Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
John Berry (musician)
John Berry was an American hardcore punk musician. He was a founding member of the Beastie Boys, although he left the band in 1982 before they secured any commercial success. Berry is credited with conceiving Beastie Boys, when the members were teenagers. Berry was born in New York City, New York, on May 31, 1963. After moving to New York City in his teens with his father, Berry attended the Walden School in Manhattan, it was at the Walden School where he met Michael Diamond and the two were founding members of the Young Aborigines known as the Beastie Boys. The two other founding members are Kate Schellenbach; the Beastie Boys were a hardcore punk band. Formed at a time where the New York punk scene was witnessing a shift, Berry was an important part of that transition. Berry played guitar on a seven-inch EP, Polly Wog Stew, he was the first to leave the band followed by Schellenbach. Their first shows were at Berry's loft on West 100th Broadway on the Upper West Side, he died May 19, 2016 at a hospice in Danvers, Massachusetts
30 Minutes or Less
30 Minutes or Less is a 2011 American black comedy film directed by Ruben Fleischer and starring Jesse Eisenberg, Danny McBride, Aziz Ansari and Nick Swardson. It was funded by Media Rights Capital. Marijuana-smoking, Grand Rapids slacker pizza delivery driver Nick has trouble completing the "30 Minutes or Less" policy and is reprimanded by his boss Chris. Nick's school teacher friend Chet discovers that Nick slept with his twin sister, Kate, on the night of their high school graduation, causing Nick and Chet to end their friendship. Dwayne Mikowlski and Travis Cord, are miserable living under the shadow of Dwayne's domineering father, The Major, who about 10 years prior won over $50 million in the lottery. Dwayne confides in lap-dancer Juicy about his contempt for his father and Dwayne's presumed inheritance. At Travis's suggestion, he and Dwayne devise a plot to kidnap a complete stranger and strap a remote-controlled bomb to his chest, they wait for a driver to come to their hideout. When Nick arrives and Travis assault him and knock him unconscious.
When Nick wakes up, he finds a vest rigged with explosives strapped and buckled onto his torso, with both a timer and a cellular phone-activated trigger. Dwayne and Travis tell him his situation: the bomb will detonate unless he robs a bank within 10 hours, they threaten to detonate the bomb if Nick notifies the police. He alerts him of the situation, to which he reluctantly accepts. En route to the bank, Nick manages to quit his job and goes to see Kate for the last time. Nick and Chet hold up the bank and obtain money while the bank manager pulls the alarm, forcing Nick and Chet to flee quickly. Dwayne says he and Travis will meet Nick at an abandoned rail yard to make the exchange. Dwayne and Travis go to a restaurant instead as Dwayne calls up Juicy to get her hit-man ally and to head to the rail yard. Juicy and the hit man Chango arrive to pick up the money. Nick hands expects Chango to give him the code which will deactivate the bomb. However, Chet strikes Chango with a metal bar while Nick incapacitates Juicy.
The two grab the escape. Overly frustrated by the turn of events and when Nick refuses to answer the phone again, Dwayne activates the speed dial number on his phone for the bomb to explode, but Travis alters the numbers. Rethinking their plan, he and Dwayne kidnap her. Chango breaks into the Major's house to find information regarding Dwayne's location and finds a hand-drawn map to the scrapyard. While there, the Major attacks him with a pen gun; the Major is shot by Chango after a struggle. Upon applying some peroxide, Chango uses the information he found in Dwayne's room to head to the scrapyard. Dwayne threatens to kill Kate. At the scrapyard, Dwayne gives Nick the code 69 69 69 to deactivate and unbuckle the bomb with just minutes to spare. Dwayne has them at gunpoint but Nick has Chet fake having a sniper on them by pointing with his laser pointer. After believing him and Travis drop their weapons and leave with the money. However, Nick is knocked out by Chango. Dwayne gives him the money but Chango decides to still kill him and is torched with a flamethrower by Travis.
