A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses. As of 2015, somewhat less than half of the national legislatures are bicameral. Often, the members of the two chambers are elected or selected using different methods, which vary from country to country and this can often lead to the two chambers having very different compositions of members. However, in many Westminster system parliaments, the house to which the executive is responsible can overrule the other house, some legislatures lie in between these two positions, with one house only able to overrule the other under certain circumstances. For example, one house would represent the aristocracy, and the other would represent the commoners as was the case in the Kingdom of England. Others, such as France under the Ancien Régime had a legislature known as the Estates General, which consisted of separate chambers for the clergymen, the nobility. The Founding Fathers of the United States favoured a bicameral legislature, the idea was to have the Senate be wealthier and wiser.
Benjamin Rush saw this though, and noted that, this type of dominion is almost always connected with opulence, the Senate was created to be a stabilising force, elected not by mass electors, but selected by the State legislators. Senators would be more knowledgeable and more sort of republican nobility—and a counter to what Madison saw as the fickleness. He noted further that the use of the Senate is to consist in its proceeding with more coolness, with system and with more wisdom. Madisons argument led the Framers to grant the Senate prerogatives in foreign policy, an area where steadiness, the Senate was chosen by state legislators, and senators had to possess a significant amount of property in order to be deemed worthy and sensible enough for the position. In fact, it was not until the year 1913 that the 17th Amendment was passed, as part of the Great Compromise, they invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the Senate would have states represented equally, and the House would have them represented by population.
Many nations with parliaments have to some degree emulated the British three-tier model, the older justification for second chambers—providing opportunities for second thoughts about legislation—has survived. An example of controversy regarding a second chamber has been the debate over the powers of the Canadian Senate or the election of the Senate of France. The relationship between the two chambers varies, in cases, they have equal power, while in others. The first tends to be the case in federal systems and those with presidential governments, the latter tends to be the case in unitary states with parliamentary systems. In the United States both houses of the U. S and this is due to their original location in the two-story building that was to house them. In Canada, the country as a whole is divided into a number of Senate Divisions, each with a different number of Senators, Senators in Canada are not elected by the people but are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister
The two-round system is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate. The two-round system is used around the world for the election of legislative bodies, for example, it is used in French presidential and departmental elections. In Italy, it is used to elect mayors, but to decide which party or coalition receives a majority bonus in city councils. Historically it was used in the German Empire of 1871–1918, in New Zealand in the 1908 and 1911 elections, the two-round system is known as run-off voting in the United States, where the second round is known as a run-off election. Run-off voting is sometimes used as a generic term to describe any method involving a number of rounds of voting. By this broader definition the system is not the only form of run-off voting. However the subject of article is the two-round system. In Canada, for example, candidates for party leadership. It is like a method, except the one candidate must win a simple majority.
Candidates with the fewest votes or candidates who want to move their support to other candidates may move to remove themselves from the next vote. In both rounds of an election conducted using runoff voting, the voter marks a X beside his/her favorite candidate. If no candidate has a majority of votes in the first round. In the second round, because there are two candidates, one candidate will achieve an absolute majority. In the second round, each voter is free to change the candidate he votes for, even if his preferred candidate has not yet been eliminated. Some variants of the system use a different rule for choosing candidates for the second round. Under such methods, it is sufficient for a candidate to receive a plurality of votes to be elected in the second round. Under some variants of runoff voting, there is no rule for eliminating candidates. In both elections, the communist candidate, Ernst Thälmann, did not withdraw and ran in the second round, in 1925, that probably ensured the election of Paul von Hindenburg, rather than Wilhelm Marx, the centrist candidate
Uzbekistan National Revival Democratic Party
