Negative affectivity, or negative affect, is a personality variable that involves the experience of negative emotions and poor self-concept. Negative affectivity subsumes a variety of negative emotions, including anger, disgust, guilt and nervousness. Low negative affectivity is characterized by frequent states of calmness and serenity, along with states of confidence and great enthusiasm. Individuals differ in negative emotional reactivity. Trait negative affectivity corresponds to the dominant personality factor of anxiety/neuroticism, found within the Big Five personality traits as emotional stability; the Big Five are characterized as openness, conscientiousness, extraversion and neuroticism. Neuroticism can plague an individual with severe mood swings, frequent sadness and being disturbed, predicts the development and onset of all "common" mental disorders. Research shows that negative affectivity relates to different classes of variables: Self-reported stress and coping skills, health complaints, frequency of unpleasant events.
Weight gain and mental health complaints are experienced as well. People who express high negative affectivity view themselves and a variety of aspects of the world around them in negative terms. Negative affectivity is related to life satisfaction. Individuals high in negative affect will exhibit, on average, higher levels of distress and dissatisfaction, tend to focus on the unpleasant aspects of themselves, the world, the future, other people, evoke more negative life events; the similarities between these affective traits and life satisfaction have led some researchers to view both positive and negative affect with life satisfaction as specific indicators of the broader construct of subjective well-being. Negative affect arousal mechanisms can induce negative affective states as evidenced by a study conducted by Stanley S. Seidner on negative arousal and white noise; the study quantified reactions from Mexican and Puerto Rican participants in response to the devaluation of speakers from other ethnic origins.
There are many instruments that can be used to measure negative affectivity, including measures of related concepts, such as neuroticism and trait anxiety. Two used are: PANAS – The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule incorporates a 10-item negative affect scale; the PANAS-X is an expanded version of PANAS that incorporates negative affect subscales for Fear, Guilt and Shyness. I-PANAS-SF – The International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form is an extensively validated brief, cross-culturally reliable 10-item version of the PANAS. Negative Affect items are Afraid, Hostile and Upset. Internal consistency reliabilities between.72 and.76 are reported. The I-PANAS-SF was developed to eliminate redundant and ambiguous items and thereby derive an efficient measure for general use in research situations where either time or space are limited, or where international populations are of interest but where English may not be the mother tongue. Recent studies indicate that negative affect has important, beneficial impacts on cognition and behavior.
These developments are a remarkable departure from past psychological research, characterized by a unilateral emphasis on the benefits of positive affect. Both states of affect influence behavior. Negative affect is recognized as a "stable, heritable trait tendency to experience a broad range of negative feelings, such as worry, self-criticisms, a negative self-view"; this allows one to feel every type of emotion, regarded as a normal part of life and human nature. So, while the emotions themselves are viewed as negative, the individual experiencing them should not be classified as a negative person or depressed, they are going through a normal process and are feeling something that many individuals may not be able to feel or process due to differing problems. These findings complement evolutionary psychology theories that affective states serve adaptive functions in promoting suitable cognitive strategies to deal with environmental challenges. Positive affect is associated with assimilative, top-down processing used in response to familiar, benign environments.
Negative affect is connected with accommodative, bottom-up processing in response to unfamiliar, or problematic environments. Thus, positive affectivity promotes simplistic heuristic approaches that rely on preexisting knowledge and assumptions. Conversely, negative affectivity promotes controlled, analytic approaches that rely on externally drawn information. Benefits of negative affect are present in areas of cognition including perception, judgment and interpersonal personal relations. Since negative affect relies more on cautious processing than preexisting knowledge, people with negative affect tend to perform better in instances involving deception, impression formation, stereotyping. Negative affectivity's analytical and detailed processing of information leads to fewer reconstructive-memory errors, whereas positive mood relies on broader schematic to thematic information that ignores detail. Thus, information processing in negative moods reduces the misinformation effect and increases overall accuracy of details.
People exhibit less interfering responses to stimuli when given descriptions or performing any cognitive task. People are notoriously susceptible to forming inaccurate judgments based on biases and limited information. Evolutionary theories propose that negative affective states tend to increase skepticism and decrease reliance on preexisting knowledge. Judgmental accuracy is improved in areas such as impression formation, r
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals. It is a scientific study which aims to show how people are individually different due to psychological forces, its areas of focus include: construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processes investigation of individual psychological differences investigation of human nature and psychological similarities between individuals"Personality" is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their environment, emotions and behaviors in various situations. The word personality originates from the Latin persona, which means "mask". Personality refers to the pattern of thoughts, social adjustments, behaviors exhibited over time that influences one's expectations, self-perceptions and attitudes. Personality predicts human reactions to other people and stress. Gordon Allport described two major ways to study personality: the idiographic.