While being burned on the ground, Chango wounds Dwayne and shoots the gas tank on Travis's back, causing it to explode. Nick leaves with Kate and Chet. Dwayne chases after Nick and steals the money and when he has Nick at gunpoint his van explodes killing him. Nick reveals he put it in Dwayne's van. While Chet looks at the money, it squirts blue dye on his face. In a post-credits scene, Travis, the Major recuperating in a wheelchair, Juicy are seen in an advertisement for their new family business called "Major Tan: Tanning Salon". In the alternate ending, Nick and Kate drive off with the money and discuss what they will do with their new-found riches. Meanwhile, just miles behind them, Dwayne is revealed to have survived the explosion that occurred moments earlier. Annoyed with his plan's failure, he goes to his father's mansion to see if Chango killed him. Dwayne finds his dad on the floor suffering from his gunshot wound and tells about his plans for the tanning salon/brothel, his father tells his son that he is proud of him.
The final scene is at the Four Seasons in Atlanta, where Kate is managing the special events program. She joins up with Chet, who are chilling out by the pool enjoying their new lives. In addition to this, the late Chango has been blamed for the bank robbery, so all is well. Jesse Eisenberg as Nick Davis Danny McBride as Dwayne "King Dwayne" Mikowlski Aziz Ansari as Chet Flanning Nick Swardson as Travis Cord Dilshad Vadsaria as Kate Flanning, Chet's sister Michael Peña as Chango, a hit-man, an associate of Juicy. Bianca Kajlich as Juicy, a lap dancer that Dwayne befriends. Fred Ward as Jerry "The Major" Mikowlski, Dwayne's dad. Brett Gelman as Chris, Nick's boss at a pizza restaurant. Rebecca Cox as Sandra, a bank employee. Rick Irwin as Mark the Bank Manager Torey Adkins as Big Guy, the customer who gets shot in the leg during the robbery. Filming took place in Grand Rapids, from July to September 2010, a bank robbery scene was filmed at the vacant Ludington State Bank building—most a Fifth Third Bank—on James St. in Ludington, Michigan.
The film's screenplay was written by Matthew Sullivan and Michael Dilib
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Grand Royal was the Los Angeles, California-based vanity record label set up in 1992 by the Beastie Boys in conjunction with Capitol Records after the group left Def Jam Recordings. Due to mounting debts, Grand Royal went out of business in 2001, its assets were sold off via auction on Bid4Assets. The assets and back catalog were purchased by a group of fans. In 2016, GR2 sold the rights and master recordings of Grand Royal's second release My Crazy Life to a member of the band Dead Fucking Last. Grand Royal was the name of a magazine written and published by the group, it was most famous for its article "Mulling Over the Mullet" in issue two, which lampooned the mullet hairstyle. List of record labels List of Grand Royal artists GR2 Records
Mario Caldato Jr.
Mario Caldato Jr. known as Mario C. is a Brazilian-American record producer and studio engineer best known for his work with Beastie Boys and Jack Johnson in the US, with Marcelo D2 and Seu Jorge in Brazil. He is the winner of three Latin Grammys to date, along with several nominations and multi-platinum and gold records to his credit. Born in São Paulo, Mario Caldato Jr. is the son of Italian father Mario, Sr. and Brazilian mother Guiomar. In 1963 Mario and his family moved to the United States; as a young boy, Caldato received a Sears Silvertone organ as a gift from his father, a piano a few years later. Soon after he began taking classical music lessons; these lessons came to an abrupt end. The incident did not however deter Caldato's budding interest in pop music, he was further inspired by a 1972 performance by Duke Ellington at El Camino College in Torrance, California. As a teenager Caldato played keyboards and percussion in various local bands including Soul Sticks, Phaze, Phaze II, The Jungle Bugs.
In 1979 he purchased a cassette deck and recorded the band of his friend "Money" Mark Nishita at Harbor College in Wilmington CA. After building a home recording studio with Nishita and visiting Jamaica for 1983's Reggae Sunsplash Festival, he produced The Jungle Bugs' 7" single and an EP for Alice I Wonder with the help of Brian "Sly" Foxworthy. In 1985, Caldato started a PA and DJ rental company with Mike Nishita, brother of "Money" Mark Nishita. A year he met DJ Matt Dike at legendary downtown L. A. nightclub Power Tools. At Dike's request, Caldato built a recording studio in Dike's Hollywood apartment, transforming a closet into a vocal booth, it was at Dike's home studio that Caldato engineered and helped co-produce Tone Loc and Young MC's hit singles and albums for Dike and Mike Ross' label Delicious Vinyl. It was at Dike's apartment that Caldato first met the New York rap group Beastie Boys and the duo the Dust Brothers. In 1988-89 Caldato engineered the Beastie Boys second album Paul's Boutique.
