Internet Relay Chat
Internet Relay Chat is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text. The chat process works on a client/server networking model. IRC clients are computer programs that users can install on their system or web based applications running either locally in the browser or on 3rd party server; these clients communicate with chat servers to transfer messages to other clients. IRC is designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but allows one-on-one communication via private messages as well as chat and data transfer, including file sharing. Client software is available for every major operating system; as of April 2011, the top 100 IRC networks served more than half a million users at a time, with hundreds of thousands of channels operating on a total of 1,500 servers out of 3,200 servers worldwide. IRC usage has been declining since 2003, losing 60% of its users and half of its channels. IRC was created by Jarkko Oikarinen in August 1988 to replace a program called MUT on a BBS called OuluBox at the University of Oulu in Finland, where he was working at the Department of Information Processing Science.
Jarkko intended to extend the BBS software he administered, to allow news in the Usenet style, real time discussions and similar BBS features. The first part he implemented was the chat part, which he did with borrowed parts written by his friends Jyrki Kuoppala and Jukka Pihl; the first IRC network was running on a single server named tolsun.oulu.fi. Oikarinen found inspiration in a chat system known as Bitnet Relay, which operated on the BITNET. Jyrki Kuoppala pushed Jarkko to ask Oulu University to free the IRC code so that it could be run outside of Oulu, after they got it released, Jyrki Kuoppala installed another server; this was the first "irc network". Jarkko got some friends at the Helsinki University and Tampere University to start running IRC servers when his number of users increased and other universities soon followed. At this time Jarkko realized that the rest of the BBS features wouldn't fit in his program. Jarkko got in touch with people at the University of Oregon State University.
They wanted to connect to the Finnish network. They had obtained the program from one of Jarkko's friends, Vijay Subramaniam—the first non-Finnish person to use IRC. IRC grew larger and got used on the entire Finnish national network—Funet—and connected to Nordunet, the Scandinavian branch of the Internet. In November 1988, IRC had spread across the Internet and in the middle of 1989, there were some 40 servers worldwide. In August 1990, the first major disagreement took place in the IRC world; the "A-net" included a server named eris.berkeley.edu. It required no passwords and had no limit on the number of connects; as Greg "wumpus" Lindahl explains: "it had a wildcard server line, so people were hooking up servers and nick-colliding everyone". The "Eris Free Network", EFnet, made the eris machine the first to be Q-lined from IRC. In wumpus' words again: "Eris refused to remove that line, it wasn't much of a fight. A-net was formed with the eris servers, EFnet was formed with the non-eris servers.
History showed most users went with EFnet. Once ANet disbanded, the name EFnet became meaningless, once again it was the one and only IRC network, it is around that time that IRC was used to report on the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt throughout a media blackout. It was used in a similar fashion during the Gulf War. Chat logs of these and other events are kept in the ibiblio archive. Another fork effort, the first that made a big and lasting difference, was initiated by'Wildthang' in the U. S. October 1992, it was meant to be just a test network to develop bots on but it grew to a network "for friends and their friends". In Europe and Canada a separate new network was being worked on and in December the French servers connected to the Canadian ones, by the end of the month, the French and Canadian network was connected to the US one, forming the network that came to be called "The Undernet"; the "undernetters" wanted to take ircd further in an attempt to make it less bandwidth consumptive and to try to sort out the channel chaos that EFnet started to suffer from.
For the latter purpose, the Undernet implemented timestamps, new routing and offered the CService—a program that allowed users to register channels and attempted to protect them from troublemakers. The first server list presented, from February 15, 1993, includes servers from USA, France and Japan. On August 15, the new user count record was set to 57 users. In May 1993, RFC 1459 was published and details a simple protocol for client/server operation, one-to-one and one-to-many conversations, it is notable that a significant number of extensions like CTCP, colors and formats are not included in the protocol specifications, nor is character encoding, which led various implementations of servers and clients to diverge. In fact, software implementation varied from one network to the other, each network implementing their own policies and standards in their own code bases. During the summer of 1994, the Undernet was itself forked; the new network was called DALnet, formed for better user service and more user and channel protections.
