Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Greece)
The Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs is a government agency of Greece. The Minister for Foreign Affairs controls the agency; the ministry has its headquarters in Athens. Georgios Katrougalos holds the Foreign Ministry post, succeeding Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras who held the post from 20 October 2018 until 15 February 2019; the Ministry for Foreign Affairs was first established in 1822 by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus as the Secretariat for External Affairs. In 1844 it was designated the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Minister for Foreign Affairs: Georgios Katrougalos Alternate Foreign Minister for Foreign Affairs: Sia Anagnostopoulou Deputy Ministers of Foreign Affairs: Markos Bolaris and Terence Quick Secretary General: Dimitrios Paraskevopoulos Secretary General for European Affairs: Panagiotis Pavlopoulos Secretary General for International Economic Relations: Ioannis Brachos Deputy Secretary General for International Economic Relations: Nikolaos Exadaktylos Special Secretary for Religious and Cultural Diplomacy: Efstathios C.
Lianos Liantis List of foreign ministers of Greece Minister for Foreign Affairs Ministry of Foreign Affairs Official website
The Hellenic Parliament is the parliament of Greece, located in the Old Royal Palace, overlooking Syntagma Square in Athens. The Parliament is the supreme democratic institution that represents the citizens through an elected body of Members of Parliament, it is a unicameral legislature of 300 members, elected for a four-year term. During 1844–63 and 1927–35 the parliament was bicameral with an upper house, the Senate, a lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, which retained the name Vouli. Several important Greek statesmen have served as Speakers of the Hellenic Parliament; the first national parliament of the independent Greek state was established in 1843, after the September 3rd Revolution, which forced King Otto to grant a constitution. The Constitution of 1844 established a constitutional monarchy under the decisive power of the monarch, who exercised legislative power jointly with the elected House of Representatives and the appointed Senate, it established the Ministers' accountability vis-à-vis the acts of the monarch, appointing and suspending them.
In October 1862 a rising wave of discontent led the people and the military to rebel again against King Otto and oust him along with the Wittelsbach dynasty. The revolt marked the end of constitutional monarchy and the beginning of a crowned democracy with George Christian Wilhelm of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Glücksburg dynasty as monarch; the Constitution of 1864 created a single-chamber Parliament, elected for a four-year term, abolished the Senate. Moreover, the King preserved the right to convoke ordinary and extraordinary parliamentary sessions, dissolve Parliament at his discretion, as long as the Cabinet signed and endorsed the dissolution decree. With the revisions of 1911 and 1952 it lasted more than a century, with one of its most important elements being the restoration of the principle of popular sovereignty. In 1911, a revision of the constitution resulted in stronger human rights, the reinforcement of the Rule of Law and the modernization of institutions, among them the Parliament.
With regard to the protection of individual rights the most noteworthy amendments to the Constitution of 1864 were a more effective protection of individual security, equality in taxation, the right to assemble and the inviolability of the domicile. Furthermore, the Constitution facilitated expropriation so that land be allocated to poor farmers, while at the same time guaranteeing judicial protection of property rights, it was the first time that the Constitution made provision for mandatory and free education for all, while the process of Constitutional revision was simplified. The Constitution of 1927 made provisions for a head of state that the Parliament and the Senate would elect to serve a five-year term; this "President of the Republic" would be held unaccountable from a political point of view. It recognized the status of political parties as organic elements of the polity and established their proportional representation in the composition of parliamentary committees; this reform of the Constitution is a part of the Second Hellenic Republic, in reference to the Greek State using a republican democracy as a form of governance.
This constitutional change was initiated in January 1924 and initiated on April 13th, 1924 by the Fourth National Assembly. Following World War II, the development of parliamentary institutions resumed in 1948 and in the beginning of the 1950s; the Constitution of 1952 consisted of 114 articles and to a large extent was attached to the Constitutions of 1864 and 1911. Its central innovations were the explicit institutionalization of parliamentarianism and the consolidation for the first time of the voting rights of women, as well as of their right to stand as candidates for parliamentary office. In February 1963 the government of Konstantinos Karamanlis submitted a proposal for an extensive revision of the Constitution, yet the proposal was never put into practice because only a few months after its submission, the government resigned and Parliament dissolved. After seven years of military dictatorship, on 8 December 1974, a referendum was conducted to decide the nature of the form of government.
