Jacques-Henri-Auguste Gréber was a French architect specializing in landscape architecture and urban design. He was a strong proponent of the Beaux-Arts style and a contributor to the City Beautiful movement in Philadelphia and Ottawa. Gréber was born in Paris, the son of sculptor Henri-Léon Gréber, attended the École des Beaux-Arts in that city. Following graduation in 1908, he designed many private gardens in the United States; these include Harbor Hill in New York for Clarence Mackay. Widener, his greatest private commission was for investment banker Edward T. Stotesbury at Whitemarsh Hall in Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania. There he created the unsurpassed American example of a French classical garden in the grand manner of André Le Nôtre. Gréber is best known for the 1917 master plan for the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in Philadelphia; the latter, produced between 1937 and 1950, included expansion of urban parks, a series of parkways, a greenbelt surrounding the city. The plan incorporated the construction of surrounding plaza area.
In anticipation of the 1926 sesquicentennial of the Declaration of Independence, Gréber created a plan for a mall north of Independence Hall in Philadelphia. This included a "Great Marble Court" surrounded on 3 sides by arcades and a pavilion at its center to house the Liberty Bell, it was not carried out. He collaborated with fellow French-American architect Paul Cret on Philadelphia's Rodin Museum in 1926, he was not always popular with the press: a Philadelphia newspaper dubbed him "Jack Grabber". In France, between the world wars, Gréber worked on urban plans in Lille, Marseille and Rouen, Montrouge, among others, but he is not as well-known today in France. Media related to Category:Jacques Gréber at Wikimedia Commons Greber Plan Gatineau Park Greenbelt Web site about Clarence H. Mackay and Harbor Hill Gréber's plans for Whitemarsh Hall Gréber's bronze fountain from Lynnewood Hall
Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial
Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial is a Second World War American military war grave cemetery, located in Hamm, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. The cemetery, containing 5,073 American war dead, covers 50.5 acres and was dedicated in 1960. It is administered by the American Battle Monuments Commission; the cemetery was established on 29 December 1944 by the 609th Quartermaster Company of the U. S. Third Army while Allied Forces were containing the German Ardennes offensive in the winter of 1944/1945. General George S. Patton used the city of Luxembourg as headquarters; the new headstones were cemented onto concrete beams that run for more than six miles under the lawn of the grave plots. The 5,076 headstones are set in nine plots of fine grass, lettered A to I. Separating the plots are two malls radiating from the memorial and two transverse paths. Two flagpoles overlook the graves area. Situated between the two flagpoles lies the grave of General George S. Patton. Twenty-two sets of brothers rest side-by-side in adjacent graves.
During the 1950s, the original wooden grave markers were replaced with headstones made of white Lasa marble. Not far from the cemetery entrance stands the white stone chapel, set on a wide circular platform surrounded by woods, it is embellished with sculpture in bronze and stone, a stained-glass window with the insignia of the five major U. S. commands that operated in the region, a mosaic ceiling. Under a U. S.-Luxembourg treaty signed in 1951 the U. S. government was granted free use in perpetuity of the land covered by the cemetery, without taxation. George S. Patton, US general Day G. Turner, Medal of Honor recipient Sledge, Michael. Soldier Dead: How We Recover, Identify and Honor Our Military Fallen. New York: Columbia University Press. Pp. 206–7, 210. ISBN 9780231509374. OCLC 60527603. Sandweiler German war cemetery - about 1.5 km away American Battle Monuments Commission Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial Website with photos of the Luxembourg American Cemetery and information on some of the soldiers buried there
St. Mihiel American Cemetery and Memorial
The St. Mihiel American Cemetery and Memorial is located at the west edge of Thiaucourt, France; the 40.5 acres cemetery contains the graves of 4,153 American military dead from World War I. The majority of these died in the Battle of Saint-Mihiel, an offensive that resulted in the reduction of the St. Mihiel salient that threatened Paris. In the late 1920s, the architect Thomas Harlan Ellett, in collaboration with the sculptor Paul Manship, designed the architectural features of the cemetery, including a memorial peristyle with fluted Doric columns, flanking it, a chapel and a museum; the project was approved by the National Commission of Fine Arts by 1930, completed in 1934. The burial area is divided into four equal quadrants by paths lined with linden trees, at the center of, a large sundial surmounted by an American eagle. A statue of a World War I soldier, sculpted by Paul Manship, stands at the end of the western axis, while a semi-circular overlook with a sculpted victory vase marks the end of the eastern axis.