One of the more significant changes in DALnet was use of lo
Copyright is a legal right, existing in many countries, that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine whether, under what conditions, this original work may be used by others. This is only for a limited time. Copyright is one of two types of intellectual property rights, the other is industrial property rights; the exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright on ideas is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, not the underlying ideas themselves. Copyright is applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require "fixing" copyrighted works in a tangible form, it is shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, who are referred to as rights holders. These rights include reproduction, control over derivative works, public performance, moral rights such as attribution. Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered "territorial rights".
This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state, do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Copyright is enforced as a civil matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions. Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing "fair" exceptions to the creator's exclusivity of copyright and giving users certain rights; the development of digital media and computer network technologies have prompted reinterpretation of these exceptions, introduced new difficulties in enforcing copyright, inspired additional challenges to the philosophical basis of copyright law. Businesses with great economic dependence upon copyright, such as those in the music business, have advocated the extension and expansion of copyright and sought additional legal and technological enforcement.
Copyright licenses can be granted by those deputized by the original claimant, private companies may request this as a condition of doing business with them. Services of internet platform providers like YouTube, GitHub, DropBox, WhatsApp or Twitter only can be used when users grant the platform provider beforehand the right to co-use all uploaded content, including all material exchanged per email, chat or cloud-storage; these copyrights only apply for the firm that operates such a platform, no matter in what jurisdiction the platform-services are being offered. Private companies in general do not recognize exceptions or give users more rights than the right to use the platform according certain rules. Copyright came about with wider literacy; as a legal concept, its origins in Britain were from a reaction to printers' monopolies at the beginning of the 18th century. The English Parliament was concerned about the unregulated copying of books and passed the Licensing of the Press Act 1662, which established a register of licensed books and required a copy to be deposited with the Stationers' Company continuing the licensing of material that had long been in effect.
Copyright laws allow products of creative human activities, such as literary and artistic production, to be preferentially exploited and thus incentivized. Different cultural attitudes, social organizations, economic models and legal frameworks are seen to account for why copyright emerged in Europe and not, for example, in Asia. In the Middle Ages in Europe, there was a lack of any concept of literary property due to the general relations of production, the specific organization of literary production and the role of culture in society; the latter refers to the tendency of oral societies, such as that of Europe in the medieval period, to view knowledge as the product and expression of the collective, rather than to see it as individual property. However, with copyright laws, intellectual production comes to be seen as a product of an individual, with attendant rights; the most significant point is that patent and copyright laws support the expansion of the range of creative human activities that can be commodified.
This parallels the ways in which capitalism led to the commodification of many aspects of social life that earlier had no monetary or economic value per se. Copyright has grown from a legal concept regulating copying rights in the publishing of books and maps to one with a significant effect on nearly every modern industry, covering such items as sound recordings, photographs and architectural works. Seen as the first real copyright law, the 1709 British Statute of Anne gave the publishers rights for a fixed period, after which the copyright expired; the act alluded to individual rights of the artist. It began, "Whereas Printers and other Persons, have of late taken the Liberty of Printing... Books, other Writings, without the Consent of the Authors... to their great Detriment, too to the Ruin of them and their Families:". A right to benefit financially from the work is articulated, court rulings and legislation have recognized a right to control the work, such as ensuring that the integrity of it is preserved.
Ashwin Navin is an Indian-American entrepreneur, the CEO and co-founder of Samba TV, a data and analytics service that measures television viewership using data from Internet-connected devices and set-top boxes. The company has been compared to more traditional TV measurement firms like Nielsen which rely on the people meter to gather viewership data. Prior to Samba TV, Navin was the co-founder of BitTorrent, Inc.. He joined Bram Cohen, the inventor of BitTorrent, in 2004 and handled business and company-related matters while Cohen focused on engineering and product development. According to a post on his blog], Navin has resigned from BitTorrent in order to focus on his new venture Samba TV, his new venture capital fund i/o Ventures. Navin evaluated Cohen's invention for Yahoo! in 2004. Although it was a notable development for the Internet, BitTorrent was considered to be the bane of the film industry, because it made the cost of transferring large files, including unlicensed film copies, negligible to the end user.