By a majority of 69.18%, the Greeks decided against a constitutional monarchy and for a parliamentary republic. The Constitution of 1975 was drafted using those of 1952 and 1927, as well as the draft Constitutional revision proposals of 1963, while numerous clauses were based on the West German Constitution of 1949 and the French Constitution of 1958, it included various clauses on individual and social rights, in line with developments at that time, introduced a presidential/parliamentary democracy, wherein the head of state maintained the right to interfere in politics. Greece's current Constitution has been revised three times, with the first one taking place in 1986, when the responsibilities of the President of the Republic were curtailed. In 2001, a extensive revision took place as a total of 79 articles were amended; the new, revised Constitution introduced new individual rights, such as the protection of genetic data and identity or the protection of personal data from electronic processing, new rules of transparency in politics.
It modernized parliamentary functions, propped up decentralization, elevated the status of fundamental Independent Authorities into Constitutional institutions, adopted its provisions on MPs' disqualifications and incompatibilities to current reality a
Second Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras
The Second Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras was sworn in on 23 September 2015, following the Greek legislative election in September 2015. Alexis Tsipras, leader of Syriza, was sworn in as Prime Minister of Greece on 21 September, having agreed to re-form the coalition with Panos Kammenos and the Independent Greeks. On 16 June 2018 the Hellenic Parliament rejected motion of no confidence against the government with a 127-153 vote; the First Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras was formed following the legislative election in January 2015, was a coalition of Syriza and the Independent Greeks. Most notably, the government had to deal with the Greek government-debt crisis, but was responsible for the early July bailout referendum. Throughout the duration of their term, their main responsibility was re-negotiating the terms of the third bailout package. During the vote on the third bailout package in the Hellenic Parliament, a number of Syriza MPs voted against the package resulting in the government losing its majority.
For this reason and the government resigned on 20 August and called for a snap election to take place on 20 September. Prokopis Pavlopoulos, the President of Greece had to allow for all the opposition parties to attempt to form a government of their own, but none of them had sufficient numbers of MPs. Subsequently, a caretaker cabinet led by Vassiliki Thanou-Christophilou was formed on 27 August to lead the country into the election. During the election campaign period, opinion polls had suggested that Syriza and New Democracy, led by Vangelis Meimarakis, were neck and neck, with some polls showing New Democracy ahead and others showing Syriza ahead; the exit polls showed that Syriza was on 30-34%, New Democracy was on 28.5-32.5%. At 12:00 GMT on 21 September, Tsipras met with Panos Kammenos, his former coalition partner, at the Syriza party HQ in Athens. At the meeting, they discussed the make-up of the new cabinet. Alternate Ministers are directly assigned special responsibilities and powers by the prime minister, including: full parliamentary powers and, in conjunction with the minister, the legislative initiative the right to issue individual and normative acts, to propose individual and normative decreesFull ministers however retain: the identification of ministerial policy in the cabinet the representation in bodies of the European Union the appointment of administrative agencies, public services and personnelDeputy ministers are assigned with responsibilities and powers by the prime minister and the full minister they report to.
Bold denotes full ministers attending the weekly cabinet council.a Deputy ministers are not members of the cabinet but may attend cabinet meetings. References
Greek passports are issued to Greek citizens for the purpose of international travel. Biometric passports have been issued since 26 August 2006, with old-style passports being declared invalid as of 1 January 2007. Since June 2009, the passport's RFID chip includes two index fingerprints as well as a high-resolution JPEG image of the passport holder; every Greek citizen is a citizen of the European Union. The passport, along with the national identity card allows for free rights of movement and residence in any of the states of the European Union and European Economic Area; the Greek passport follows the standard European Union passport design, with a burgundy red cover and the national emblem emblazoned on the centre of the front cover. The word ΔΙΑΒΑΤΗΡΙΟ is inscribed below the coat of arms, while ΕΥΡΩΠΑΪΚΗ ΕΝΩΣΗ and ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ appear above. A Greek diplomatic passport has the same size and design as the standard one, but it features a black cover and the text ΔΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΟ ΔΙΑΒΑΤΗΡΙΟ inscribed below the coat of arms.
Greek passports are valid for 5 years. All fields on the bearer's page are indicated in Greek and in English, with the translation in the other EU-languages elsewhere in the passport; the main information of the bearer are transcription from the Greek to the Latin script. The following fields are shown: Type Passport number Country Surname [Greek/Latin script) Name [Greek/Latin script) Nationality Date of Birth Place of birth Sex Issue Date Expiry Date Issuing Office The bearer's page contains a machine readable strip starting with P<GRC. The latest version of Greek passport meets international standards as defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization. New features include secure lamination, color-shifting ink, pages with intricate designs, watermarks, security threads, images visible only with ultraviolet light, raised printing, a chip; the data stored on the chip are protected by using advanced digital encryption techniques. Greek passports are issued by the National Passport Centre.