The Uzbekistan National Revival Democratic Party is a political party in Uzbekistan. The Uzbekistan National Revival Democratic Party was formed in 1995 with a largely intellectual membership and has a high proportion of female members. The party advocates a strong sense of Uzbek culture, desiring a cultural revival, the party opposes the influence of Russia in the region and attacked the foundation of the Eurasian Economic Community on this basis. At the last legislative elections,24 December 2004 and 9 January 2005, the partys candidate for the 2007 Presidential election was Hurshid Dustmuhammad. The party announced its intention to merge with the Self-Sacrifice National Democratic Party in 2008 as the two shared common goals. The new group has retained the National Revival Democratic Party name
Shavkat Miromonovich Mirziyoyev is an Uzbek politician who has been President of Uzbekistan since 2016. Previously he was Prime Minister of Uzbekistan from 2003 to 2016, following the death of President Islam Karimov, he was appointed by the Supreme Assembly as interim President of Uzbekistan on 8 September 2016. He was subsequently elected as President in the December 2016 presidential election, winning 88. 6% of the vote, in 1981, Mirziyoyev graduated from the Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Melioration. He holds a Candidate degree in Technological Sciences and he served as governor of Jizzakh Region from 1996 to September 2001, as governor of Samarqand Region from September 2001 until his appointment as Prime Minister in 2003. He was nominated as Prime Minister by President Islam Karimov on December 12,2003 and he replaced Prime Minister O‘tkir Sultonov. Mirziyoyev and Han Myeong-sook, the Prime Minister of South Korea and they signed several agreements, including one deal in which Uzbekistan will send 300 tons of Uzbek uranium ore to South Korea every year from 2010 to 2014.
The deal bypasses U. S. companies that acted previously as middlemen for South Korean imports of Uzbek uranium ore, Han met with President Islam Karimov and parliament speaker Erkin Xalilov. Sook and Mirziyayev boosted cooperation in the energy, construction, trade between South Korea and Uzbekistan increased by nearly 40% between 2005 and 2006, to $565 million. A member of the Samarkand clan, he was considered to be one of the potential successors to Islam Karimov as President of Uzbekistan. Mirziyoyev was reported to have relations with Karimovs wife, Tatyana Karimova. After the death of Karimov was announced on 2 September 2016 and that was taken as a sign that Mirziyoyev would succeed Karimov as President. On 8 September 2016 he was appointed as Interim President of Uzbekistan by a joint session of both houses of parliament, there were expectations that Mirziyoyev would repair Uzbek relations with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The electoral commission announced on 16 September that Mirziyoyev would stand in the December 2016 presidential election as the candidate of the Liberal Democratic Party, Mirziyoyev won the election, held on 4 December 2016, with 88. 6% of the vote according to official results.
On 12 December 2016, Deputy Prime Minister Abdulla Aripov was nominated to take over from Mirziyoyev as Prime Minister. Mirziyoyev was sworn in as President on 14 December, vowing to continue the work of my dear teacher, Aripov was confirmed as Prime Minister by parliament on the same day, a cabinet reshuffle followed on 15 December. On 6 March 2017, he made a visit to Turkmenistan
People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan
The Peoples Democratic Party of Uzbekistan is a political party in Uzbekistan. Founded in 1991, the PDP, representing the wing of the political force of Uzbekistan, supports creation of strong legal state and humane. The PDP was founded in October 1991 after the Communist Party of Uzbekistan voted to cut its ties with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the party was led by President Islam Karimov since its foundation until 1996, at which point Karimov stepped down and resigned his membership. Karimov created the Uzbekistan Liberal Democratic Party in 2003, possibly with the intention of making the country appear to have a multiparty system and this is supported by the fact that the PDP has remained supportive of Karimovs policies and retained his favor. In 2013, Hotamzhon Ketmonov was elected chairman of the PDP, Ketmonov ran as the partys candidate in the 2015, receiving 2. 92% of the vote. At the legislative elections of 24 December 2004 and 9 January 2005, politics of Uzbekistan Left-wing politics Peoples Democratic Party of Uzbekistan website
Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, is one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world. Located in Central Asia, it is a unitary, presidential republic, comprising twelve provinces, one autonomous republic and a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries, Kazakhstan to the north, Tajikistan to the southeast, Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Afghanistan to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southwest. Once part of the Turkic Khaganate and Timurid Empires, the region that includes the Republic of Uzbekistan was conquered in the early 16th century by Eastern Turkic-speaking nomads. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991, Uzbekistan is officially a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The countrys official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population, Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians, Tajiks and others.
