Surface anatomy is the study of the external features of the body of an animal. In birds this is termed topography. Surface anatomy deals with anatomical features that can be studied without dissection; as such, it is a branch of gross anatomy, along with radiological anatomy. Surface anatomy is a descriptive science. In particular, in the case of human surface anatomy, these are the form and proportions of the human body and the surface landmarks which correspond to deeper structures hidden from view, both in static pose and in motion. In addition, the science of surface anatomy includes the theories and systems of body proportions and related artistic canons; the study of surface anatomy is the basis for depicting the human body in classical art. Some pseudo-sciences such as physiognomy and palmistry rely on surface anatomy. Knowledge of the surface anatomy of the thorax is important because it is one of the areas most subjected to physical examination, like auscultation and percussion. In cardiology, Erb's point refers to the third intercostal space on the left sternal border where S2 heart sound is best auscultated.
Some sources include the fourth left interspace. Human female breasts are located on the chest wall, most between the second and sixth rib. On the trunk of the body in the thoracic area, the shoulder in general is the acromial, while the curve of the shoulder is the deltoid; the back as a general area is the dorsum or dorsal area, the lower back as the limbus or lumbar region. The shoulderblades are the scapular area and the breastbone is the sternal region; the abdominal area is the region between the pelvis. The breast is called the mamma or mammary, the armpit as the axilla and axillary, the navel as the umbilicus and umbilical; the pelvis is the lower torso, between the thighs. The groin, where the thigh joins the trunk, are the inguinal area; the entire arm is referred to as the brachium and brachial, the front of the elbow as the antecubitis and antecubital, the back of the elbow as the olecranon or olecranal, the forearm as the antebrachium and antebrachial, the wrist as the carpus and carpal area, the hand as the manus and manual, the palm as the palma and palmar, the thumb as the pollex, the fingers as the digits and phalangeal.
The buttocks are the gluteus or gluteal region and the pubic area is the pubis. Anatomists divide the lower limb into the leg; the thigh is the femoral region. The kneecap is the patella and patellar while the back of the knee is the popliteus and popliteal area; the leg is the crus and crural area, the lateral aspect of the leg is the peroneal area, the calf is the sura and sural region. The ankle is the tarsus and tarsal, the heel is the calcaneus or calcaneal; the foot is the pes and pedal region, the sole of the foot the planta and plantar. As with the fingers, the toes are called the digits and phalangeal area; the big toe is referred to as the hallux. Following are lists of surface anatomical features in humans and other animals. Sorted from head to tail, cranial to caudal. Homologues are separated by commas. Subcomponents are nested. Class in which component occurs in italic. Head Tentacle Cephalopoda Antler Crest Hood Horn Mane Eye Ear Snout Nose, Trunk Nostril Whiskers Beak Aves only, Mouth Lip not in Aves Philtrum Jaw not in Aves Gums not in Aves Teeth not in Aves, Tusk Tongue Throat Vocal sac Ranidae Vertebral column (extends dorsally Thorax Udder, Mammary gland Gills Arm Mammalia, Amphibia...
Fin Fish, Wing Aves Elbow Hand Fingers Knee Leg Shinbone Foot Toe Hoof, Nail, Nail Webbing Abdomen Pouch Marsupialia Sex organs Vulva Penis Scrotum Hair, Feather Aves, Scale Reptilia, Hair Mammalia, Fur Shell Tail Anatomy Inspection List of human anatomical features List of images in Gray's Anatomy: XII. Surface anatomy and Surface Markings Palpation Drake, Richard. Gray's Anatomy for Students. Elsevier Health Sciences. Pp. 157–164, 311–320, 538–547, 686–694, 882–892, 1097–1110, 1514–1524. ISBN 9781437720556. Retrieved 28 February 2014. Seeley, Rod R.. Anatomy & physiology. McGraw & Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-235113-2. Standring, Susan Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, 39th Edition. ISBN 978-0-443-07168-3. Human surface anatomy photos at pp. 947, 1406-1410 Figs. 56.3, 110.12, 110.13, 110.15, 110.22 Frederick, Roland Becker. The anatomical basis of medical practice. Williams and Wilkins. Lumley, John S. P.. Surface Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Examination. Elsevier Health Sciences.
