19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
The 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was elected by the 19th National Congress in 2017, will sit until the next National Congress is convened in 2022. It formally succeeded the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China; the Committee is composed of alternate members. A member has voting rights. If a full member is removed from the Central Committee the vacancy is filled by an alternate member at the next committee plenum — the alternate member who received the most confirmation votes in favour is highest on the order of precedence. To be elected to the Central Committee, a candidate must be a party member for at least five years; the first plenary session in 2017 was responsible for electing the bodies in which the authority of the Central Committee is invested when it is not in session: the Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee. It will be responsible for approving the members of the Secretariat, 19th Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and its Standing Committee.
The third plenary session in 2018 nominated candidates for state positions. Notes Name, Office and institutional membership are listed in accordance with the Hanzi column, but can be sorted alphabetical by pressing the button next to the column titles; the Hanzi column is listed according to the number of strokes in their surnames, the official ordering method. The Office column lists offices that the individual held during their term on the Central Committee and is not intended to be an exhaustive list of offices they held over the course of their career. Offices held between the conclusion of the 19th Party Congress and the National People's Congress in March 2018 are excluded. Dates reflect the term of office only within the duration of the CC session. Only substantive offices are listed. In this table, the latter title is not listed. Notes The individuals below are listed according to the number of votes in favour received at the Party Congress that elected the Committee. Name, Ethnicity and Rank can be sorted alphabetical by pressing the button next to the column titles.
Replacement of expelled CC full members At each plenum expelled full members of the Central Committee are replaced by alternate members. Alternate members are promoted to full members based on their rank sequence, determined by the number of votes they received at the previous party congress
Xu Qiliang is an air force general in the People's Liberation Army Air Force of the People's Republic of China. He serves as Vice chairman of the Central Military Commission, was Commander of the PLAAF from 2007 to 2012. Born in Linqu County, Shandong to a peasant's family, he entered the PLA and its Air Force No. 1 aeronautic preparatory school in 1966, learned piloting, joined the Communist Party of China the following year. He transferred to the Air Force No. 8 and No. 5 aeronautic schools. He became a pilot after graduation in August 1969. Xu was promoted to head of the military division in 1983, vice army corps commander the next year. In 1985, he became chief of staff at the Air Force Shanghai headquarters, entered the PLA National Defense University for training, he was made a major general. In 1993, he became vice chief of staff of the Air Force and studied at the National Defense University again. After graduation, he was promoted to chief of staff of the PLA Air Force, he was made a lieutenant general in 1996.
In 1999, Xu became the vice commander and Air Force commander of the Shenyang Military Region, studied at the National Defense University for the 3rd time in 2001. He was elevated to vice chief of staff of the PLA General Staff Department, he was made a full general on June 20, 2007, became the commander of the PLA Air Force in September of that year. In October 2012, he was China's first career air force officer promoted to Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission and was succeeded as Air Force Commander by General Ma Xiaotian, he is a member of the 19th Politburo of the Communist Party of China. He has been an alternate member of the 14th and 15th Central Committees of the Communist Party of China, a full member of the 16th, 17th, 18th Central Committees. In July 2018, Xu met in Beijing with the acting US Secretary of Defense, James Mattis, to discuss regional issues and where the two men each laid out his country's military concerns before the other
History of the Communist Party of China
This article details the history of the Communist Party of China. Marxist ideas started to spread in China after the 1919 May Fourth Movement. In June 1920, Comintern agent Grigori Voitinsky was sent to China, where he met Li Dazhao and other reformers. While in China, Voitinsky financed the founding of the Socialist Youth Corps; the Communist Party of China was founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in the French concession of Shanghai in 1921 as a study society and an informal network. Informal meetings were held in China in 1920 as well as overseas; the official beginning of the Communist Party of China began with the 1st Congress held in Shanghai and Jiaxing in July 1921. The congress was composed of 13 men; the birth of the party was declared. The formal and unified name Zhōngguó the final agenda was carried out; the key delegates in the congress were Li Dazhao, Chen Duxiu, Chen Gongbo, Tan Pingshan, Zhang Guotao, He Mengxiong, Lou Zhanglong and Deng Zhongxia. Mao Zedong was present at the first congress as one of two delegates from a Hunan communist group.
