most notable, as it is the only ABA-accredited semester program for law students in Japan. Additionally, Temple JD students are eligible to study at the following partner institutions:Tsinghua University, University College Cork, Tel Aviv University, Utrecht University, Jindal Global Law School, University of Lucerne, InterAmerican University, Bocconi University, University of Muenster.
Study abroad credits from any program can be used toward the J. D. program or the joint JD/LL. M. in Transnational Law. The Law School offers several advanced degree programs, including Master of Laws Degree in Trial Advocacy, Transnational Law, Asian Law or Taxation. Certificate programs in Estate Planning and Employee Benefits are offered through the Taxation program. International lawyers have the opportunity to design their own curriculum through Temple's General LL. M. program. In addition to the LL. M. Temple offers an advanced degree for aspiring scholars, the Doctor of Juridical Science, a Graduate Teaching Fellowship program. LL. M. in Trial Advocacy LL. M. in Transnational Law LL. M. in TaxationThe Graduate Tax Program is designed to provide understanding of complex taxation issues. The program provides candidates with a strong foundation in tax law, as well as the opportunity to develop expertise beyond the level of study offered in J. D. programs. A degree candidate must satisfactorily complete 24 credit hours of course work, including all core curriculum requirements and a writing seminar.
Candidates may study on a full-time or part-time basis and all coursework must be completed within four years of matriculation. Applicants must have satisfactorily completed a basic income tax course in law school or demonstrated comparable work experience. An applicant who cannot meet this requirement must take the basic course in taxation offered in Temple's J. D. program in the student's first term after admission to the LL. M. program. Temple's LL. M. in Asian law is designed for J. D. holders and students who wish to focus on the law of Asian countries China and India, the more powerful economies of the region. Students complete the first of two semesters at the Philadelphia campus, taking foundational courses such as Chinese Law, Japanese Law, Law in Asia. Students are required to spend the second semester at one of either Temple University Japan in Tokyo, Jindal Global Law School in the National Capital Region of India, or Tsinghua University Law School in Beijing, China. Students must maintain a G.
P. A. of at least 2.50 over the course of the 24 credits. Temple offers a general studies LL. M. program for foreign-trained lawyers. With the exception of two required research and writing courses, students can design their own curriculum from more than 180 courses offered annually in American and International law. General LL. M. degree candidates must complete 24 credit hours of course work with a cumulative grade point average of 2.0. The program can be completed in two semesters continuing through May. In addition to the main campus in Philadelphia, the General LL. M. is offered in Beijing. Students can earn up to 6 credits at Temple's six-week summer law program in Rome, Italy. Students in this program must complete classes at the main campus; the Doctor of Juridical Science is a research-oriented degree program designed for those seeking to pursue careers as law teachers and scholars of law. Candidates enrolled in the S. J. D. program are required to spend their initial academic year in residence at the main campus in Philadelphia.
An Estate Planning Certificate and Employee Benefits Certificate is offered through the Graduate Tax Program for practitioners who do not wish to pursue an LL. M. degree. The Estate Planning Certificate exposes students to federa
West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania
West Conshohocken is a borough in Montgomery County, United States. The population was 1,320 at the 2010 census, its sister community is Conshohocken, located across the Schuylkill River. Montgomery County's seat, Norristown, is located two miles north of, across the river from, West Conshohocken. West Conshohocken Borough was incorporated October 6, 1874 from land taken equally from the Townships of Lower and Upper Merion; as a river borough, there existed a large number of mills and other industries utilizing water power. The Dougherty Quarry was a prosperous business, producing stone of superior quality known as Conshohocken or Merion Blue, it was much sought after for public buildings, was shipped by rail throughout the East before supplies were exhausted in the mid-twentieth century. Today, with its proximity to highways I-76 and I-476, this small borough and its sister Conshohocken Borough have experienced moderate office and retail development. West Conshohocken is identified by the mid and high-rise commercial development along its waterfront, which in recent years has spread across the river to Conshohocken's waterfront.
West Conshohocken is located at 40°4′10″N 75°18′57″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.9 square miles, of which, 1.0 square mile of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. The borough contains most of the I-76/I-476/PA-23 interchange, which takes up a large portion of the borough's land; this is a regionally important interchange, carrying large volumes of traffic to and from the northern and western Philadelphia suburbs. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, West Conshohocken has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the 2010 census, the borough was 90.1% White, 3.6% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 3.3% Asian, 1.7% were two or more races. 3.6% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry As of the census of 2000, there were 1,446 people, 600 households, 342 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 1,701.4 people per square mile. There were 633 housing units at an average density of 744.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 93.91% White, 2.84% African American, 0.07% Native American, 1.80% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.11% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.04% of the population. There were 600 households, out of which 17.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.0% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.01. In the borough the population was spread out, with 17.6% under the age of 18, 12.6% from 18 to 24, 35.2% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 102.0 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.0 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $56,111, the median income for a family was $62,708. Males had a median income of $40,833 versus $31,696 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $30,627. About 3.5% of families and 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.1% of those under age 18 and 2.7% of those age 65 or over. West Conshohocken has a city manager form of government with a mayor and a seven-member borough council; the borough is part of the Fourth Congressional District, the 149th State House District and the 17th State Senate District. Public water is provided by Aqua of PA. Sewer facilities were sold in June 2017 to the Borough of Conshohocken for around $9,500,500.00 West Conshohocken sewers are now owned and managed by the Conshohocken Authority, all payments go to Conshohocken. Residential trash pickup is still provided by West Conshohocken. A full-time police force serves the community, but fire protection is provided by a volunteer company, The George Clay Steam Fire Engine and Hose Company Number 1, Station 39.
SEPTA bus lines provide access to the Norristown Transportation Center, bus and rail lines connect the borough to other portions of Montgomery County and Philadelphia. West Conshohocken pupils are assigned to schools in the Upper Merion Area School District. Residents have access to the Conshohocken Free Library; the area is served by two hospitals, Einstein Medical Center Montgomery and Suburban Community Hospital. ASTM International Collectables Records and Alpha Video Connelly Foundation Cheswold Lane Asset Management Borough of West Conshohocken George Clay Steam Fire Engine and Hose Company, Station 39 Montgomery County Pennsylvania website Pictorial History of the Conshohockens News/Gossip of West Conshohocken/Conshohocken