A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims, Uzbekistan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, UN, and the SCO. While officially a republic, non-governmental human rights organizations define Uzbekistan as an authoritarian state with limited civil rights. Uzbekistans economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, uranium, despite the declared objective of transition to a market economy, its government continues to maintain economic controls which imports in favour of domestic import substitution. Uzbekistan has an area of 447,400 square kilometres and it is the 56th largest country in the world by area and the 42nd by population. Among the CIS countries, it is the 4th largest by area, Uzbekistan lies between latitudes 37° and 46° N, and longitudes 56° and 74° E. It stretches 1,425 kilometres from west to east and 930 kilometres from north to south, Uzbekistan shares a short border with Afghanistan to the south.
Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country and it is one of two doubly landlocked countries in the world, the other being Liechtenstein. In addition, due to its location within a series of endorheic basins, less than 10% of its territory is intensively cultivated irrigated land in river valleys and oases. The rest is vast desert and mountains, the climate in the Republic of Uzbekistan is continental, with little precipitation expected annually. The average summer high temperature tends to be 40 °C, while the winter low temperature is around −23 °C. Uzbekistan has a rich and diverse natural environment, the Aral Sea used to be the fourth-largest inland sea on Earth, acting as an influencing factor in the air moisture and arid land use. Since the 1960s, the decade when the misuse of the Aral Sea water began, it has shrunk to less than 50% of its former area, reliable, or even approximate data, have not been collected, stored or provided by any organization or official agency
Constitution of Uzbekistan
The Constitution of Uzbekistan was adopted on 8 December 1992 on the 11th session of the Supreme Council of Uzbekistan. It replaced the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan of 1978 and it is the supreme law of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Constitution of Uzbekistan contains six parts and it is divided into 26 chapters. The Constitution of Uzbekistan nominally creates a separation of powers among a strong presidency, the legislature, and a judiciary. The President of Uzbekistan, who is elected to a five-year term that can be renewed once, is the head of state and is granted supreme executive power by the constitution. As commander in chief of the forces, the President may declare a state of emergency or of war. The President has the power to dissolve the parliament, in effect negating the Oliy Majliss veto power over presidential nominations in a power struggle situation www. lex. uz. The 150 deputies to the Legislative Chamber of the bicameral Oliy Majlis, the 100-member Senate includes 16 directly nominated by the President.
Besides legislation, international treaties, presidential decrees, and states of emergency must be ratified by the Oliy Majlis, the national judiciary includes the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the High Economic Court. Lower court systems exist at the regional and town levels, judges at all levels are appointed by the President and approved by the Oliy Majlis. Nominally independent of the branches of government, the courts remain under the effective control of the executive branch. -Chapter 1 - State Sovereignty - Article 1, Uzbekistan is a democratic republic. Both names of the state - the Republic of Uzbekistan and Uzbekistan - shall be equivalent, - Article 2, The state shall express the will of the people and serve their interests. State bodies and officials shall be accountable to the society and the citizens, the state frontier and the territory of Uzbekistan shall be inviolable and indivisible. - Article 4, The state language of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be Uzbek, - Article 5, The Republic of Uzbekistan shall have its state symbols - the flag, the emblem, and the anthem-sanctioned by the law.
- Article 6, The capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be the city of Tashkent, -Chapter 2 - Democracy - Article 7, The people are the sole source of state power. - Article 8, The people of Uzbekistan consists of the citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan irrespective of their nationality, - Article 9, Major matters of public and state life shall be submitted for a nationwide discussion and put to a direct vote of the people. The procedure for holding referendums shall be specified by law, - Article 10, Only the National Assembly and the President of the Republic, elected by the people, can act on behalf of the people of Uzbekistan
Tashkent is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan. The officially registered population of the city in 2012 was about 2,309,300, due to its position in Central Asia, Tashkent came under Sogdian and Turkic influence early in its history, before Islam in the 8th century AD. After its destruction by Genghis Khan in 1219, the city was rebuilt, in 1865 it was conquered by the Russian Empire, and in Soviet times witnessed major growth and demographic changes due to forced deportations from throughout the Soviet Union. Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan, Tashkent retains a multi-ethnic population with ethnic Uzbeks as the majority, during its long history, Tashkent has had various changes in names and political and religious affiliations. Tashkent was settled by ancient people as an oasis on the Chirchik River, in ancient times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer capital of the Kangju confederacy. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as Chach, the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi refers to the city as Chach.