Nomothetic psychology seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of self-actualization or the trait of extraversion. Idiographic psychology is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual; the study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology with an abundance of theoretical trad. The major theories include dispositional perspective, humanistic, behaviorist and social learning perspective. However, many researchers and psychologists do not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and instead take an eclectic approach. Research in this area is empirically driven, such as dimensional models, based on multivariate statistics, such as factor analysis, or emphasizes theory development, such as that of the psychodynamic theory. There is a substantial emphasis on the applied field of personality testing. In psychological education and training, the study of the nature of personality and its psychological development is reviewed as a prerequisite to courses in abnormal psychology or clinical psychology.
Many of the ideas developed by historical and modern personality theorists stem from the basic philosophical assumptions they hold. The study of personality is not a purely empirical discipline, as it brings in elements of art and philosophy to draw general conclusions; the following five categories are some of the most fundamental philosophical assumptions on which theorists disagree: Freedom versus determinism – This is the question whether humans have control over their own behavior and understand the motives behind it or if their behavior is causally determined by forces beyond their control. Behavior is categorized as being either unconscious, environmental or biological by various theories. Heredity versus environment – Personality is thought to be determined either by genetics and biology, or by environment and experiences. Contemporary research suggests that most personality traits are based on the joint influence of genetics and environment. One of the forerunners in this arena is C. Robert Cloninger, who pioneered the Temperament and Character model.
Uniqueness versus universality – This question discusses the extent of each human's individuality or similarity in nature. Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers were all advocates of the uniqueness of individuals. Behaviorists and cognitive theorists, in contrast, emphasize the importance of universal principles, such as reinforcement and self-efficacy. Active versus reactive – This question explores whether humans act through individual initiative or through outside stimuli. Traditional behavioral theorists believed that humans are passively shaped by their environments, whereas humanistic and cognitive theorists believe that humans are more active in their role. Most modern theorists agree that both are important, with aggregate behavior being determined by traits and situational factors being the primary predictor of behavior in the short term. Optimistic versus pessimistic – Personality theories differ with regard to whether humans are integral in the changing of their own personalities.
Theories that place a great deal of emphasis on learning are more optimistic than those that do not. Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of people. Personality types are distinguished from personality traits. There are many types of theories regarding personality, but each theory contains several and sometimes many sub theories. A "theory of personality" constructed by any given psychologist will contain multiple relating theories or sub theories expanding as more psychologists explore the theory. For example, according to type theories, there are two types of people and extroverts. According to trait theories and extroversion are part of a continuous dimension with many people in the middle; the idea of psychological types originated in the theoretical work of Carl Jung in his 1921 book Psychologische Typen and William Marston. Building on the writings and observations of Jung during World War II, Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine C. Briggs, delineated personality types by constructing the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator.
This model was used by David Keirsey with a different understanding from Jung and Myers. In the former Soviet Union, Lithuanian Aušra Augustinavičiūtė independently derived a model of personality type from Jung's called socionics. Theories could be co
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
In psychology, impulsivity is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences. Impulsive actions are "poorly conceived, prematurely expressed, unduly risky, or inappropriate to the situation that result in undesirable consequences," which imperil long-term goals and strategies for success. Impulsivity can be classified as a multifactorial construct. A functional variety of impulsivity has been suggested, which involves action without much forethought in appropriate situations that can and does result in desirable consequences. "When such actions have positive outcomes, they tend not to be seen as signs of impulsivity, but as indicators of boldness, spontaneity, courageousness, or unconventionality" Thus, the construct of impulsivity includes at least two independent components: first, acting without an appropriate amount of deliberation, which may or may not be functional. Impulsivity is both a facet of personality and a major component of various disorders, including ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder.
Abnormal patterns of impulsivity have been noted instances of acquired brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurobiological findings suggest that there are specific brain regions involved in impulsive behavior, although different brain networks may contribute to different manifestations of impulsivity, that genetics may play a role. Many actions contain both impulsive and compulsive features, but impulsivity and compulsivity are functionally distinct. Impulsivity and compulsivity are interrelated in that each exhibits a tendency to act prematurely or without considered thought and include negative outcomes. Compulsivity may be on a continuum with compulsivity on one end and impulsivity on the other, but research has been contradictory on this point. Compulsivity occurs in response to a perceived risk or threat, impulsivity occurs in response to a perceived immediate gain or benefit, whereas compulsivity involves repetitive actions, impulsivity involves unplanned reactions. Impulsivity is a common feature of the conditions of alcohol addiction.
