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Superoxide

A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide ion, which has the chemical formula O−2. The systematic name of the anion is dioxide; the reactive oxygen ion superoxide is important as the product of the one-electron reduction of dioxygen O2, which occurs in nature. Molecular oxygen is a diradical containing two unpaired electrons, superoxide results from the addition of an electron which fills one of the two degenerate molecular orbitals, leaving a charged ionic species with a single unpaired electron and a net negative charge of −1. Both dioxygen and the superoxide anion are free radicals that exhibit paramagnetism. Superoxide forms salts with alkaline earth metals; the salts CsO2, RbO2, KO2, NaO2 are prepared by the reaction of O2 with the respective alkali metal. The alkali salts of O − 2 are quite stable, provided they are kept dry. Upon dissolution of these salts in water, the dissolved O−2 undergoes disproportionation rapidly: 4 O−2 + 2 H2O → 3 O2 + 4 OH−This reaction is the basis of the use of potassium superoxide as an oxygen source in chemical oxygen generators, such as those used on the space shuttle and on submarines.

Superoxides are used in firefighters' oxygen tanks in order to provide a available source of oxygen. In this process O−2 acts as a Brønsted base forming the hydroperoxyl radical; the superoxide anion, O−2, its protonated form, are in equilibrium in an aqueous solution: O−2 + H2O ⇌ HO2 + OH−Given that the hydroperoxyl radical has a pKa of around 4.8, at neutral pH superoxide predominantly exists in the anionic form. Potassium superoxide is soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and is stable as long as protons are not available. Superoxide can be generated in aprotic solvents by cyclic voltammetry. Superoxide salts decompose in the solid state, but this process requires heating: 2 NaO2 → Na2O2 + O2 Superoxide and hydroperoxyl are discussed interchangeably, although superoxide predominates at physiological pHs. Both superoxide and hydroperoxyl are classified as reactive oxygen species, it is generated by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms. In phagocytes, superoxide is produced in large quantities by the enzyme NADPH oxidase for use in oxygen-dependent killing mechanisms of invading pathogens.

Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause an immunodeficiency syndrome called chronic granulomatous disease, characterized by extreme susceptibility to infection catalase-positive organisms. In turn, micro-organisms genetically engineered to lack the superoxide-scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase lose virulence. Superoxide is deleterious when produced as a byproduct of mitochondrial respiration, as well as several other enzymes, for example xanthine oxidase, which can catalyze the transfer of electrons directly to molecular oxygen under reducing conditions; because superoxide is toxic at high concentrations, nearly all organisms living in the presence of oxygen express SOD. SOD efficiently catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide: 2 HO2 → O2 + H2O2Other proteins that can be both oxidized and reduced by superoxide have weak SOD-like activity. Genetic inactivation of SOD produces deleterious phenotypes in organisms ranging from bacteria to mice and have provided important clues as to the mechanisms of toxicity of superoxide in vivo.

Yeast lacking both mitochondrial and cytosolic SOD grow poorly in air, but quite well under anaerobic conditions. Absence of cytosolic SOD causes a dramatic increase in genomic instability. Mice lacking mitochondrial SOD die around 21 days after birth due to neurodegeneration and lactic acidosis. Mice lacking cytosolic SOD are viable but suffer from multiple pathologies, including reduced lifespan, liver cancer, muscle atrophy, thymic involution, haemolytic anemia and a rapid age-dependent decline in female fertility. Superoxide may contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases, also to aging via the oxidative damage that it inflicts on cells. While the action of superoxide in the pathogenesis of some conditions is strong, the role of superoxide in aging must be regarded as unproven for now. In model organisms, genetically knocking out CuZnSOD shortens lifespan and accelerates certain features of aging, but the converse, increasing the levels of CuZnSOD, does not seem, to increase lifespan.

The most accepted view is that oxidative damage is but one of several factors limiting lifespan. The binding of O2 by reduced heme proteins involves formation of Fe superoxide complex; the assay of superoxide generated in biological systems is a difficult task because of its high reactivity and short half-life. One approach, used in quantitative assays converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, stable. Hydrogen peroxide is assayed by a fluorimetric method; as a free radical, superoxide has a strong EPR signal, it is possible to detect superoxide directly using this method when its abundance is high enough. For practical purposes, this can be achieved only in vitro under non-phys