Other attendees included Dong Biwu, Li Hanjun, Li Da, Chen Tanqiu, Liu Renjing, Zhou Fohai, He Shuheng, Deng Enming. Two representatives from the Comintern were present, one of them being Henk Sneevliet. Notably absent at this early point were future leaders Li Lisan and Qu Qiubai. In August 1922, Sneevliet called a surprise special plenum of the central committee. During the meeting Sneevliet proposed that party members join the Kuomintang on the grounds that it was easier to transform the Nationalist Party from the inside than to duplicate its success. Li Dazhao, Cai Heshen and Gao Yuhan opposed the motion, whereupon Sneevliet invoked the authority of the Comintern and forced the CPC to accept his decision. Under the guidance of the Comintern, the party was reorganized along Leninist lines in 1923, in preparation for the Northern Expedition; the nascent party was not held in high regard. Karl Radek, one of the five founding leaders of the Comintern, said in November 1922 that the CPC did not enjoy a high reputation in Moscow.
Moreover, the CPC was divided into two camps, one led by Deng Zhongxia and Li Dazhao on the more moderate "bourgeois, national revolution" model and the other by Zhang Guotao, Lou Zhanglong, He Mengxiong and Chen Duxiu on the anti-imperialism side. Mikhail Markovich Borodin negotiated with Sun Yat-sen and Wang Jingwei the 1923 KMT reorganization and the CPC's incorporation into the newly expanded party. Borodin and General Vasilii Blyukher worked with Chiang Kai-shek to found the Whampoa Military Academy; the CPC's reliance on the leadership of the Comintern provided a strong indication of the First United Front's fragility. The death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925 created great uncertainty regarding who would lead the party, whether they would still work with the Communists. Despite the tensions, the Northern Expedition led by the Kuomintang, with participation of the CPC made quick gains in overthrowing the warlord government. In 1927, as the Northern Expedition approached Shanghai, the Kuomintang leadership split.
The left-wing of the Kuomintang, based in Wuhan, kept the alliance with the Communists, while Chiang Kai-shek in Nanjing grew hostile to them and launched a campaign against them. This happened after the capture of Shanghai, which occurred with the Communists and Kuomintang still in alliance. André Malraux's novel, Man's Fate, is based on these events; the anti-communist drive became general. As Chiang Kai-shek consolidated his power, various revolts continued, Communist armed forces created a number of'Soviet Areas'; the largest of these was led by Zhu De and Mao Zedong, who established Soviet Republic of China in some remote areas within China through peasant riots. A number of KMT military campaigns failed, but in the meantime the party leadership were driven out of Shanghai and moved to Mao's base, sidelining him. Chiang Kai-shek launched a further campaign; the CPC started the Long March to search for a new base. During the Long March, the party leadership re-examined its policy and blamed their failure on the CPC military leader Otto Braun, a German sent by Comintern.
During the Long March, the native Communists, such as Mao Zedong and Zhu De gained power. The Comintern and Soviet Union. Lost control over the CPC, they settled in Shaanxi. The Western world first got a clear view of the main base of the Communist Party of China through Edgar Snow's Red Star Over China. Snow was the first person to present Mao as the main leader - he was seen as just a guerilla leader and as second to Zhu De. During the Second Sino-Japanese war, the CPC and KMT were temporarily in alliance to fight their common enemy; the Communist government moved from Bao'an to Yan'an in December 1936. The Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army became army groups belonging to the national army, the Soviet Republic of China changed its name as a special Shaan-Gan-Ning administration region; however the army and the region controlled by CPC remained independent from the KMT's government. In eight years, the CPC membership increased from 40,000 to 1,200,000 and its military forces - from 30,000 to one million in addition to more than one million militia support groups.