Research has shown that individuals with either of these addictions discount delayed money at higher rates than those without, that the presence of gambling and alcohol abuse lead to additive effects on discounting. For many years it was understood that impulsivity is a trait but with further analysis it can be found that there were five traits that can lead to impulsive actions. Two main types of urgency Positive urgency Negative urgency Two main types of low consciousness Lack of Planning Lack of Perseverance UPDATE NEEDED to reflect updated version of DSM. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is a multiple component disorder involving inattention and hyperactivity; the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders breaks ADHD into three subtypes according to the behavioral symptoms: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Combined TypePredominantly hyperactive-impulsive type symptoms may include: Fidgeting and squirming in seats Talking nonstop Dashing around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight Having trouble sitting still during dinner and story time Being in motion Having difficulty doing quiet tasks or activitiesand these manifestations of impulsivity: Be impatient Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, act without regard for consequences Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games Often interrupts conversations or others' activitiesPrevalence of the disorder worldwide is estimated to be between 4% and 10%, with reports as low as 2.2% and as high as 17.8%.
Variation in rate of diagnoses may be attributed to differences between populations, differences in diagnostic methodologies. Prevalence of ADHD among females is less than half that of males, females more fall into the inattentive subtype. Despite an upward trend in diagnoses of the inattentive subtype of ADHD, impulsivity is considered to be the central feature of ADHD, the impulsive and combined subtypes are the major contributors to the societal costs associated with ADHD; the estimated cost of illness for a child with ADHD is $14,576 annually. Prevalence of ADHD among prison populations is higher than that of the normal population. In both adults and children, ADHD has a high rate of comorbidity with other mental health disorders such as learning disability, conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, substance use disorders; the precise genetic and environmental factors contributing to ADHD are unknown, but endophenotypes offer a potential middle ground between genes and symptoms.
ADHD is linked to "core" deficits involving "executive function," "delay aversion," or "activation/arousal" theories that attempt to explain ADHD through its symptomology. Endophenotypes, on the other hand, purport to identify potential behavioral markers that correlate with specific genetic etiology. There is some evidence to support deficits in response inhibition as one such marker. Problems inhibiting prepotent responses are linked with deficits in pre-frontal cortex functioning, a common dysfunction associated with ADHD and other impulse-control disorders. Evidence based psychopharma
Emotion is a mental state variously associated with thoughts, behavioural responses, a degree of pleasure or displeasure. There is no scientific consensus on a definition. Emotion is intertwined with mood, personality and motivation. Research on emotion has increased over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, endocrinology, history, sociology of emotions, computer science; the numerous theories that attempt to explain the origin, neurobiology and function of emotions have only fostered more intense research on this topic. Current areas of research in the concept of emotion include the development of materials that stimulate and elicit emotion. In addition PET scans and fMRI scans help study the affective picture processes in the brain."Emotions can be defined as a positive or negative experience, associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity." Emotions produce different physiological and cognitive changes. The original role of emotions was to motivate adaptive behaviors that in the past would have contributed to the passing on of genes through survival and kin selection.
In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion. Those acting on the emotions they are feeling may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential in the interpretation of events. For example, the realization of our believing that we are in a dangerous situation and the subsequent arousal of our body's nervous system is integral to the experience of our feeling afraid. Other theories, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition. Consciously experiencing an emotion is exhibiting a mental representation of that emotion from a past or hypothetical experience, linked back to a content state of pleasure or displeasure; the content states are established by verbal explanations of experiences, describing an internal state. Emotions are complex. According to some theories, they are states of feeling that result in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior; the physiology of emotion is linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating to particular emotions.
Emotion is linked to behavioral tendency. Extroverted people are more to be social and express their emotions, while introverted people are more to be more withdrawn and conceal their emotions. Emotion is the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative. According to other theories, emotions are not causal forces but syndromes of components, which might include motivation, feeling and physiological changes, but no one of these components is the emotion. Nor is the emotion an entity that causes these components. Emotions involve different components, such as subjective experience, cognitive processes, expressive behavior, psychophysiological changes, instrumental behavior. At one time, academics attempted to identify the emotion with one of the components: William James with a subjective experience, behaviorists with instrumental behavior, psychophysiologists with physiological changes, so on. More emotion is said to consist of all the components; the different components of emotion are categorized somewhat differently depending on the academic discipline.