Lin Kegong

Lin Kegong was a Taiwanese modern painter. Lin was born in Banqiao into the Lin Ben Yuan Family during Japanese rule, he was first educated in Hong Kong's St Stephen's College. From 1921 to 1925 he attended Cambridge University, studying law and economics and at Cambridge found that he had an interest in art, he joined the Cambridge Arts Society when taking the alternative courses in the Cambridge Arts College at the same time. He made use of his summer vacation to learn more about arts at St John's Service Arts College. Upon his graduation as a Bachelor in 1925, he was admitted by the David Slade Arts College, London University. In the same year, his works were accepted to the Royal Academy Exhibition in the U. K. In 1931 Lin returned to Taiwan to hold his own exhibition. Afterwards, some of his works, including “The Naked Body” and “The Beauty Under the Moon” were selected to be part of the 5th and 6th section of the Taiwan Arts Exhibition. In 1937, he was appointed as the Arts College headmaster.

In 1949, Lin Kegong returned to Taiwan via Hong Kong. At Liang Dingming's invitation, Lin began his teaching career in the Arts College of Political Warfare School in 1956. In 1973, he was a member of the jury of the São Paulo Art Biennial. In 1991 he received the Achievement Reward in the category of Culture and Arts by the Council for Cultural Affairs with. Lin regarded music as an important part of creation. A great deal of Lin's works were inspired by his careful observation on the nature and his personal understanding in the relationship between the nature and the personal life. Brushwork: similar to the Chinese painting. Before drawing the whole picture, he was used to sketch the background out, it was by doing so that Lin was able to complete the structure of the picture in a whole. Lin Kegong's “The Countryside in the UK” is his earliest extant painting. In this picture, a river in Bristow, UK is depicted. Attracted by light reflected by the river, Lin Kegong applied the perspective line disappearance method to show the near sight and the distant view.

He showed the actual distance by means of the size of the crossing waterway and the bridge. In this picture, the leveling method is applied, as in watercolor painting; the painting revealed the attic scenery of a European Building. Commercial Press. 2012. "Dictionary of Taiwanese History - Lin." http://nrch.cca.gov.tw/ccahome/website/site20/contents/008/cca220003-li-wpkbhisdict001525-0476-u.xml. Encyclopedia of Taiwan. 2010. "Lin Kegung." Https://archive.is/20130708074407/http://taiwanpedia.culture.tw/web/content? ID=4682 Kegong, Lin. 2012."Taiwan Teacher." Https://web.archive.org/web/20070823095452/http://www.taiwanteacher.tw/utt_cd1/e16.htm. Taiwan Art Museum. 2012 "Taiwanese Artists - Linkegong.".http://over.tngs.tn.edu.tw/arts/arts-004/arts-004-016/arts-004-016.htm. 視覺素養學習網. "林克恭". Http://vr.theatre.ntu.edu.tw/fineart/painter-tw/limkackeong/limkackeong.htm "LIM KAC KEONG". Taiwan Digital Gallery. Retrieved 22 August 2014

King and Queen Court House, Virginia

King and Queen Court House is a census-designated place in, the county seat of, King and Queen County, United States. The population as of the 2010 census was 85; the community runs on the north side of the valley of the Mattaponi River. King and Queen Court House is the location of Central High School, a post office, several businesses, a government complex that includes the county's old and new court houses; the courthouse dates from circa 1750. Federal troops burned the building on March 10, 1864, during the American Civil War, but it was repaired and is still in service. On June 20, 1863, scouts of Confederate Brigadier General Montgomery Dent Corse reported a raiding party, 300 strong and destroying the community. Renovation of the historic Fary Tavern began in December 1999, the King and Queen Courthouse Tavern Museum opened to the public in May 2001; the museum's mission is to be an archive and cultural center for King and Queen County history. The King and Queen Historical Society operates the Courthouse Tavern Museum in cooperative partnership with King and Queen County.

King and Queen Courthouse Green Historic District

Jatt Pardesi

Jatt Pardesi is a Punjabi film directed by Jaspreet singh Attorney & Pawandeep Kumar, Produced by Jaspreet singh Attorney. Ballu Singh Aman Jay Mala Sethi Mannu Sandhu Davinder hothi Dharmendra Jaspreet singh Attorney Binnu Dhillon K. S. Makhan Aman Dhaliwal Surinder Shinda Bob Khehra Satpreet Singh Baljiwan Dhaliwal Darshan Kehal Mike Soldier Nancy French Scott Free Sarah Rose Butler Katrina Sherwood Aaron Wimmer Thomas Appley Vinay Vohra Shabba Thiara Malkiat Singh Rauni HS Bhajan Davinder Singh Pammi Jaspreet Singh Attorney Pawandeep Kumar Hamza Raza Jaspreet Singh Attorney at Law USA Sarabjit Singh Kang USA Sarbjit Singh Thiara USA Surinder Shinda Laddi Dhaliwal Harnek Virdi Dilkhush Thind Sarang Ahuja Jaspreet Singh Attorney Sukhdeep Singh USA Jaspreet singh Attorney Mohan Bansianwala Pargat Singh KS Makhan Kamal Khan Surinder Shinda Harjit Harman Renu Bala Jaspreet singh Attorney Shabdeesh Kumar Jatt Pardesi Official Facebook

