The nasalis is a sphincter-like muscle of the nose whose function is to compress the nasal cartilages. It is the muscle responsible for "flaring" of the nostrils; some people can use it to close the nostrils to prevent entry of water. It consists of two parts and alar: The transverse part arises from the maxilla and lateral to the incisive fossa, it compresses the nostrils and may close them. The alar part arises from the maxilla over the lateral incisor and inserts into the greater alar cartilage, its medial fibres tend to blend with the depressor septi, has been described as part of that muscle. Like all the other muscles of facial expression, nasalis muscle is innervated by the seventh cranial nerve: the facial nerve. Interactive diagram at ivy-rose.co.uk
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments. Ligaments join one bone to bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone for a proper functioning of the body. Histologically, tendons consist of dense regular connective tissue fascicles encased in dense irregular connective tissue sheaths. Normal healthy tendons are composed of parallel arrays of collagen fibers packed together, they are anchored to bone by Sharpey's fibres. The dry mass of normal tendons, which makes up about 30% of their total mass, is composed of about 86% collagen, 2% elastin, 1–5% proteoglycans, 0.2% inorganic components such as copper and calcium. The collagen portion is made up of 97–98% type I collagen, with small amounts of other types of collagen; these include type II collagen in the cartilaginous zones, type III collagen in the reticulin fibres of the vascular walls, type IX collagen, type IV collagen in the basement membranes of the capillaries, type V collagen in the vascular walls, type X collagen in the mineralized fibrocartilage near the interface with the bone.
Collagen fibres coalesce into macroaggregates. After secretion from the cell, the cleaved by procollagen N- and C-proteinases, the tropocollagen molecules spontaneously assemble into insoluble fibrils. A collagen molecule is about 300 nm long and 1–2 nm wide, the diameter of the fibrils that are formed can range from 50–500 nm. In tendons, the fibrils assemble further to form fascicles, which are about 10 mm in length with a diameter of 50–300 μm, into a tendon fibre with a diameter of 100–500 μm. Fascicles are bound by the endotendineum, a delicate loose connective tissue containing thin collagen fibrils. and elastic fibres. Groups of fascicles are bounded by the epitenon. Filling the interstitia within the fascia where the tendon is located is the paratenon a fatty areolar tissue; the collagen in tendons are held together with proteoglycan components including decorin and, in compressed regions of tendon, which are capable of binding to the collagen fibrils at specific locations. The proteoglycans are interwoven with the collagen fibrils – their glycosaminoglycan side chains have multiple interactions with the surface of the fibrils – showing that the proteoglycans are important structurally in the interconnection of the fibrils.
The major GAG components of the tendon are dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which associate with collagen and are involved in the fibril assembly process during tendon development. Dermatan sulfate is thought to be responsible for forming associations between fibrils, while chondroitin sulfate is thought to be more involved with occupying volume between the fibrils to keep them separated and help withstand deformation; the dermatan sulfate side chains of decorin aggregate in solution, this behavior can assist with the assembly of the collagen fibrils. When decorin molecules are bound to a collagen fibril, their dermatan sulfate chains may extend and associate with other dermatan sulfate chains on decorin, bound to separate fibrils, therefore creating interfibrillar bridges and causing parallel alignment of the fibrils; the tenocytes produce the collagen molecules, which aggregate end-to-end and side-to-side to produce collagen fibrils. Fibril bundles are organized to form fibres with the elongated tenocytes packed between them.
There is a three-dimensional network of cell processes associated with collagen in the tendon. The cells communicate with each other through gap junctions, this signalling gives them the ability to detect and respond to mechanical loading. Blood vessels may be visualized within the endotendon running parallel to collagen fibres, with occasional branching transverse anastomoses; the internal tendon bulk is thought to contain no nerve fibres, but the epitenon and paratenon contain nerve endings, while Golgi tendon organs are present at the junction between tendon and muscle. Tendon length varies from person to person. Tendon length is, in practice, the deciding factor regarding potential muscle size. For example, all other relevant biological factors being equal, a man with a shorter tendons and a longer biceps muscle will have greater potential for muscle mass than a man with a longer tendon and a shorter muscle. Successful bodybuilders will have shorter tendons. Conversely, in sports requiring athletes to excel in actions such as running or jumping, it is beneficial to have longer than average Achilles tendon and a shorter calf muscle.