Caldato is visible in footage of the album's release party atop the Capitol Records building. Deemed a commercial failure at the time, Paul's Boutique is now considered an unimpeachable cult classic; the album began Caldato's long-term professional association with Beastie Boys, co-producing their multi-platinum classics Check Your Head, Ill Communication and Hello Nasty. His name became well-known to Beastie fans via the shout-outs "that's a record'cause of Mario" on the song "Root Down", "Mario C likes to keep it clean!" on the hit single "Intergalactic, "at the boards is the man they call Mario" on Sure Shot. During his early association with the Beastie Boys, Caldato produced DJ Hurricane's 1st album The Hurra for Grand Royal. With Adam Horovitz, he produced two albums for the hardcore punk band D. F. L. for Grand Royal. Caldato toured extensively worldwide with Beastie Boys during Check Your Head and Ill Communication mixing their sound live, his style inspired in part by legendary dub reggae pioneers King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry.
Caldato's long-standing friendship with Money Mark has resulted in Mario's engineering and mixing much of Mark's solo output, including the albums Push The Button, Change Is Coming, Brand New By Tomorrow. Caldato has produced three Jack Johnson albums On & On, In Between Dreams and Johnson's fourth Billboard Number One album From Here to Now to You, he has worked with Beck, Blur, Cibo Matto, The Cult, Day One, Los Lobos & John Lee Hooker, Manu Chao, Mother Tongue's self-titled debut, Super Furry Animals, Gruff Rhys, The John Butler Trio and Yoko Ono. In 2008, he mixed the self-titled debut EP of One Day as a Lion, a project comprising Zack de la Rocha and Jon Theodore. In 2008, he produced the 2nd album of Joseph d'Anvers, a talented French songwriter, called Les Jours Sauvages, featuring appearances by Money Mark, Vanessa da Mata, Moreno Veloso and Kassin & Domenico. In 2012 he mixed the debut by Kids "Traphouse Rock," recorded by Wilco's Jeff Tweedy. Produced Ethan Tucker debut LP 2015 Mala Vita, So Far So Good LP from Holland 2016, Willie Bobo Dig my Feeling LP and Con Brio debut LP Paradise in 2016 from San Francisco.
The Portuguese-speaking Caldato spends significant time in Brasil, where his personal heritage infuses his music projects. He has produced many Brazilian artists, including Planet Hemp, Marcelo D2, Seu Jorge, Nação Zumbi, Bebel Gilberto, Marisa Monte, Vanessa da Mata, Mallu Magalhães. In 2008 he mixed the debut album of the Argentinian group Banda de Turistas titled Magico Corazon Radiofonico, one of the new revelations of the Latin scene. In 2010 Caldato mixed and co-produced the Seu Jorge and Almaz self-titled album released by Now-Again Records. Caldato organized and produced a charitable album with Anglo-Brazilian collaboratory supergroup, The Bottletop Band. In 2014 he was responsible for mixing Criolo second album Convoque seu Buda and Filipe Ret, Revel LP and Ana Cañas To Na Vida LP in 2015. Produced Aymoréco debut LP 2016, Santiago Cruz, Aviones y Viajes Interplanetarios LP from Colombia mixed Alvinho Lancellotti, Canto de Marajó LP and FingerFingerrr, MAR LP in 2016. 1989 Tone Lōc eng, mix 1989 Young MC eng, mix 1989 Def Jef eng, mix 1989 Beastie Boys eng, mix 1992 Beastie Boys co-prod w/ Beastie Boys, mix 1994 Beastie Boys co-prod w/ Beastie
Atwater Village, Los Angeles
Atwater Village is a diverse neighborhood in the 13th district of Los Angeles, California. Much of Atwater Village lies in the fertile Los Angeles River flood plain. Located in the northeast region of the city, Atwater borders Griffith Park and Silver Lake to the west, Glendale to the north and east, Glassell Park to the south; the area has three elementary schools -- one private. Half the residents were born abroad, a high percentage for the city of Los Angeles. Much of Northeastern Los Angeles was part of Rancho San Rafael, until 1868, when parts of it were purchased by W. C. B. Richardson, who renamed it Rancho Santa Eulalia; the entire region was subdivided and sold to home builders in 1902, with the Atwater Village portion being named as such due to its proximity to the Los Angeles River. The area was named "Atwater," while the "Village" was added in 1986. Initial residents included the newly created middle-class workers employed at the nearby DWP substation; the location between the Los Angeles and Glendale city cores made it a sought after residential neighborhood beginning in the 1920s.
