Juan Pedro Aguirre
Juan Pedro Julián Aguirre y López de Anaya was an Argentine revolutionary and politician. Aguirre was born in Buenos Aires, he fought in the wars against the British troops of 1806/07. In 1820, he served as interim Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, was the last official to hold that title. In 1824, he was minister of economics, in 1826, he became the first president of the newly established national bank. List of heads of state of Argentina
Gervasio Antonio de Posadas
Gervasio Antonio de Posadas y Dávila was a member of Argentina's Second Triumvirate from 19 August 1813 to 31 January 1814, after which he served as Supreme Director until 9 January 1815. Posadas' early studies were at the convent of San Francisco, he studied and practiced law with Manuel José de Labardén. In 1789 Posadas was appointed notary general for the bishopric, held that post until the events of the May Revolution, he was unaware of the impending revolution and was caught by surprise when the Buenos Aires Cabildo was occupied on 25 May 1810. His donations to the Sociedad Patriótica made him an associate of the Saavedrist faction, so the leaders of the riots of 5 April 1811 exiled him to Mendoza. A month he was appointed solicitor-procurator for the City of Buenos aires. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, Posadas was a freemason; the Second Triumvirate commissioned Posadas, Nicolás Rodríguez Peña and Juan Larrea to draft a Constitution for consideration by the Asamblea del Año XIII he became part of the Triumvirate when the Assembly granted Executive Power to the Triumvirate.
On 22 January 1814 the same Assembly decided to concentrate the Executive Power in him as a Supreme Director for the United Provinces, so he took that office for a one-year period. During his rule and Campana were exiled, Montevideo fell to the United Provinces but serious problems arose with José Gervasio Artigas and the Liga Federal on the Banda Oriental. Moreover, Ferdinand VII of Spain regained his throne in 1815. Posadas was succeeded in office by his nephew, Carlos María de Alvear, removed soon afterwards by a military coup d'état. By August 1815 the whole Alvearista faction was in disgrace and Posadas was jailed; the former Supreme Director spent the next six years in 22 different jails. He began writing his memoirs in 1829. "Posadas, Gervasio Antonio". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. Media related to Gervasio Antonio de Posadas at Wikimedia Commons
Justo José de Urquiza
Justo José de Urquiza y García was an Argentine general and politician. He was president of the Argentine Confederation from 1854 to 1860. Justo José de Urquiza y García was born in Entre Ríos, the son of José Narciso de Urquiza Álzaga, born in Castro Urdiales and María Cándida García González, a Creole of Buenos Aires, he was governor of Entre Ríos during the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas, governor of Buenos Aires with powers delegated from the other provinces. Rosas presented a resignation to his charge but only as a political gesture, counting that the other governments would reject it. However, in 1851, resentful of the economic and political dominance of Buenos Aires, Urquiza accepted Rosas' resignation and resumed for Entre Rios the powers delegated in Buenos Aires. Along with the resuming of international commerce without passing through the port of Buenos Aires, Urquiza replaced the "Death to the savage unitarians!" Slogan with "Death to the enemies of national organization!", requesting the making of a national constitution that Rosas had long rejected.
Corrientes supported Urquiza's action, but Rosas and the other provinces condemned the "crazy, savage, unitarian" Urquiza. Supported by Brazil and the Uruguayan liberals, he created the "Big Army" and forced Manuel Oribe to capitulate, ending the long siege of Montevideo in October 1851, defeating Rosas on 3 February 1852 at the Battle of Caseros; the other provinces that supported Rosas against Urquiza's pronunciation changed sides and supported his project of creating a National Constitution. Urquiza began the task of national organization, he became provisional director of the Argentine Confederation in May 1852. In 1853, a constituent assembly adopted a constitution based on the ideas of Juan Bautista Alberdi, Urquiza was inaugurated president in March 1854. During his administration, foreign relations were improved, public education was encouraged, colonization was promoted, plans for railroad construction was initiated, his work of national organization was, hindered by the opposition of Buenos Aires, which seceded from the Confederation.