Tendon length is determined by genetic predisposition, has not been shown to either increase or decrease in response to environment, unlike muscles, which can be shortened by trauma, use imbalances and a lack of recovery and stretching. Traditionally, tendons have been considered to be a mechanism by which muscles connect to bone as well as muscles itself, functioning to transmit forces; this connection allows tendons to passively modulate forces during locomotion, providing additional stability with no active work. However, over the past two decades, much research focused on the elastic properties of some tendons and their ability to function as springs. Not all tendons are required to perform the same functional role, with some predominantly positioning limbs, such as the fingers when writing and others acting as springs to make locomotion more efficient. Energy storing tendons can recover energy at high efficiency. For example, during a human stride, the Achilles tendon stretches as the ankle joint dorsiflexes.
During the last portion of the stride, as the foot plantar-flexes (pointing the
Levator anguli oris
The levator anguli oris is a facial muscle of the mouth arising from the canine fossa below the infraorbital foramen. It elevates angle of mouth medially, its fibers are inserted into the angle of the mouth, intermingling with those of the zygomaticus and orbicularis oris. The levator anguli oris is innervated by the buccal branches of the facial nerve; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 383 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy PTCentral
The temporal muscle known as the temporalis, is one of the muscles of mastication. It is a broad, fan-shaped muscle on each side of the head that fills the temporal fossa, superior to the zygomatic arch so it covers much of the temporal bone. In humans, it arises from the deep part of temporal fascia, it passes medial to the zygomatic arch and forms a tendon which inserts onto the coronoid process of the mandible, with its insertion extending into the retromolar fossa posterior to the most distal mandibular molar. In other mammals, the muscle spans the dorsal part of the skull all the way up to the medial line. There, it may be attached to a sagittal crest, as can be seen in early hominins like Paranthropus aethiopicus; the temporal muscle is covered by the temporal fascia known as the temporal aponeurosis. This fascia is used in tympanoplasty, or surgical reconstruction of the eardrum; the muscle is accessible on the temples, can be seen and felt contracting while the jaw is clenching and unclenching.
The temporalis is derived from the first pharyngeal arch in development. As with the other muscles of mastication, control of the temporal muscle comes from the third branch of the trigeminal nerve; the muscle is innervated by the deep temporal nerves. The muscle receives its blood supply from the deep temporal arteries which anastomose with the middle temporal artery; the temporal muscle is the most powerful muscle of the temporomandibular joint. The temporal muscle can be divided into two functional parts; the anterior portion its contraction results in elevation of the mandible. The posterior portion has fibers which run horizontally and contraction of this portion results in retrusion of the mandible; when lower dentures are fitted, they should not extend into the retromolar fossa to prevent trauma of the mucosa due to the contraction of the temporalis muscle. The temporalis is to be involved in jaw pain and headaches. Bruxism, the habitual grinding of teeth while sleeping, clenching of the jaw while stressed can lead to overwork of the temporalis and results in pain.
A myotendinous rupture of the temporalis can occur during a seizure due to extreme clenching of the jaw. During a seizure the contralateral temporalis muscle can enter spastic paralysis, this clenching in extreme cases can lead to a rupture on the myotendinous insertion at the coronoid process of the mandible. Anatomy photo:27:04-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Infratemporal Fossa: The Temporalis Muscle" The anatomical basis for surgical preservation of temporal muscle, Kadri, et al. J Neurosurg 2004, 100:517–522 at http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/documents/singerlab/files/Kadri%20et%20al.pdf Temporalis Muscle Transfer, The Methodist Hospital System, Houston, TX, at http://www.methodistfacialparalysis.com/temporalis/
Dilator naris muscle
The dilator naris muscle is a part of the nasalis muscle. It is divided into anterior parts; the dilator naris posterior is placed beneath the levator labii superioris. It arises from the margin of the nasal notch of the maxilla, from the lesser alar cartilages, is inserted into the skin near the margin of the nostril; the dilator naris anterior is a delicate fasciculus, passing from the greater alar cartilage to the integument near the margin of the nostril. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 382 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Mann DG, Sasaki CT, Fukuda H, Mann DG, Suzuki M, Hernandez JR. "Dilator naris muscle". Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 86: 362–70. PMID 869439
The procerus muscle is a small pyramidal slip of muscle deep to the superior orbital nerve and vein. Procerus extended; the procerus arises by tendinous fibers from the fascia covering the lower part of the nasal bone and upper part of the lateral nasal cartilage. It is inserted into the skin over the lower part of the forehead between the two eyebrows on either side of the midline, its fibers merging with those of the frontalis; the procerus helps to pull that part of the skin between the eyebrows downwards, which assists in flaring the nostrils. It can contribute to an expression of anger. Procerus is supplied by lower zygomatic branches from the facial nerve. A supply from its buccal branch has been described, its contraction can produce transverse wrinkles. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 382 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation. The actions of the six muscles responsible for eye movement depend on the position of the eye at the time of muscle contraction. Since only a small part of the eye called the fovea provides sharp vision, the eye must move to follow a target. Eye movements must be fast; this is seen in scenarios like reading. Although under voluntary control, most eye movement is accomplished without conscious effort. How the integration between voluntary and involuntary control of the eye occurs is a subject of continuing research, it is known, that the vestibulo-ocular reflex plays an important role in the involuntary movement of the eye. Four of the extraocular muscles have their origin in the back of the orbit in a fibrous ring called the annulus of Zinn: the four rectus muscles; the four rectus muscles attach directly to the front half of the eye, are named after their straight paths. Note that medial and lateral are relative terms.