The majority of homes and structures in Atwater Village have never been demolished, resulting in the neighborhood having one of the highest number of structures built before 1939 in Los Angeles County. Today, the neighborhood is among Los Angeles' most gentrifying, with an influx of young creative professionals and businesses catering to them, spilling over from the popular Silver Lake and Los Feliz areas. Census tracts 1883, 1881 and 1871.01 lie wholly within Atwater Village boundaries, a large portion of census tract 1871.02 is within Atwater Village. Here are the five-year findings as reported by American Community Survey in 2013: Census tract 1883 had a median income of $31,111 and was 37.8% non-Hispanic white, 34.1% Hispanic, 20.2% Asian, 1.6% Pacific Islander and 1.1% black. Census tract 1871.01 had a median income of $72,526 and was 42.9% non-Hispanic white, 34.4% Hispanic, 21.2% Asian and 1.4% black. Census tract 1881 was 60.3% Hispanic, 23.9% non-Hispanic white, 13.2% Asian, 2% black and 1.3% American Indian or Alaska Native.
Median income for this census tract was $30,996. Census tract 1871.02 was 47.9% Hispanic, 27.5% non-Hispanic white, 13.9% Asian and 8.4% black, with a median income of $24,852. In 2008, the city estimated; the 2000 U. S. census counted 14,888 residents in the 1.78-square-mile Atwater Village neighborhood—or 8,379 people per square mile, an average population density for the city. The median age for residents was 34, about average for the city; the neighborhood was considered diverse ethnically, with a high percentage of Asians. The breakdown was Latinos, 51.3%. Mexico and the Philippines were the most common places of birth for the 49.3% of the residents who were born abroad—a high percentage, compared to the city at large. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was an average figure for Los Angeles; the percentages of households that earned $20,000 to $60,000 yearly were high for Los Angeles County. The average household size of 2.7 people was average for Los Angeles. Renters occupied 59.6% of the housing stock, house or apartment owners held 40.4%.
The percentage of never-married women was among the county's highest. Much of Atwater lies in the old Los Angeles River flood plain, which resulted in fertile soil. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, Atwater Village is bordered on the north and east by Glendale, on the southeast by Glassell Park, on the south by Echo Park, on the southwest by Los Feliz and Silver Lake and on the west by Griffith Park. Street and other boundary limits are the Ventura Freeway on the north, San Fernando Boulevard on the east, the Los Angeles River on the south and west. Twenty-two percent of Atwater Park residents aged 25 and older had earned a four-year degree by 2000, an average figure for both the city and the county. Schools in Atwater Village are: Glenfeliz Boulevard Elementary School, LAUSD, 3955 Glenfeliz Boulevard Holy Trinity Elementary School, private, 3716 Boyce Avenue Atwater Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 3271 Silver Lake Boulevard Atwater village is close to the Interstate 5, SR 134 and Interstate 110 freeways.
It is served by several Metro Bus lines, including the 92, 29, 180, 181, 201 and 780. It is adjacent to Metrolink Glendale Station. List of districts and neighborhoods in Los Angeles Comments about living in Atwater Village Atwater Village crime map and statistics Atwater Village book Atwater Village Chamber of Commerce Friends of Atwater Village Atwater Village Neighborhood Council Councilman Eric Garcetti's website, 13th district