It is a well accepted i
Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is the presiding officer of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, considered China's top legislative body. The current Chairman is Li Zhanshu. From 1998 to 2013, the position has been ranked second in China's political hierarchy since Li Peng was barred from seeking a third term as Premier in 1998. In the political order of precedence, the Chair ranks below President. From 2013 onwards, the Chair, Zhang Dejiang, ranked below Li Keqiang; the ranking of this position is not reflective of its actual power, which varies depending on the officeholder. The position holds reserve constitutional powers under the 1982 revision of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China; as stipulated in Article 84 of the Constitution, should both the President and Vice-President become incapacitated, the National People's Congress is unable to elect a timely replacement, the Chairman of the NPC will act as President.
From 1975 to 1983, the NPC chairman was China's head of state, as the post of President of China was abolished. Theoretically, during the Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989, the NPC Chair at the time, Wan Li, had the power to call an emergency session of the NPC to resolve the issue constitutionally. However, Wan's freedom of movement was restricted, was powerless in the situation. Head of State Generations of leadership Mao Zedong Administration Deng Xiaoping Administration Jiang Zemin Administration Hu Jintao Administration Xi Jinping Administration Multiple terms in office, consecutive or otherwise, are listed and counted in the first column counts individuals and the second column. Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Vice Chairpersons Secretary-General National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Chairperson President of the Legislative Yuan List of leaders of the People's Republic of China
Chairman of the Central Military Commission
The Chairman of the Central Military Commission is the head of the Central Military Commission of China and thereby the commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army. The officeholder is General Secretary of the Communist Party of China or Chairman of the Communist Party of China. According to Chapter 3, Section 4 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, "The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China directs the armed forces of the country; the Central Military Commission is composed of the following: The Chairman. The term of office of the Central Military Commission is the same as that of the National People's Congress. Two people serve as Vice-Chairmen; the CMC Chairman is the supreme commander of the world's largest military forces, People's Liberation Army, People's Armed Police and People's Liberation Army militia. Furthermore, the officeholder is vested with the command authority over the nuclear arsenals. According to the principle of "Party Commands the Gun", the officeholder of this post would assume the responsibility of the state counterpart.
The following have held the position of Chair of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China: Zhang Guotao, December 1925 – September 1926 Zhou Enlai, September 1926 – October 1928 Yang Yin, October 1928 – September 1929 Zhou Enlai, September 1929 – March 1930 Guan Xiangying, March 1930 – August 1930 Zhou Enlai, August 1930 – June 1931 Li Fuchun, June 1931 – January 1932 Xiang Ying, January 1931 – October 1931 Zhu De, October 1931 – December 1936 Mao Zedong, December 1936 – October 1949 Abolished, October 1949 – September 1954 Mao Zedong, September 1954 – September 1976 Hua Guofeng, October 1976 – June 1981 Deng Xiaoping, June 1981 – November 1989 Jiang Zemin, November 1989 – September 2004 Hu Jintao, 19 September 2004 – 15 November 2012 Xi Jinping, 15 November 2012 – Present The following have held the position of Chair of the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China: Mao Zedong, October 1949 – September 1954 Mao Zedong, September 1954 – April 1959 Liu Shaoqi, April 1959 – October 1968 Vacant, October 1968 – January 1975 Abolished, January 1975 – December 1982 Deng Xiaoping, June 1983 – April 1990 Jiang Zemin, April 1990 – March 2005 Hu Jintao, March 2005 – 14 March 2013 Xi Jinping, 14 March 2013 – Present List of leaders of the People's Republic of China Supreme Military Command of the People's Republic of China Paramount leader
Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
The Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference is the leader of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China. The current Chairman is Wang Yang, the 4th-ranked member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee. Multiple terms in office, consecutive or otherwise, are listed and counted in the first column counts individuals and the second column. Generations of leadership Mao Zedong Administration Deng-Chen Administration Jiang Zemin Administration Hu–Wen Administration Xi–Wang Administration National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Vice Chairperson Secretary-General Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Chairperson List of leaders of the People's Republic of China
Xi Jinping is a Chinese politician serving as general secretary of the Communist Party of China, president of the People's Republic of China, chairman of the Central Military Commission. Described as China's "paramount leader" since 2012, he received the title of "core leader" from the CPC in 2016; as general secretary, Xi holds an ex-officio seat on the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, China's top decision-making body. Xi is the first general secretary born after the Second World War and the establishment of the People's Republic of China; the son of Chinese Communist veteran Xi Zhongxun, he was exiled to rural Yanchuan County as a teenager following his father's purge during the Cultural Revolution, lived in a cave in the village of Liangjiahe, where he organised communal labourers. After studying at the Tsinghua University as a "Worker-Peasant-Soldier student", Xi rose through the ranks politically in China's coastal provinces. Xi was governor of Fujian province from 1999 to 2002, governor party secretary of neighbouring Zhejiang province from 2002 to 2007.