Navin is a 1999 graduate of Claremont McKenna College with a dual B. A. in Government and Economics. Before BitTorrent, he was employed at Yahoo! from 2002 to 2004 in its Corporate Development group which handled corporate strategy and acquisitions. Before Yahoo!, Navin worked on Wall Street with Goldman Sachs and Merrill Lynch both as an investment banker and research analyst. In 2000, Navin helped start a technology-based financial services company called Epoch Partners. Epoch was the investment banking arm of several online stock brokerages including Charles Schwab, TD Waterhouse. Epoch Partners was acquired by Goldman Sachs in 2001. Cohen entrusted Navin with the responsibility of crafting a business model for BitTorrent with hopes of bringing BitTorrent out of the fringes and into the mainstream. Navin has assumed the public face of the company as an evangelist for its commercial viability. In 2007, Navin launched 3 commercial products: the BitTorrent Entertainment Network in February, the BitTorrent SDK in June, BitTorrent DNA in October.
As the foundation for these products, in 2006 Navin acquired uTorrent, the largest Torrent client in the world, outside China. To catalyze BitTorrent's commercialization, Navin began by engaging movie industry executives directly. Although predicted by many to be unlikely, BitTorrent has struck relationships with many major media companies including Warner Brothers, 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures, MTV, Kadokawa Pictures, some others. Beyond copyright issues, BitTorrent faced struggles with Cable companies and ISPs which were overwhelmed with high volumes of P2P traffic on their networks. In the wake of FCC hearings that pitted Comcast and BitTorrent against each other for traffic management policies that inhibited P2P file transfers, Navin was responsible for striking a deal with Comcast that resolved the companies' differences and defused a contested issue at in the Network Neutrality debate. NPR's All Things Considered interviews Ashwin Navin Podcast with Navin's views on the Download business and DRM Podcast with Navin's views on BitTorrent in China Navin addressing the deal his company negotiated with Comcast
Ares Galaxy is an open source peer-to-peer file sharing application that uses its own decentralized supernode/leaf network. It was spun off from the gnutella network in 2002, is hosted on SourceForge.net. Ares Galaxy has a quick access interface with a built in audio/video viewer; the latest versions support the BitTorrent protocol and Shoutcast radio stations. Ares development began in the middle of 2002 and was operating on the gnutella network. Six months it switched to its own network with a leaves-and-super nodes architecture, its protocol is more difficult to identify than that of other popular P2P programs. As a result, Ares is sometimes the only P2P client that works on restricted networks, such as some university campuses. However, it is possible to block, many organizations are now doing so. From version 1.9.0, data sharing was enabled between two peers behind a firewall. This may be due to mediating peers; the Ares network was, at one time free from fake and corrupt files, unlike others such as FastTrack.
However this has changed as its popularity. Since late 2006, several anti-piracy groups, including MediaDefender and BayTSP, working for the RIAA, have started hosting fake MP3 files on Ares that never start downloading; these files are hosted from multiple computers using high-bandwidth connections and therefore appear at the top of the list for any search query that returns them as a result. Some users report that the reliability of establishing connections can be erratic. From version 1.9.4, Ares included basic support for the BitTorrent protocol. For some changes in the network, Ares is not able to discover new peers by itself. Copying and pasting a special hashlink in the Address bar is needed to import super nodes into Ares. Ares has "hashlinks" functionality, it is able to search for peers with files pertaining to a hash and download from them. Ares uses hashlinks for its chatrooms and its direct chat tool; as from Ares 1.9.6 plaintext hashlinks are supported using the following format: arlnk://chatroom:127.x.x.x:port|roomname arlnk://radio:127.x.x.x:port From version 1.9.9, Ares Galaxy has experimental support for the SHOUTcast internet radio.