ISBN 978-0-7020-4776-3. Retrieved 28 February 2014. Rohen, Johannes Wilhelm. Color Atlas of Anatomy – A Photographic Study of the Human Body. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Pp. 204–5, 476–7. ISBN 978-1-58255-856-1. Sheppard, Joseph. Drawing the Living Figure. Dover Publications, Incorporated. ISBN 0-486-26723-7
Secret Robot Control is the second full-length album by the band Baboon. It was released in April 1997 on Wind-Up Records; the title of the album is taken from a painting by Todd Ramsell, featured on the album's cover. The working title of the album was Destroy This Mad Brute! "Night of the Long Knives" – 2:57 "I'm OK if You're OK" – 3:40 "You and I" – 3:50 "Numb" – 2:20 "The Man with the Plastic Penis" – 2:10 "BoxRotter" – 4:36 "Bring Me the Head of Jack Skinner" – 3:08 "Time Wounds All Heals" – 2:55 "A Sip for Strength" – 5:26 "You Kill Me" – 4:08 "Nation of Twos" – 3:08All songs by Baboon. Brian Schmitz - bass, backing vocals, organ Mike Rudnicki - guitar, backing vocals, thumb piano, kitchen utensil bashing Steven Barnett - drums and percussion, clarinet, paranoia bass, kitchen utensil bashing, blender molestation on "I'm OK If You're OK", final sequencing Andrew Huffstetler - lead and backing vocals, trombone Kim Pendleton - backing vocals Dave Willingham - producer, final sequencing Paul Quigg - mixer Andy VanDette - mastering Todd Ramsell - album artwork
The Jardin botanique de Tours is a municipal botanical garden and arboretum located at 33, Boulevard Tonnellé, Indre-et-Loire, Centre-Val de Loire, France. It is open daily; the garden was established by public subscription in 1843 at the initiative of pharmacist Jean-Anthyme Margueron, is the oldest public garden in the city. In response to the 1841 creation of the city's Hospice Général et de l’Ecole Préparatoire de Pharmacie, it began as a collection of about 2,000 medical and exotic plants arranged in greenhouses and garden proper, it was flooded by the Loire in 1848 and again in 1856, to a depth of 2 metres, which required rebuilding the garden and replacing most of its trees. In 1863 an orangery and animal park were added, in 1890 new greenhouses under the direction of Louis Madelin, with the garden's first seed catalog published in 1901; the greenhouses were damaged by bombardments in World War II. The garden contains about 2,000 taxa, organized as follows: North - regular parterres along an avenue of magnolias, with a pool containing water lilies and lotus.
East - bulbs and perennials, as well as a garden of plant evolution. South - an excellent arboretum in the English style, a pond, a "garden of simples" as in medieval gardens. West - heath, Mediterranean garden, alpine garden; the garden contains an orangery, exhibition greenhouses, a small space for animals. List of botanical gardens in France Jardin botanique de Tours Office de Tourisme de Tours Patrimoine de France entry Parcs et Jardins entry Gralon.net entry YouTube slide show Annales de la Société d'agriculture, arts et belles-lettres du département d'Indre-et-Loire, Société d'agriculture, arts et belles-lettres du département d'Indre-et-Loire, Tours, v.38-40, 1860, pages 51–55
The negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement were held between 12 countries between 2008 and 2015. The negotiations were aimed at obtaining an agreement between the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement parties Brunei, Chile and New Zealand, as well as the Australia and the United States. Brunei—a member of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation since 1989— has played an important role in the formation of the earlier trade agreements that led up to the creation of TPP in 2005. In 2000 Brunei hosted the pivotal meeting of APEC where discussion began and the ASEAN Regional Forum in July 2002. By 2001 New Zealand and Singapore had joined in the New Zealand/Singapore Closer Economic Partnership; the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement built on the NZSCEP. During the 2002 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Leaders' Meeting in Los Cabos, Prime Ministers Helen Clark of New Zealand, Goh Chok Tong of Singapore and Chilean President Ricardo Lagos began negotiations on the Pacific Three Closer Economic Partnership.
According to the New Zealand Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, The shared desire was to create a comprehensive, forward-looking trade agreement that set high-quality benchmarks on trade rules, would help to promote trade liberalisation and facilitate trade within the APEC region. Brunei first took part as a full negotiating party in April 2005 before the fifth, final round of talks. Subsequently, the agreement was renamed to TPSEP. Negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement were concluded by Brunei, New Zealand and Singapore on 3 June 2005, entered into force on 28 May 2006 for New Zealand and Singapore, 12 July 2006 for Brunei, 8 November 2006 for Chile; the original TPSEP agreement contains an accession clause and affirms the members' "commitment to encourage the accession to this Agreement by other economies". It is a comprehensive agreement, affecting trade in goods, rules of origin, trade remedies and phytosanitary measures, technical barriers to trade, trade in services, intellectual property, government procurement and competition policy.
Among other things, it called for reduction by 90 percent of all tariffs between member countries by 1 January 2006, reduction of all trade tariffs to zero by the year 2015. Although original and negotiating parties are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the TPSEP are not APEC initiatives. However, the TPP is considered to be a pathfinder for the proposed Free Trade Area of the Asia Pacific, an APEC initiative. In January 2008, the US agreed to enter into talks with the Pacific 4 members regarding trade liberalisation in financial services. On 22 September 2008, US Trade Representative Susan C. Schwab announced that the US would be the first country to begin negotiations with the P4 countries to join the TPP, planning to start the first round of talks in early 2009. In November 2008, Australia and Peru announced that they would join the P4 trade bloc. In October 2010, Malaysia announced that it had joined the TPP negotiations. After the inauguration of President Barack Obama in January 2009, the anticipated March 2009 negotiations were postponed.