Applicants have to apply in person—in case of a child under 14, accompanied by a parent—at the local police department or at a Greek Consulate Authority. Upon submitting all the requirements, the police department begins the issuing procedure. All passports are manufactured centrally at the N. P. C main building in Athens. Depending on the circumstances, passports are issued in 3 to 9 business days and must be picked up at the police department in which the issuing request was made. For this, an applicant must carry with her/him a special receipt. Standard passports are valid for a period of 5 years for people 14 years old and older, 3 years for children under 14. Greek passports cannot be extended. A holder has to make a request for a new one if his/her passport expires within the next six months of the request and he/she plans to use it after the expiry date; the issuing of a standard adult passport costs €84.40, while that of a child costs €73.60. Reissuance of an existing and still-valid passport with no blank pages is possible with a validity date equal to the previous passport and a cost of €53.
Visa requirements for Greek citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Greece. As of 3 July 2018, Greek citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 183 countries and territories, ranking the Greek passport 6th in the world according to the Visa Restrictions Index. Additionally, Arton Capital's Passport Index ranked the Greek passport 3rd in the world in terms of travel freedom, with a visa-free score of 162, as of 3 July 2018. Greek identity card Visa requirements for Greek citizens Visa policy of Greece Greek Nationality Law Passports of the European Union Greek passport on PRADO Video presentations of the new Greek biometric passportInformation from the Greek Foreign Ministry
Minister for Foreign Affairs (Greece)
The Minister for Foreign Affairs is the senior minister at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece, established on 3 April 1833. The current Minister for Foreign Affairs, since 17 October 2018, is Alexis Tsipras, the current Prime Minister of Greece; the Minister has responsibility for the relations between foreign states. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Hellenic Aid
Alexis Tsipras is a Greek politician serving as Prime Minister of Greece since 2015. A socialist, Tsipras has been leader of the Greek political party Syriza since 2009. Tsipras is the fourth prime minister who has governed in the course of the 2010s Greek government-debt crisis. An outspoken critic of the austerity policies implemented during the crisis, his tenure in office has been marked by an intense austerity policy in the context of the third EU bailout to Greece. Tsipras was born in Athens in 1974, he joined the Communist Youth of Greece in the late 1980s and in the 1990s was politically active in student protests against education reform plans, becoming the movement's spokesperson. He studied civil engineering at the National Technical University of Athens, graduating in 2000, undertook post-graduate studies in urban and regional planning, he worked as a civil engineer in the construction industry, based in Athens. From 1999 to 2003, Tsipras served as the secretary of Synaspismos Youth.
He was elected as a member of the Central Committee of Synaspismos in 2004 and the Political Secretariat. In the 2006 local election, he ran as Syriza's candidate for Mayor of Athens, winning 10.5%. In 2008, he was elected as leader of Syriza, he was first elected to the Hellenic Parliament representing Athens A in the 2009 election and was re-elected in May and June 2012, subsequently becoming Leader of the Opposition and appointing his own shadow cabinet. In January 2015, Tsipras led Syriza to victory in a snap legislative election, winning 149 out of 300 seats in the Hellenic Parliament and forming a coalition with the Independent Greeks. On 20 August 2015, seven months into his term as prime minister he lost his majority after intraparty defections, announced his resignation, called for a snap election to take place the following month. In the September 2015 election that followed, Tsipras led Syriza to another victory, winning 145 out of 300 seats and re-forming the coalition with the Independent Greeks.
As prime minister, he has overseen negotiations regarding the Greek government-debt crisis, initiated the Greek bailout referendum, responded to the European migrant crisis. In 2015, he was voted by TIME magazine as one of the 100 most influential people globally; as Prime Minister of Greece, the opposition parties have accused Tsipras among other things of having capitulated to enacting harsh austerity measures to keep his country on the surface in contrast with his pre-election promises and of having exacerbated problems that existed in the Greek economy, with the country having lost about 25% of its GDP since the start of the crisis. Tsipras was born 28 July 1974 in Athens, his mother's family has its roots in a village near Babaeski in an area of Eastern Thrace, transferred from Turkey to Greece during the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey. His father, was from Epirus and was a contractor of big public works, his mother, was born in Eleftheroupoli. Tsipras joined the Communist Youth of Greece in the late 1980s.