The following stand-alone alternative clients are known to connect with the Ares network: Warez P2P. Clients using the giFT backend, like Poisoned or KCeasy, connect to the Ares network, in addition to OpenFT and gnutella. FileCroc connects to the BitTorrent network. IGotcha! Connects to the Ares chat network and is designed for Mac OS X. jAres P2P connects to the Ares network, but is still on development. Written in Java and Open Source. See the Ares Galaxy on SourceForge.net. Free software portal Ares Galaxy on SourceForge.net
An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages. They differ from chat rooms in that messages are longer than one line of text, are at least temporarily archived. Depending on the access level of a user or the forum set-up, a posted message might need to be approved by a moderator before it becomes publicly visible. Forums have a specific set of jargon associated with them. A discussion forum is hierarchical or tree-like in structure: a forum can contain a number of subforums, each of which may have several topics. Within a forum's topic, each new discussion started is called a thread and can be replied to by as many people as so wish. Depending on the forum's settings, users can be anonymous or have to register with the forum and subsequently log in to post messages. On most forums, users do not have to log in to read existing messages; the modern forum originated from bulletin boards, so-called computer conferencing systems, are a technological evolution of the dialup bulletin board system.
From a technological standpoint, forums or boards are web applications managing user-generated content. Early Internet forums could be described as a web version of an electronic mailing list or newsgroup. Developments emulated the different newsgroups or individual lists, providing more than one forum, dedicated to a particular topic. Internet forums are prevalent in several developed countries. Japan posts the most with over two million per day on 2channel. China has many millions of posts on forums such as Tianya Club; some of the first forum systems were the Planet-Forum system, developed at the beginning of the 1970-s, the EIES system, first operational in 1976, the KOM system, first operational in 1977. One of the first forum sites is Delphi Forums, once called Delphi; the service, with four million members, dates to 1983. Forums perform a function similar to that of dial-up bulletin board systems and Usenet networks that were first created starting in the late 1970s. Early web-based forums date back as far as 1994, with the WIT project from W3 Consortium and starting from this time, many alternatives were created.
A sense of virtual community develops around forums that have regular users. Technology, video games, music, fashion and politics are popular areas for forum themes, but there are forums for a huge number of topics. Internet slang and image macros popular across the Internet are abundant and used in Internet forums. Forum software packages are available on the Internet and are written in a variety of programming languages, such as PHP, Java and ASP; the configuration and records of posts can be stored in a database. Each package offers different features, from the most basic, providing text-only postings, to more advanced packages, offering multimedia support and formatting code. Many packages can be integrated into an existing website to allow visitors to post comments on articles. Several other web applications, such as blog software incorporate forum features. WordPress comments at the bottom of a blog post allow for a single-threaded discussion of any given blog post. Slashcode, on the other hand, is far more complicated, allowing threaded discussions and incorporating a robust moderation and meta-moderation system as well as many of the profile features available to forum users.
Some stand alone threads on forums have reached fame and notability such as the "I am lonely will anyone speak to me" thread on MovieCodec.com's forums, described as the "web's top hangout for lonely folk" by Wired Magazine. A forum consists of a tree-like directory structure; the top end is "Categories". A forum can be divided into categories for the relevant discussions. Under the categories are sub-forums and these sub-forums can further have more sub-forums; the topics come under the lowest level of sub-forums and these are the places under which members can start their discussions or posts. Logically forums are organized into a finite set of generic topics driven and updated by a group known as members, governed by a group known as moderators, it can have a graph structure. All message boards will use one of three possible display formats; each of the three basic message board display formats: Non-Threaded/Semi-Threaded/Fully Threaded, has its own advantages and disadvantages. If messages are not related to one another at all, a Non-Threaded format is best.
If a user has a message topic and multiple replies to that message topic, a semi-threaded format is best. If a user has a message topic and replies to that message topic and responds to replies a threaded format is best. Internally, Western-style forums logged in members into user groups. Privileges and rights are given based on these groups. A user of the forum can automatically be promoted to a more privileged user group based on criteria set by the administrator. A person viewing a closed thread as a member will see a box saying he does not have the right to submit messages there, but a moderator will see the same box granting him access to more than just posting messages. An unregistered user of the site is known as a guest or visitor. Guests are granted access to all functions that do not require database alterations or breach privacy. A guest can view the contents of the forum or use such features as read marking, but an administrator will disallow visi
Opposition to copyright
Opposition to copyright or anti-copyright is opposition to the current state of copyright law, or copyright as a concept. Opposition groups criticize philosophical, economical, or social rationales of such laws and the laws' implementations, the benefits of which they claim do not justify the policy's costs to society. Adherents advocate for changing the current system, though different groups have different ideas of what that change should be; some call for remission of the policies to a previous state—copyright once covered few categories of thing and had shorter term limits—or they may seek to expand concepts like Fair Use that allow permissionless copying. Others seek the abolition of copyright itself. Opposition to copyright is a portion of platforms advocating for broader social reform. For example, Lawrence Lessig, a free-culture movement speaker, advocates for loosening copyright law as a means of making sharing information easier or addressing the orphan works issue and the Swedish Pirate Party has advocated for limiting copyright to five year terms in order to legalize the majority of its members' downloading of modern works.