However, in his first trip to Asia in November 2009, President Obama reaffirmed the United States' commitment to the TPP, on 14 December 2009, new US Trade Representative Ron Kirk notified Congress that President Obama planned to enter TPP negotiations "with the objective of shaping a high-standard, broad-based regional pact". On the last day of the 2010 APEC summit, leaders of the nine negotiating countries endorsed the proposal advanced by US President Barack Obama that set a target for settlement of negotiations by the next APEC summit in November 2011. In 2010, Canada had become an observer in the TPP talks, expressed interest in joining, but was not committed to join, purportedly because the US and New Zealand blocked it because of concerns over Canadian agricultural policy —specifically dairy—and intellectual property-rights protection. Several pro-business and internationalist Canadian media outlets raised concerns about this as a missed opportunity. In a feature in the Financial Post, former Canadian trade-negotiator Peter Clark claimed that the US Obama Administration had strategically outmaneuvered the Canadian Harper Government.
Wendy Dobson and Diana Kuzmanovic for The School of Public Policy, University of Calgary, argued for the economic necessity of the TPP to Canada. Embassy warned that Canada's position in APEC could be compromised by being excluded from both the US-oriented TPP and the proposed China-oriented ASEAN +3 trade agreement. In February 2012 a call for co-operation between the WTO and Economic Partnership Agreements like the TPP came after Pierre Lellouche described the sentiment of the Doha round negotiations. In June 2012, Canada and Mexico announced. Mexico's interest in joining was met with concern among TPP negotiators about its customs policies. Canada and Mexico formally became TPP negotiating participants in October 2012, following completion of the domestic consultation periods of the other nine members. On 23 July 2013, Japan joined the TPP negotiations. According to the Brookings Institution, Prime Minister Abe's decision to commit Japan to joining the TPP should be understood as a necessary complement t
This is a list of Bangladeshi Twenty20 International cricketers. A Twenty20 International is an international cricket match between two representative teams, as determined by the International Cricket Council. A Twenty20 International is played under the rules of Twenty20 cricket; this list comprises all members of the Bangladesh cricket team who have played at least one T20I match. It is arranged in the order in which each player won his first Twenty20 cap. Where more than one player won his first Twenty20 cap in the same match, those players are listed alphabetically by surname. Statistics are correct as of 11 March 2020. Twenty20 International Bangladesh national cricket team List of Bangladesh Test cricketers List of Bangladesh ODI cricketers Bangladesh Cricket Team
Estrada Courts is a low-income housing project in the Boyle Heights area of Los Angeles, California. Estrada Courts was constructed in 1942-1943, during the World War II housing shortage in Southern California, which resulted from the war-time boom in war-industry work, followed by the return of servicemen to the region and the Bracero program. In 1954, Paul Robinson Hunter designed an extension of the site with Jr.. When the Estrada Courts were built it was unique to other housing projects because it “was not segregated or bound by racial restrictions”; the Estrada Courts allowed for more integrated complexes therefore, welcoming more than just the low-income/working class. Post-war era the Estrada Courts began to evolve, in the 1970s a total of eighty murals were painted by Chicano muralists. Estrada Courts is owned by the City of Los Angeles and operated by the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles. Estrada Courts is well known for its murals, which reflect the Chicano barrio culture and traditions of the area.
“Chicano murals look the way they do, because the authors concentrate not only on individual murals but on mural clusters and establish a dialogic interplay of form and location among them". The iconography in the mural clusters emerges from the sociohistorical context not only of the space where they are painted but of the aesthetic norms of specific barrio cultures over an extended period of time.” The murals include: Mural of Children by Charles Felix Two Flags by Sonny Ramirez, located at 1364-6 Grande Vista Ave at Olympic In Memory of a Home Boy by Daniel Martinez, located at 3328 Hunter Street Dreams of Flight by David Botello, located at 3441 Olympic Boulevard The Sun Bathers by Gil Hernandez, located at 3287 Olympic Boulevard The Artist by Daniel Haro Moratorium - The Black and White Mural by Willie Herron and Gronk. We Are Not a Minority by El Congreso de Artistas Cosmicos de las Americas de San Diego; the mural reads on the upper left corner: "In memoriam to el Doctor Che. Día del Rebelde Internacional XI aniversario Oct. 8th, 1978.”
This mural can be seen in the music videos for "To Live & Die in L. A." by Tupac Shakur and "Where Is the Love?" by The Black Eyed Peas. The murals Dreams of Flight, Untitled by Daniel Haro, Untitled by Steve Delgado are featured prominently in an episode of the television show Robbery Homicide Division-City of Strivers from November 8, 2002. Residents are assigned to the following schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District: Dena Elementary School Stevenson Middle School Theodore Roosevelt High School Easterling, Stewart An Art Museum on the Streets of L. A. Socialist Worker Online Getty Museum Priorities in Conserving Community Murals East Los Angeles Public Housing — Tour Guide Pomona College Experience the Mural of East Los Angeles Japanese National Museum Boyle Heights Project