Linus Parker

Linus Parker was a Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected in 1882. Linus was born on a farm near Oneida County, New York, he married Sarah E. F. Sale in 1853, she died of yellow fever September 13, 1855. Her tombstone still stands in Louisiana. After five years Linus married a second time, to Ellen K. Burruss, they had three sons, one of whom became Dean of the Candler School of Theology, Franklin N. Parker. Linus worked for an older brother in a store in New Orleans in 1845. During this time, he studied Latin and Greek before daylight in the morning and after his return from business in the evening. In 1846 he served as a soldier in the Mexican–American War. After that he was convinced to enter the Methodist ministry. During March 1849 Linus served as a Supply Pastor for the church on Algiers Street, he was Licensed to Preach in May of that year. He joined the Louisiana Annual Conference, becoming an ordained Elder in 1853. Rev. Parker served the following appointments, all in Louisiana: Lake Providence, Felicity Street, New Orleans, Carondelet Street, New Orleans, Presiding Elder of the New Orleans District, Felicity Street again, Shreveport again, the Caldo Circuit, Felicity Street a third time.

Rev. Parker became the editor of the Christian Advocate, he was elected a delegate to General Conferences in 1866, 1874, 1874 and 1882. Linus Parker was elected to the episcopacy in 1882; as bishop he gave episcopal supervision to the Texas, North Carolina and Maryland annual conferences. Bishop Parker died of an apparent cerebral hemorrhage on 5 March 1885 in New Orleans. C. B. Galloway, Linus Parker: His Life and writings List of Bishops of the United Methodist Church Leete, Frederick DeLand, Methodist Bishops. Nashville, The Methodist Publishing House, 1948. Linus Parker Papers, 1853-1885, MSS 091, Archives and Manuscripts Dept. Pitts Theology Library, Emory University. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "Parker, Linus". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Linus Parker papers, 1853-1886 at Pitts Theology Library, Candler School of Theology "Parker, Linus". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920

James Atlas

James Robert Atlas was a writer of biographies, as well as a publisher. He was the president of Atlas & Company, founding editor of the Penguin Lives Series. Atlas was born in Illinois to Donald and Nora Atlas, his father was a physician and his mother was a homemaker. Atlas graduated from in 1967 during the turmoil of the 1960s, he studied at Harvard under Robert Lowell and Elizabeth Bishop with the intention of becoming a poet. He studied under the biographer Richard Ellmann, as a Rhodes Scholar. During his time at Oxford he was inspired to become a biographer. Atlas was a contributor to The New Yorker, he was an editor at The New York Times Magazine for many years, he wrote several novels and two biographies. In 2002, he started Atlas Books, which at one time published two series in conjunction with HarperCollins and W. W. Norton. In 2007, the company was renamed to coincide with the launch of its new list. Atlas's work appeared in The New York Times Book Review, The New York Review of Books, The London Review of Books, Vanity Fair, Harper's, New York Magazine, Huffington Post.

In 1975 he married psychiatrist Dr. Anna Fels. Atlas died in New York on September 4, 2019 from complications of a lung condition, he was survived by his wife and a son and grandson. Ten American Poets: An Anthology of Poems, Cheadle: Carcanet Press, 1973 Delmore Schwartz: The Life of an American Poet, New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1977 Battle of the Books: The Curriculum Debate in America, W. W. Norton: 1993 Bellow: A Biography, New York: Random House and London: Faber, 2000 My Life in the Middle Ages: A Survivor's Tale, New York: HarperCollins, 2005 (An adaptation of a series of articles he did for The New Yorker, The Great Pretender, a semi-autobiographical novel about coming of age in the 1960s, he is a longtime board member of the Harvard Advocate, which has published his work. How They See Us: Meditations on America. Atlas. 2009. ISBN 978-1-934633-10-6. Regarding some global views of America; the Shadow in the Garden: A Biographer's Tale, Pantheon Books, New York 2017 New York Observer article mentions Atlas' postponement of spring 2009 list Publishers Weekly article, "Atlas Books Starts New Line," Atlas & Co.

Appearances on C-SPAN