Pirate Cinema and groups like The League of Noble Peers advance more radical arguments, opposing copyright per se. A number of anti-copyright groups have emerged in the argument over peer-to-peer file sharing, digital freedom, freedom of information. In 2003, Eben Moglen, a professor of Law at Columbia University, published The dotCommunist Manifesto, which re-interpreted the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx in the light of the development of computer technology and the internet. Recent developments related to BitTorrent and peer-to-peer file sharing have been termed by media commentators as "copyright wars", with The Pirate Bay being referred to as "the most visible member of a burgeoning international anti-copyright—or pro-piracy—movement". One well-publicised instance of electronic civil disobedience in the form of large scale intentional copyright infringement occurred on February 24, 2004, in an event called Grey Tuesday. Activists intentionally violated EMI's copyright of The White Album by distributing MP3 files of a mashup album called The Grey Album, in an attempt to draw public attention to copyright reform issues and anti-copyright ideals.
Over 400 sites participated including 170 that hosted the album with some protesters stating that The Grey Album illustrates a need for revisions in copyright law to allow sampling under fair use of copyrighted material, or proposing a system of fair compensation to allow for sampling. French group Association des audionautes is not anti-copyright per se, but proposes a reformed system for copyright enforcement and compensation. Aziz Ridouan, co-founder of the group, proposes for France to legalise peer-to-peer file sharing and to compensate artists through a surcharge on Internet service provider fees. Wired magazine reported that major music companies have equated Ridouan's proposal with legitimising piracy. In January 2008, seven Swedish members of parliament from the Moderate Party, authored a piece in a Swedish tabloid calling for the complete decriminalisation of file sharing. It's the only solution, unless we want an more extensive control of what citizens do on the Internet."In June 2015 a WIPO article named "Remix culture and Amateur Creativity: A Copyright Dilemma" acknowledged the "age of remixing" and the need for a copyright reform while referring to recent law interpretations in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. and Canada's Copyright Modernization Act.
Groups that argue for using existing copyright legal framework with special licences to achieve their goals, include the copyleft movement and Creative Commons. Creative Commons is not anti-copyright per se, but argues for use of more flexible and open copyright licences within existing copyright law. Creative Commons takes the position that there is an unmet demand for flexibility that allows the copyright owner to release work with only "some rights reserved" or "no rights reserved." According to Creative Commons many people do not regard default copyright as helping them in gaining the exposure and widespread distribution they want. Creative Commons argue that their licences allow entrepreneurs and artists to employ innovative business models rather than all-out copyright to secure a return on their creative investment. Scholars and commentators in this field include Lawrence Liang, Jorge Cortell, Rasmus Fleischer, Stephan Kinsella, Siva Vaidhyanathan. Traditional anarchists, such as Leo Tolstoy, expressed their refusal to accept copyright.
There is an argument that copyright is invalid because, unlike physical property, intellectual property is not scarce and is a legal fiction created by the state. The argument claims that, infringing on copyright, unlike theft, does not deprive the victim of the original item, it is unclear that copyright laws are economically stimulating for most authors, it is uncommon for copyright laws to be evaluated based on empirical studies of their impacts. One of the founders of Piratbyrån, Rasmus Fleischer, argues that copyright law seems unable to cope with the Internet, hence is obsolete, he argues that the Internet, Web 2.0 have brought about the uncertain status of the idea of "stealing" itself. He argues that in an attempt to rein in Web 2.0, copyright law in the 21st century is concerned with criminalising entire technologies, l
Infographics are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present information and clearly. They can improve cognition by utilizing graphics to enhance the human visual system's ability to see patterns and trends. Similar pursuits are information visualization, data visualization, statistical graphics, information design, or information architecture. Infographics have evolved in recent years to be for mass communication, thus are designed with fewer assumptions about the readers' knowledge base than other types of visualizations. Isotypes are an early example of infographics conveying information and to the masses. Infographics have been around for many years and the increase of a number of easy-to-use, free tools have made the creation of infographics available to a large segment of the population. Social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter have allowed for individual infographics to be spread among many people around the world. Infographics are used in the age of short attention span.