In the early 1990s, as a student at Ampelokipoi Multi-disciplinary High School, he was politically active in the student uprising and the school occupations against the controversial law of Education Minister Vasilis Kontogiannopoulos. He rose to prominence as a representative of the student movement when he was featured as a guest on a television show hosted by journalist Anna Panagiotarea. During the interview, Panagiotarea implied that Tsipras was being disingenuous in defending middle and high school students' right to absenteeism without parental notification in the context of protests. Newspapers and opposition politicians contrasted his early activism for the free state education to his choice to enroll his children in private schools when he became prime-minister. Tsipras studied civil engineering at the National Technical University of Athens, graduating in 2000, before undertaking postgraduate studies in Urban and Regional Planning following an inter-departmental MPhil at the School of Architecture of NTUA.
Alongside his postgraduate studies, he began working as a civil engineer in the construction industry. He wrote several projects on the theme of the city of Athens; as a university student, Tsipras joined the ranks of the renascent left-wing movement the "Enceladus" group, as member of it, he was elected to the executive board of the students' union of the Civil Engineering School of NTUA and served as student representative on the University Senate. From 1995 to 1997 he was an elected member of the Central Council of the National Students Union of Greece. After the departure of the Communist Party of Greece from Synaspismos in 1991, Tsipras remained in the coalition. In May 1999 he became the first political secretary of Synaspismos' youth-wing, the Synaspismos Youth. During this period he was described as a centrist, different from the clear radical, left-wing profile he would maintain as leader of Synaspismos, he won many awards during this time. In November 2003 he was moved on to the mother party.
He managed quite efficiently to maintain a strong adherence to the policy of the party out talking both the left and right political wings. As secretary of Synaspismos Youth, he took an active part in the process of creating the Greek Social Forum and attended many of the international protests and marches against neoliberal globalization. In December 2004, at the 4th Congress of Synaspismos, he was elected a member of the party's Central Political Committee and to the Political Secretariat, where he was responsibl
2019 Greek legislative election
The 2019 Greek legislative election will be held on or before 20 October 2019, in accordance with the Constitution of Greece. At stake will be all 300 seats in the Hellenic Parliament. Unless an early election is called before that date, it will be the first parliamentary session since the 2004 election which exhausted the parliamentary mandate of the previous election, it will be the first national election in Greece where the voting age will be lowered to 17, the number of parliamentary constituencies was increased from 56 to 59. Athens B, the largest constituency with 44 seats before the 2018 reform, was broken up into smaller constituencies, the largest of which has 18 seats. All voters are called up to vote, with registration voting being mandatory. However, none of the existing penalties or sanctions have been enforced. A number of changes to the electoral system were introduced since the September 2015 election. Greece lowered its voting age from 18 to 17 in July 2016, the 2019 election will be the first national election in which this law will take effect.
Additionally, the same law abolished the majority bonus system system, used in previous elections, which gave a 50-seat bonus to the largest party, replacing it with a simple proportional representation system in which all 300 seats are awarded proportionally. However, this law will not come into effect for the 2019 elections, as it was not approved with the required supermajority; the Syriza-led government expressed support for the introduction of the new system in the 2019 elections as well. The number of parliamentary constituencies was modified in December 2018, with Athens B being split into Athens B1, Athens B2, Athens B3, while Attica was split to East Attica and West Attica; the extension of the franchise to Greeks living outside of Greece is under discussion, but it is unclear if it will be approved in time for the 2019 election. In the 2019 elections, 250 seats will be distributed on the basis of proportional representation in the constituencies, with a threshold of 3% required for entry into parliament.
Blank and invalid votes, as well as votes cast for parties that fall short of the 3% threshold, will be disregarded for seat allocation purposes. 50 additional seats will be awarded as a majority bonus to the party that emerges with a plurality of votes, with coalitions in that regard not being counted as an overall party but having their votes counted separately for each party in the coalition, according to the election law. Parliamentary majority will be achieved by the party or coalition of parties that will command at least one half plus one of total seats; the next general election cannot be held than Sunday 20 October 2019. According to the Greek constitution, Members of Parliament are elected for terms of four years, with elections required within thirty days of their term's expiration. Alexis Tsipras, on 31st of December 2018, stated that he is searching for a date in October