In psychology and philosophy, emotion includes a subjective, conscious experience characterized by psychophysiological expressions, biological reactions, mental states. A similar multicomponential description of emotion is found in sociology. For example, Peggy Thoits described emotions as involving physiological components, cultural or emotional labels, expressive body actions, the appraisal of situations and contexts; the word "emotion" dates back to 1579, when it was adapted from the French word émouvoir, which means "to stir up". The term emotion was introduced into academic discussion as a catch-all term to passions and affections; the word emotion was coined in the early 1800s by Thomas Brown and it is around the 1830s that the modern concept of emotion first emerged for English Language. "No one felt emotions before about 1830. Instead they felt other things - "passions", "accidents of the soul", "moral sentiments" - and explained them differently from how we understand emotions today."Some cross cultural studies indicate that the categorization of "emotion" and classification of basic emotions such as "anger" and "sadness" are not universal and that the boundaries and domains of these concepts are categorized differently by all cultures.
However, others argue that there are some basic universal but spurious bases of emotions in some cultures. In anthropology, an inability to express or perceive emotion is sometimes referred to as alexithymia; the Oxford Dictionary definition of emotion is "A strong feeling deriving from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others." Emotions are responses to significant external events. Emotions can be occurrences or dispositions, short-lived or long-lived. Psychotherapist Michael C. Graham describes all emotions as existing on a continuum of intensity, thus fear might range from mild concern to terror or shame might range from simple embarrassment to toxic shame. Emotions have been described as consisting of a coordinated set of responses, which may include verbal, physiological and neural mechanisms. Emotions have been categorized, with some relationships existing between emotions and some direct oppos
Big Five personality traits
The Big Five personality traits known as the five-factor model and the OCEAN model, is a taxonomy for personality traits. It is based on common language descriptors; when factor analysis is applied to personality survey data, some words used to describe aspects of personality are applied to the same person. For example, someone described as conscientious is more to be described as "always prepared" rather than "messy"; this theory is based therefore on the association between words but not on neuropsychological experiments. This theory uses descriptors of common language and therefore suggests five broad dimensions used to describe the human personality and psyche; the five factors have been defined as openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion and neuroticism, represented by the acronym OCEAN or CANOE. Beneath each proposed global factor, there are a number of correlated and more specific primary factors. For example, extraversion is said to include such related qualities as gregariousness, excitement seeking, warmth and positive emotions.
That these underlying factors can be found is consistent with the lexical hypothesis: personality characteristics that are most important in people's lives will become a part of their language and, that more important personality characteristics are more to be encoded into language as a single word. The five factors are: Openness to experience. Appreciation for art, adventure, unusual ideas and variety of experience. Openness reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity and a preference for novelty and variety a person has, it is described as the extent to which a person is imaginative or independent and depicts a personal preference for a variety of activities over a strict routine. High openness can be perceived as unpredictability or lack of focus, more to engage in risky behaviour or drug taking. Individuals that have high openness tend to lean, in occupation and hobby, towards the arts, being creative and appreciative of the significance of intellectual and artistic pursuits.
Moreover, individuals with high openness are said to pursue self-actualization by seeking out intense, euphoric experiences. Conversely, those with low openness seek to gain fulfillment through perseverance and are characterized as pragmatic and data-driven—sometimes perceived to be dogmatic and closed-minded; some disagreement remains about how to contextualize the openness factor. Conscientiousness. Tendency to be organized and dependable, show self-discipline, act dutifully, aim for achievement, prefer planned rather than spontaneous behavior. High conscientiousness is perceived as being stubborn and focused. Low conscientiousness is associated with flexibility and spontaneity, but can appear as sloppiness and lack of reliability. Extraversion. Energetic, assertiveness and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others, talkativeness. High extraversion is perceived as attention-seeking and domineering. Low extraversion causes a reserved, reflective personality, which can be perceived as aloof or self-absorbed.
Extroverted people may appear more dominant in social settings, as opposed to introverted people in this setting. Agreeableness. Tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others, it is a measure of one's trusting and helpful nature, whether a person is well-tempered or not. High agreeableness is seen as naive or submissive. Low agreeableness personalities are competitive or challenging people, which can be seen as argumentative or untrustworthy. Neuroticism. Tendency to be prone to psychological stress; the tendency to experience unpleasant emotions such as anger, anxiety and vulnerability. Neuroticism refers to the degree of emotional stability and impulse control and is sometimes referred to by its low pole, "emotional stability". High stability manifests itself as a stable and calm personality, but can be seen as uninspiring and unconcerned. Low stability manifests as the reactive and excitable personality found in dynamic individuals, but can be perceived as unstable or insecure.