Open war broke out in 1859. Urquiza defeated the provincial army led by Bartolomé Mitre in October 1859, at the Battle of Cepeda, Buenos Aires agreed to re-enter the Confederation. Constitutional amendments proposed by Buenos Aires were adopted in 1860 but the settlement was short-lived, further difficulties culminated in civil war. Urquiza met the army of Buenos Aires, again led by Mitre, in September 1861; the battle was indecisive. He retired to San José Palace, his residence in Entre Ríos, where he ruled until he was assassinated at age 69 by followers of dissident and political rival Ricardo López Jordán. Like many other nineteenth century Argentine patriots, Urquiza was a freemason, his imposing Palacio San José has been interpreted as containing many masonic symbols, created "to symbolize and reflect the construction of his other work: the Argentine State". There are many streets and squares all over Argentina that are named after Justo José de Urquiza, such as the Urquiza park in Rosario or the Urquiza park in Parana city.
There is a central street in Rosario called Urquiza, there is a commuter railway line in Buenos Aires named after him, the Urquiza Line
United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata
The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, earlier known as the United Provinces of South America, a union of provinces in the Río de la Plata region of South America, emerged from the May Revolution in 1810 and the Argentine War of Independence of 1810–1818. It comprised most of the former Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata dependencies and had Buenos Aires as its capital, it is best known in Spanish-language literature as Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata, this being the most common name in use for the country until the enactment of the 1826 Constitution. The Argentine National Anthem refers to the state as "the United Provinces of the South"; the Constitution of Argentina recognises Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata as one of the official names of the country, referred to as "Argentine Nation" in modern legislation. The United Provinces of South America were bordered on the south by the sparsely populated territories of the Pampas and Patagonia, home to the Mapuche and Puelche peoples.
To the north, the Gran Chaco was populated by the Guaycuru nations. To the northwest, across the Upper Peru, lay the Spanish Viceroyalty of Perú. Across the Andes, to the west, was the Spanish-controlled Captaincy General of Chile. To the northeast was Colonial Brazil, a part of the Portuguese Empire the Empire of Brazil in 1821; the change from the Viceroyalty into the United Provinces was not a change of governors, but a revolutionary process that would replace the absolutist monarchy with a republic. The main influences in this were the Enlightenment in Spain, promoting new ideas, the Peninsular War that left Spain without a legitimate king after the Abdications of Bayonne; the concept of separation of powers became a tool to prevent despotism. The new political situation generated great political conflict between the cities for two reasons. First, the vacatio regis removed the sovereignty from the King of Spain, but there was no clear view about who and how would be able to claim such sovereignty.
Some people thought that it passed to other offices of the Spanish monarchy, while others held the notion of the retroversion of the sovereignty to the people: sovereignty returned to the people, who had now the right to self-governance. The vertical organization of the absolutist monarchy was compromised as well. Patriots thought that all cities, both in Spain and in the Americas, had the right to self-government, whereas Royalists assigned that right only to cities in European Spain, holding that the Americas should stay subject to the new government that Spain would provide; the other source of conflict was the nature of the new governments, which declared themselves to be provisional during the King's absence but were making strong changes in the political organization. Unlike the First Republic of Venezuela, which declared independence early on, the United Provinces were faced with the inconsistency of acting like an independent state without having declared such independence; the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata were established through a lengthy process that started in May 1810, when the citizens and militias of Buenos Aires, the capital city of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, ousted the Spanish Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros in the May Revolution.
Although there was not a formal declaration of independence at the time, the government that emerged from the revolution declared loyalty to the deposed king Ferdinand VII, in fact it attempted to reorganise the social and economic structures of the Viceroyalty. As it faced immediate resistance in some quarters, the revolution soon turned to be a War of Independence. In the midst of the war of independence, during the entire 1810-1831 period there were serious conflicts among ever-changing factions regarding the organization of the state and the political aims of the revolutionary governments; these conflicts involved coups d'état, politically motivated trials and imprisonments and developed into an outright civil war. Since the revolution, there were serious conflicts among diverging views regarding the political organization of the provinces. While some advocated a strong and executive central government with little accountability to the regional interests, a position at first favored by the "enlightened" revolutionary and independentist elements, others sought to integrate representatives from the provinces in a larger deliberative assembly.