Medial indicates near the midline, lateral describes a position away from the midline. Thus, the medial rectus is the muscle closest to the nose; the superior and inferior recti do not pull straight back on the eye, because both muscles pull medially. This posterior medial angle causes the eye to roll with contraction of either the superior rectus or inferior rectus muscles; the extent of rolling in the recti is less than the oblique, opposite from it. The superior oblique muscle originates at the back of the orbit, getting rounder as it courses forward to a rigid, cartilaginous pulley, called the trochlea, on the upper, nasal wall of the orbit; the muscle becomes tendinous about 10mm before it passes through the pulley, turning across the orbit, inserts on the lateral, posterior part of the globe. Thus, the superior oblique travels posteriorly for the last part of its path, going over the top of the eye. Due to its unique path, the superior oblique, when activated, pulls the eye laterally; the last muscle is the inferior oblique, which originates at the lower front of the nasal orbital wall, passes under the LR to insert on the lateral, posterior part of the globe.
Thus, the inferior oblique pulls the eye laterally. The movements of the extraocular muscles take place under the influence of a system of extraocular muscle pulleys, soft tissue pulleys in the orbit; the extraocular muscle pulley system is fundamental to the movement of the eye muscles, in particular to ensure conformity to Listing's law. Certain diseases of the pulleys cause particular patterns of incomitant strabismus. Defective pulley functions can be improved by surgical interventions; the extraocular muscles are supplied by branches of the ophthalmic artery. This is done either directly or indirectly, as in the lateral rectus muscle, via the lacrimal artery, a main branch of the ophthalmic artery. Additional branches of the ophthalmic artery include the ciliary arteries, which branch into the anterior ciliary arteries; each rectus muscle receives blood from two anterior ciliary arteries, except for the lateral rectus muscle, which receives blood from only one. The exact number and arrangement of these cilary arteries may vary.
Branches of the infraorbital artery supply inferior oblique muscles. The nuclei or bodies of these nerves are found in the brain stem; the nuclei of the abducens and oculomotor nerves are connected. This is important in coordinating the motion of the lateral rectus in one eye and the medial action on the other. In one eye, in two antagonistic muscles, like the lateral and medial recti, contraction of one leads to inhibition of the other. Muscles show small degrees of activity when resting, keeping the muscles taut; this "tonic" activity is brought on by discharges of the motor nerve to the muscle. The extraocular muscles develop along with the fatty tissue of the eye socket. There are three centers of growth that are important in the development of the eye, each is associated with a nerve. Hence the subsequent nerve supply of the eye muscles is from three cranial nerves; the development of the extraocular muscles is dependent on the normal development of the eye socket, while the formation of the ligament is independent.
Below is a table of each of the extraocular muscles and their innervation and insertions, the primary actions of the muscles. Intermediate directions are controlled by simultaneous actions of multiple muscles; when one shifts the gaze horizontally, one eye will move laterally and the other will move medially. This may be neurally coordinated by the central nervous system, to make the eyes move together and involuntarily; this is a key factor in the study of strabismus, the inability of the eyes to be directed to one point. There are two main kinds of movement: disjunctive; the former is typical when shifting gaze right or left, the latter is convergence of the two eyes on a near object. Disjunction can be performed voluntarily, but is triggered by the nearness of the target object. A "see-saw" movement, one eye looking up and the other down, is possible, but not voluntarily. To avoi