Individuals with higher levels of neuroticism tend to have worse psychological well being. People who do not exhibit a clear predisposition to a single factor in each dimension above are considered adaptable and reasonable, yet they can be perceived as unprincipled and calculating. Depending on how much of each trait a person has, it could make someone more susceptible to participating in certain activities. Family life and the way someone was raised will affect these traits. Twin studies and other research have shown that about half of the variation between individuals results from their genetics and half from their environments. Researchers have found conscientiousness, openness to experience, neuroticism to be stable from childhood through adulthood; the Big Five personality traits was the model to comprehend the relationship between personality and academic behaviors. This model was defined by several independent sets of researchers who used factor analysis of verbal descriptors of human behavior.
These researchers began by studying relationships between a large number of verbal descriptors related to personality traits. They reduced the lists of these descriptors by 5–10 fold
Raymond Bernard Cattell was a British and American psychologist, known for his psychometric research into intrapersonal psychological structure. His work explored the basic dimensions of personality and temperament, the range of cognitive abilities, the dynamic dimensions of motivation and emotion, the clinical dimensions of abnormal personality, patterns of group syntality and social behavior, applications of personality research to psychotherapy and learning theory, predictors of creativity and achievement, many multivariate research methods including the refinement of factor analytic methods for exploring and measuring these domains. Cattell authored, co-authored, or edited 60 scholarly books, more than 500 research articles, over 30 standardized psychometric tests and rating scales. According to a cited ranking, Cattell was the 16th most eminent, 7th most cited in the scientific journal literature, among the most productive, but controversial psychologists of the 20th century. Cattell was an early proponent of using factor analytic methods instead of what he called "subjective verbal theorizing" to explore empirically the basic dimensions of personality and cognitive abilities.
One of the results of Cattell's application of factor analysis was his discovery of 16 separate primary trait factors within the normal personality sphere. He called these factors "source traits"; this theory of personality factors and the self-report instrument used to measure them are known as the 16 personality factor model and the 16PF Questionnaire. Cattell undertook a series of empirical studies into the basic dimensions of other psychological domains: intelligence, career assessment and vocational interests. Cattell theorized the existence of fluid and crystallized intelligence to explain human cognitive ability, investigated changes in Gf and Gc over the lifespan, constructed the Culture Fair Intelligence Test to minimize the bias of written language and cultural background in intelligence testing. Cattell's research was in personality, abilities and innovative multivariate research methods and statistical analysis. In his personality research, he is best remembered for his factor-analytically derived 16-factor model of normal personality structure, arguing for this model over Eysenck's simpler higher-order 3-factor model, constructing measures of these primary factors in the form of the 16PF Questionnaire.
He was the first to propose a hierarchical, multi-level model of personality with the many basic primary factors at the first level and the fewer, broader, "second-order" factors at a higher stratum of personality organization. These "global trait" constructs are the precursors of the popular Big Five model of personality. Cattell's research led to further advances, such as distinguishing between state and trait measures, ranging on a continuum from immediate transitory emotional states, through longer-acting mood states, dynamic motivational traits, relatively enduring personality traits. Cattell conducted empirical studies into developmental changes in personality trait constructs across the lifespan. In the cognitive abilities domain, Cattell researched a wide range of abilities, but is best known for the distinction between fluid and crystallized intelligence, he distinguished between the abstract, biologically-influenced cognitive abilities that he called "fluid intelligence" and the applied, experience-based and learning-enhanced ability that he called "crystallized intelligence."
Thus, for example, a mechanic who has worked on airplane engines for 30 years might have a huge amount of "crystallized" knowledge about the workings of these engines, while a new young engineer with more "fluid intelligence" might focus more on the theory of engine functioning, these two types of abilities might complement each other and work together toward achieving a goal. As a foundation for this distinction, Cattell developed the investment-model of ability, arguing that crystallized ability emerged from the investment of fluid ability in a particular topic of knowledge, he contributed to cognitive epidemiology with his theory that crystallized knowledge, while more applied, could be maintained or increase after fluid ability begins to decline with age, a concept used in the National Adult Reading Test. Cattell constructed a number of ability tests, including the Comprehensive Ability Battery that provides measures of 20 primary abilities, the Culture Fair Intelligence Test, designed to provide a non-verbal measure of intelligence like that now seen in the Raven's.
The Culture Fair Intelligence Scales were intended to minimize the influence of cultural or educational background on the results of intelligence tests. In regard to statistical methodology, in 1960 Cattell founded the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology, its journal Multivariate Behavioral Research, in order to bring together and support scientists interested in multi-variate research, he was an frequent user of factor analysis. Cattell developed new factor analytic techniques, for example, by inventing the scree test, which uses the curve of latent roots to judge the optimal number of factors to extract, he developed a new factor analysis rotation procedure—the "Procrustes" or non-orthogonal rotation, designed to let the data itself determine the best location of factors, rather than requiring ort