As the latter position gained the upper hand, the Primera Junta grew to incorporate delegates from the provinces in 1811. However, as it became evident that such an arrangement was not effective enough to lead the war efforts, a triumvirate assumed executive powers while the assembly retained some controlling functions; the Liga Federal, or Liga de los Pueblos Libres, was an alliance of provinces in what is now Argentina and Uruguay, organised under democratic federalist ideals advocated by its leader, José Gervasio Artigas. The government of the United Provinces of South America felt threatened by the growing appeal of the Liga Federal, so they did nothing to repel the incoming Portuguese invasion of Misiones Orientales and the Banda Oriental, the stronghold of Artigas. Brazilian General Carlos Frederico Lecor, thanks to their numerical and material superiority, defea
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country, governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader rather than by a king or queen". In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government, the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defence, monetary policy are handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, subdivisions have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. A federal republic is thus best defined in contrast to a unitary republic, whereby the central government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life.
This more decentralized structure helps to explain the tendency for more populous countries to operate as federal republics. Most federal republics codify the division of powers between orders of government in a written constitutional document; the political differences between a federal republic and other federal states federal monarchies under a parliamentary system of government, are a matter of legal form rather than political substance, as most federal states are democratic in structure if not practice with checks and balances. However, some federal monarchies, such as the United Arab Emirates are based upon principles other than democracy. Form of government List of republics Federal monarchy
José Casimiro Rondeau Pereyra was a general and politician in Argentina and Uruguay in the early 19th century. He was born in Buenos Aires but soon after his birth, the family moved to Montevideo, where he grew up and went to school. At the age of twenty, he joined the armed forces in Buenos Aires, but transferred to a regiment in Montevideo. During the British invasion of 1806, he was sent to England. After the defeat of the British troops, he was released and went to Spain, where he fought in the Napoleonic Wars; when he returned to Montevideo in August 1810, he joined the independentist forces and was nominated military leader of the independentist armies of the Banda Oriental Uruguay. His military successes in the various battles for Montevideo won him the post of the military leader of the campaign in Peru, replacing José de San Martín, who had to resign due to health reasons. In 1815, the Constituting General Assembly of the provinces of La Plata elected Rondeau their Supreme Director, but due to his absence, he never served as director.
Ignacio Álvarez Thomas was named acting Supreme Director in his place. After two defeats against the Spanish royalist troops in Peru at Venta y Media and Sipe-Sipe, he was relieved from his command in 1816, he returned to Buenos Aires, where he became governor for a brief stint from June 5 to July 30, 1818. In 1819 he became Pueyrredón's successor as Supreme Director, but had to resign the following year after the Battle of Cepeda. Subsequently, Rondeau retreated to Montevideo and tried to keep out of the internal wars between competing generals of the independentists, he led several military campaigns against the Indians and in the independence wars against Brazil. In 1828, after the Treaty of Montevideo, he was elected as the governor of the newly founded Eastern Republic of Uruguay. Rondeau occupied this post from December 22, 1828 until April 17, 1830, when he was forced to abdicate by his opponent Juan Antonio Lavalleja, who held the majority in the still young parliament. Lavalleja was named governor ad interim.
Rondeau still served as general in the army, though. In the civil war of Uruguay from 1836 between the Blancos and the Colorados, he fought on the side of the latter and served as their war minister, he was killed in 1844 during the Great Siege of Montevideo. List of heads of state of Argentina List of Presidents of Uruguay Short biography. Longer biography in Spanish
Assembly of the Year XIII
The Assembly of Year XIII was a meeting called by the Second Triumvirate governing the young republic of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata on October 1812. One of the objectives of the assembly was to define an institutional government system for the republic. Without the presence of representatives from some of the provinces, it was inaugurated on January 31, 1813. At the same time, it was to proclaim independence from Spain, write the first constitution of the young state. During the assembly, different interests delayed the declaration of independence, but a number of common points were established: The national coat of arms was chosen; the national anthem was commended. The Freedom of Wombs law, which put an end to slavery, was passed. All titles of nobility were suppressed; the creation of the national currency was ordered. The Spanish Inquisition and the practice of torture were abolished. A statute was approved that replaced as Executive Power the Second Triumvirate for a unipersonal Supreme Directorship Argentine War of Independence Instructions of the Year XIII United Provinces of the Río de la Plata