A large rose-granite urn sits at the center of the white marble peristyle, embellished with sculpted drapery and a winged horse symbolizing the flight of the immortal soul to the afterlife. Inside the museum, an inlaid marble map created by the mosaic artist Barry Faulkner depicts the St. Mihiel offensive; the surrounding walls are inscribed with the names of 284 missing soldiers, with rosettes to mark the names of those whose remains were recovered and identified. The chapel's floor is inlaid with green marble, its coffered ceiling decorated with gilt Napoleonic bees. Above an ivory-tinted altar, a mosaic depicts St. Michael the Archangel, sheathing his sword, flanked by a pair of doves of peace holding olive twigs. Mosaic shields display the colors of the United States and France. John Hunter Wickersham, recipient of the Medal of Honor for action in the St. Mihiel offensive World War I memorials Sledge, Michael. Soldier Dead: How We Recover, Identify and Honor Our Military Fallen. New York: Columbia University Press.
P. 204. ISBN 9780231509374. OCLC 60527603. American Battle Monuments Commission – St. Miliel American Cemetery and Memorial St. Mihiel American Cemetery and Memorial at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "St. Miliel American Cemetery and Memorial, American Battle Monuments Commission"
Brookwood American Cemetery and Memorial
Brookwood American Cemetery and Memorial is the only American Military Cemetery of World War I in the British Isles. Located 28 miles southwest of London, Brookwood American Cemetery contains the graves of 468 American war dead, including the graves of 41 unknown servicemen, from World War I. Maintained by the American Battle Monuments Commission, the cemetery of 4.5 acres lies to the west of the civilian Brookwood Cemetery, built by the London Necropolis Company and opened in 1854. The American cemetery is flanked by the much larger Brookwood Military Cemetery, maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, which contains more than 5,000 war dead from the two world wars. In September 1922 the London Necropolis Company sold an area adjacent to the Brookwood Military Cemetery to the US government; the LNC was hired by the US government to landscape this area and build a chapel, to create this cemetery. In 1929 the chapel memorial opened. Inside are the engraved names of 563 missing, most of whom served in the United States Navy and Coast Guard, whose graves are in the sea.
Most of the dead buried in Brookwood died in its surrounding waters. During World War I, servicemen who died in London hospitals were brought to Brookwood. After the Armistice in 1918, the dead from various temporary sites throughout England and Ireland were brought to it; these were members of the American Expeditionary Forces who lost their lives in England or the surrounding waters. Among those reburied in Brookwood American Cemetery were victims of the German U-boat UB-77 attack on the SS Tuscania, a British troop transport of the Anchor Line, sunk on 5 February 1918 off the coast of Scotland with the loss of 210 souls. Most of the 358 American victims of the HMS Otranto tragedy were reinterred in Brookwood. After the entry of the United States into the Second World War the American cemetery was enlarged, with burials of US servicemen beginning in April 1942. With large numbers of American personnel based in the west of England, a dedicated rail service for the transport of bodies operated from Devonport to Brookwood.
By August 1944 over 3,600 bodies had been buried in the American Military Cemetery. At this time burials were discontinued, US casualties were from on buried at Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial. On the authority of Thomas B. Larkin, Quartermaster General of the United States Army, the US servicemen buried at Brookwood during the Second World War were exhumed in January–May 1948; those whose next of kin requested it were shipped to the United States for reburial, the remaining bodies were transferred to the new cemetery outside Cambridge. Brookwood American Cemetery had been the burial site for those US servicemen executed while serving in the United Kingdom, whose bodies had been carried to Brookwood by rail from the American execution facilities at Shepton Mallet, they were not transferred to Cambridge in 1948, but instead reburied in unmarked graves at Oise-Aisne American Cemetery Plot E, a dedicated site for US servicemen executed during the Second World War. The railway service had been suspended in 1941, North station was used as a temporary mortuary to hold these bodies while awaiting shipment to the USA or Cambridge.
As the branch line into the cemetery was no longer in use, temporary platforms were built on the branch line serving the National Rifle Association's shooting range at Bisley, on the opposite side of the LSWR line from the cemetery. Following the removal of the US war graves the site in which they had been buried was divided into cemeteries for the Free French forces and Italian prisoners of war; the cemetery was designed by New York architect Egerton Swartwout and British architect Harry Bulkeley Creswell. Swartwout designed the Missouri State Capitol in Jefferson City and Brooklyn’s Grand Army Plaza Bailey Fountain. For Brookwood, he laid out the cemetery into four plots for the 468 headstones, grouped around a flagpole; the headstones are in the shape of the Latin cross or a Star of David. Shrubs and trees frame the grave plots: evergreen and Scots pine. Existing pine trees were retained to give a pleasing effect around the chapel. For color around the cemetery, rhododendrons and heather were planted.