In newspapers, infographics are used to show the weather, as well as maps, site plans, graphs for summaries of data. Some books are entirely made up of information graphics, such as David Macaulay's The Way Things Work; the Snapshots in USA Today are an example of simple infographics used to convey news and current events. Modern maps route maps for transit systems, use infographic techniques to integrate a variety of information, such as the conceptual layout of the transit network, transfer points, local landmarks. Public transportation maps, such as those for the Washington Metro and the London Underground, are well-known infographics. Public places such as transit terminals have some sort of integrated "signage system" with standardized icons and stylized maps. In his 1983 "landmark book" The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Edward Tufte defines "graphical displays" in the following passage: Graphical displays should show the data induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than about methodology, graphic design, the technology of graphic production, or something else avoid distorting what the data has to say present many numbers in a small space make large data sets coherent encourage the eye to compare different pieces of data reveal the data at several levels of detail, from a broad overview to the fine structure serve a reasonably clear purpose: description, tabulation, or decoration be integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set.
Graphics reveal data. Indeed graphics can be more revealing than conventional statistical computations. While contemporary infographics deal with "qualitative" or soft subjects speaking Tufte's 1983 definition still speaks, in a broad sense, to what infographics are, what they do—which is to condense large amounts of information into a form where it will be more absorbed by the reader. In 1626, Christoph Scheiner published the Rosa Ursina sive Sol, a book that revealed his research about the rotation of the sun. Infographics appeared in the form of illustrations demonstrating the Sun's rotation patterns. In 1786, William Playfair, an engineer and political economist, published the first data graphs in his book The Commercial and Political Atlas. To represent the economy of 18th Century England, Playfair used statistical graphs, bar charts, line graphs, area charts, histograms. In his work, Statistical Breviary, he is credited with introducing the first pie chart. Around 1820, modern geography was established by Carl Ritter.
His maps included shared frames, agreed map legends, scales and fidelity. Such a map can be considered a "supersign" which combines sign systems—as defined by Charles Sanders Peirce—consisting of symbols, indexes as representations. Other examples can be seen in the works of Alexander von Humboldt. In 1857, English nurse Florence Nightingale used information graphics to persuade Queen Victoria to improve conditions in military hospitals; the principal one she used was the Coxcomb chart, a combination of stacked bar and pie charts, depicting the number and causes of deaths during each month of the Crimean War. 1861 saw the release of an influential information graphic on the subject of Napoleon's disastrous march on Moscow. The graphic's creator, Charles Joseph Minard, captured four different changing variables that contributed to Napoleon's downfall in a single two-dimensional image: the army's direction as they traveled, the location the troops passed through, the size of the army as troops died from hunger and wounds, the freezing temperatures they experienced.
James Joseph Sylvester introduced the term "graph" in 1878 in the scientific magazine Nature and published a set of diagrams showing the relationship between chemical bonds and mathematical properties. Graph Theory 1736–1936, pp. 65. These were some of the first mathematical graphs; the Cologne Progressives developed an aesthetic approach to art which focused on communicating information. Gerd Arntz, Peter Alma and Augustin Tschinkel, all participants in this movement were recruited by Otto Neurath for the Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftsmuseum, where they developed the Vienna Method from 1926–1934. Here simple images were used to represent data in a structured way. Following the victory of Austrofascism in the Austrian Civil War, the team moved to the Netherlands where they continued their work rebranding it Isotypes; the method was applied by IZOSTAT in the Soviet Union. In 1942 Isidore Isou published the Lettrist manifesto, a document covering art, poetry