Later the town came to be known as Chachkand/Chashkand, meaning Chach City, the principality of Chach had a square citadel built around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some 8 kilometres south of the Syr Darya River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had more than 30 towns, the Buddhist monk Xuánzàng 玄奘, who travelled from China to India through Central Asia, mentioned the name of the city as Zhěshí 赭時. The Chinese chronicles Suí shū 隋書, Běi shǐ 北史 and Táng shū 唐書, in the early 8th century, the region was conquered by Muslim Arabs. The modern Turkic name of Tashkent comes from Kara-Khanid rule in the 10th century, after the 16th century, the name evolved from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand. The modern spelling of Tashkent reflects Russian orthography and 20th-century Soviet influence, the city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219 and lost much of its population as a result of the Mongols destruction of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1220. Under the Timurid and subsequent Shaybanid dynasties the citys population and culture gradually revived as a prominent strategic center of scholarship, commerce, in 1809, Tashkent was annexed to the Khanate of Kokand.
At the time, Tashkent had a population of around 100,000 and was considered the richest city in Central Asia and it prospered greatly through trade with Russia, but chafed under Kokand’s high taxes. The Tashkent clergy favored the clergy of Bukhara over that of Kokand, before the Emir of Bukhara could capitalize on this discontent, the Russian army arrived. While a small contingent staged an attack, the main force penetrated the walls. Although defense was stiff, the Russians captured the city two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to several thousand of the defenders. Chernyayev, dubbed the Lion of Tashkent by city elders, staged a campaign to win the population over. The Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the general as a loose cannon
Foreign relations of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991. However, it is opposed to reintegration and withdrew from the CIS collective security arrangement in 1999, Uzbekistan is an active supporter of U. S. efforts against worldwide terrorism and joined the coalitions which have dealt with both Afghanistan and Iraq. It is a member of the United Nations, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Partnership for Peace, and it is a founding member of and remains involved in the Central Asian Union, formed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, joined in March 1998 by Tajikistan. In 1999, Uzbekistan joined the GUAM alliance, which was formed in 1997, Uzbekistan is a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and hosts the SCO’s Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure in Tashkent. Uzbekistan joined the new Central Asian Cooperation Organization in 2002, the CACO consists of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is a member of and remains involved in the Central Asian Union, formed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Antti Turunen, the head of the Finnish Foreign Ministrys Eastern European and Central Asian department, led a European Union fact-finding mission to Tashkent, radio Free Europe journalists spoke to Turunen on September 1. Turunen said the visit was inconclusive, but promising enough for the EU to analyze to see if the sanctions imposed on Uzbekistan could be lifted. Turunens visit to Uzbekistan was the first EU visit since October, the diplomatic sanctions consisted of a ban on political contacts, aid cuts, and visa bans on officials held responsible for the events in Andijan and their cover-up. That will be part of the assessment of the sanctions regime, Turunen said that the visit went smoothly and that Uzbek Foreign Minister Vladimir Norov offered a warm reception. The EU delegation met with officials from the Justice Ministry, the Attorney Generals office and he stressed that the real issue for the EU is the Uzbek governments response to the Andijan massacre and human rights abuses. Well, it seems that at the moment the issue with the inquiry is not on the agenda as such.
The other issue is they are now willing to engage on human rights, to some kind of human rights dialogue or regular meetings on human rights issues which. Although he was unsure what prompted the invitation to EU officials, if the sanctions are lifted, a Cooperation Council meeting with Foreign Minister Norov will take place in Brussels this autumn. The Sultanates government has been pursuing economic diversification and privatisation policies for nearly a decade, having signed similar agreement with thirty of its other trading partners