From 2015 to early 2016 extensive work was undertaken at the cemetery in readiness for the 2016 Memorial Day Service. This included replacing all headstones to meet strict ABMC regulations, extensive ground works, removal of trees with borders redesigned and replanted; the chapel memorial was dedicated in 1929 and designed by Egerton Swartwout and Harry Bulkeley Creswell. It is located in the northwest side of the cemetery. Engraved above the entrance is the tribute “PERPETUAL LIGHT UPON THEM SHINES.” A classic white stone building of Portland limestone, quarried on the Isle of Portland, the interior is decorated with religious and patriotic symbols. The interior has soft tan-hued stone, with an altar, two oak pews and carved doorways. There are 18 stained glass windows, each bearing the names of American States and Territories of 1918. There are unit insignia worked into the glass and the branches of service for the Army, Marine Corps and Coast Guard. Engraved into the walls of the chapel are the names of 563 missing Americans.
Most were lost at sea and their remains were never recovered or could not be positively identified. Included on the walls of the chapel are the names of all hands from the USCGC cutter Tampa; the cutter was in service for 11 months, until the night of 26 September 1
North Africa American Cemetery and Memorial
North Africa American Cemetery and Memorial is a Second World War military war grave cemetery, located in the town of Carthage in Tunisia. The cemetery, the only American one in North Africa and dedicated in 1960, contains 2,841 American war dead and covers 27 acres, it is administered by the American Battle Monuments Commission. Headstones are set in straight lines subdivided into nine rectangular plots by wide paths, with decorative pools at their intersections. Along the southeast edge of the burial area, bordering the tree-lined terrace leading to the memorial is the Wall of the Missing. On this wall 3,724 names are engraved. Rosettes mark the names of those since identified; the chapel and the memorial court, which contains large maps in mosaic and ceramic depicting the operations and supply activities of American forces across Africa to the Persian Gulf, were designed to harmonize with local architecture. The chapel interior is decorated with polished marble and sculpture; the North Africa American Cemetery is located close to the site of the ancient city of Carthage, destroyed by the Romans in 146 B.
C. and lies over part of the site of Roman Carthage. It is near the present town of the same name, 10 miles from the city of Tunis. Captain Foy Draper, Gold Medal Olympic sprinter and USAAF pilot Private. Nicholas Minue, Medal of Honor recipient for his bravery near Majaz al Bab, Tunisia R/O John F. Clemmens, Air Medal died in a plane crash with pilot Clarence Fuller Jan. 20th 1944 First Lieutenant Robert M. Emery, Distinguished Service Cross for his actions near Djebel Mrdajajdo in Algeria American Battle Monuments Commission – North Africa American Cemetery and Memorial This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "North Africa American Cemetery and Memorial, "American Battle Monuments Commission""
Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery and Memorial
Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery and Memorial is a Second World War American military war grave cemetery, located 3 km north-west of Henri-Chapelle, some 30 km east of Liège in Belgium. The cemetery, dedicated in 1960, covers 57 acres, it is one of three American war cemeteries in Belgium, the other two being the Ardennes American Cemetery and Flanders Field. It is administered by the American Battle Monuments Commission; the majority of the fallen buried at Henri-Chapelle were killed during the Allied push in Germany during late 1944 and early 1945. The fallen from two key military engagements fill the cemetery. Following the war, the American Graves Registration Service began to repatriate the bodies of fallen personnel back to the US. Disinterments began on 27 July 27 1947 and the first shipment of bodies left the Belgian port of Antwerp in October 1947; the moment was marked by a large commemoration attended by over 30,000 Belgian citizens. The cemetery placed graves in arcs across slopes lawns.
A central road passes through the cemetery. There is a chapel and vicitor's center containing carved granite maps showing the advance of US forces across Belgium and into Germany. A colonnade features the names of 450 missing US service personnel. In 1956 the statue Angel of Peace created by Donal Hord was unveiled at the cemetery. Several Medal of Honor recipients are buried in the cemetery: Brigadier General Frederick W. Castle, for action as an Army Air Force pilot. T/4 Truman C. Kimbro, for action against enemy forces in Belgium PFC Francis X. McGraw, for action against enemy forces in GermanyOther notables: James G. Snitzer, film actor William Harrell Nellis, USAAF pilot and namesake of Nellis Air Force Base Sledge, Michael. Soldier Dead: How We Recover, Identify and Honor Our Military Fallen. New York: Columbia University Press. Pp. 207, 210. ISBN 9780231509374. OCLC 60527603. Official website ABMC official Henri-Chapelle video.wmv ABMC official Henri-Chapelle booklet.pdf Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery and Memorial at Find a Grave