Following the dismissal of Chen Liangyu, Xi was transferred to Shanghai as party secretary for a brief period in 2007. He joined the Politburo Standing Committee and central secretariat in October 2007, spending the next five years as Hu Jintao's presumed successor. Xi was vice president from 2008 to 2013 and vice chairman of the Central Military Commission from 2010 to 2012. Since assuming power, Xi has introduced far-ranging measures to enforce party discipline and to ensure internal unity, his signature anti-corruption campaign has led to the downfall of prominent incumbent and retired Communist Party officials, including members of the Politburo Standing Committee. Described as a Chinese nationalist, he has tightened restrictions over civil society and ideological discourse, advocating Internet censorship in China as the concept of "internet sovereignty". Xi has called for further socialist market economic reforms, for governing according to the law and for strengthening legal institutions, with an emphasis on individual and national aspirations under the slogan "Chinese Dream".
He has championed a more assertive foreign policy with regard to China–Japan relations, China's claims in the South China Sea, its role as a leading advocate of free trade and globalization. Xi has sought to expand China's African and Eurasian influence through the One Belt One Road Initiative; the 2015 meeting between Xi and Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou marked the first time the political leaders of both sides of the Taiwan Strait have met since the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1950. Considered the central figure of the fifth generation of leadership of the People's Republic, Xi has centralised institutional power by taking on a wide range of leadership positions, including chairing the newly formed National Security Commission, as well as new steering committees on economic and social reforms, military restructuring and modernization, the Internet. Said to be one of the most powerful leaders in modern Chinese history, Xi's political thoughts have been written into the party and state constitutions, under his leadership the latter was amended to abolish term limits for the presidency.
In 2018, Forbes ranked him as the most powerful and influential person in the world, dethroning Russian President Vladimir Putin who held the accolade for five consecutive years. Xi Jinping was born in Beijing on 15 June 1953, he is the second son of his wife Qi Xin. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 by Mao Zedong, Xi's father held a series of posts, including propaganda chief, vice-premier, vice-chairman of the National People's Congress. Xi's father is from Fuping County, Xi could further trace his patrilineal descent from Xiying in Dengzhou, Henan. In 1963, when Xi was age 10, his father was purged from the Party and sent to work in a factory in Luoyang, Henan. In May 1966, the Cultural Revolution cut short Xi's secondary education when all secondary classes were halted for students to criticise and fight their teachers. Student militants ransacked Xi Heping, was killed, his mother was forced to publicly denounce his father, as he was paraded before a crowd as an enemy of the revolution.
Xi was aged 15. Without the protection of his father, Xi was sent to work in Liangjiahe Village, Wen'anyi Town, Yanchuan County, Yan'an, Shaanxi, in 1969 in Mao Zedong's Down to the Countryside Movement. After a few months, unable to stand rural life, he ran away to Beijing, he was arrested during a crackdown on deserters from the countryside and sent to a work camp to dig ditches. He became the Party branch secretary of the production team, leaving that post in 1975; when asked about this experience by Chinese state television, Xi recalled, "It was emotional. It was a mood, and when the ideals of the Cultural Revolution could not be realised, it proved an illusion."From 1975 to 1979, Xi studied chemical engineering at Beijing's Tsinghua University as a "Worker-Peasant-Soldier student". There engineering majors spent about one-fifth of their time studying Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong thought, doing farm work and "learning from the People's Liberation Army". From 1979 to 1982, Xi served as secretary for his father's former subordinate Geng Biao, the vice premier and secretary-general of the Central Military Commission.
This gained Xi some military background. In 1985, as part of a Chinese delegation to study U. S. agriculture, he stayed in the hom