Surgery is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas. The act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or "surgery". In this context, the verb "operate" means to perform surgery; the adjective surgical means pertaining to surgery. The person or subject on which the surgery is performed can be an animal. A surgeon is a person who practices surgery and a surgeon's assistant is a person who practices surgical assistance. A surgical team is made up of surgeon, surgeon's assistant, circulating nurse and surgical technologist. Surgery spans minutes to hours, but it is not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment; the term "surgery" can refer to the place where surgery is performed, or, in British English the office of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian. Surgery is a invasive technique with the fundamental principle of physical intervention on organs/organ systems/tissues for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons.

As a general rule, a procedure is considered surgical when it involves cutting of a person's tissues or closure of a sustained wound. Other procedures that do not fall under this rubric, such as angioplasty or endoscopy, may be considered surgery if they involve "common" surgical procedure or settings, such as use of a sterile environment, antiseptic conditions, typical surgical instruments, suturing or stapling. All forms of surgery are considered invasive procedures. Surgical procedures are categorized by urgency, type of procedure, body system involved, the degree of invasiveness, special instrumentation. Based on timing: Elective surgery is done to correct a non-life-threatening condition, is carried out at the person's request, subject to the surgeon's and the surgical facility's availability. A semi-elective surgery is one that must be done to avoid permanent disability or death, but can be postponed for a short time. Emergency surgery is surgery which must be done promptly to save limb, or functional capacity.

Based on purpose: Exploratory surgery is performed to confirm a diagnosis. Therapeutic surgery treats a diagnosed condition. Cosmetic surgery is done to subjectively improve the appearance of an otherwise normal structure. By type of procedure: Amputation involves cutting off a body part a limb or digit. Resection is the removal of all of an internal organ or body part, or a key part of such an organ or body part that has its own name or code designation. Excision is the cutting out or removal of only part of an organ, tissue, or other body part from the person. Extirpation is the complete excision or surgical destruction of a body part. Replantation involves reattaching a severed body part. Reconstructive surgery involves reconstruction of an injured, mutilated, or deformed part of the body. Transplant surgery is the replacement of an organ or body part by insertion of another from different human into the person undergoing surgery. Removing an organ or body part from a live human or animal for use in transplant is a type of surgery.

By body part: When surgery is performed on one organ system or structure, it may be classed by the organ, organ system or tissue involved. Examples include cardiac surgery, gastrointestinal surgery, orthopedic surgery. By degree of invasiveness of surgical procedures: Minimally-invasive surgery involves smaller outer incision to insert miniaturized instruments within a body cavity or structure, as in laparoscopic surgery or angioplasty. By contrast, an open surgical procedure such as a laparotomy requires a large incision to access the area of interest. By equipment used: Laser surgery involves use of a laser for cutting tissue instead of a scalpel or similar surgical instruments. Microsurgery involves the use of an operating microscope for the surgeon to see small structures. Robotic surgery makes use of a surgical robot, such as the Da Vinci or the ZEUS robotic surgical systems, to control the instrumentation under the direction of the surgeon. Excision surgery names start with a name for the organ to be excised and end in -ectomy.

Procedures involving cutting into an organ or tissue end in -otomy. A surgical procedure cutting through the abdominal wall to gain access to the abdominal cavity is a laparotomy. Minimally invasive procedures, involving small incisions through which an endoscope is inserted, end in -oscopy. For example, such surgery in the abdominal cavity is called laparoscopy. Procedures for formation of a permanent or semi-permanent opening called a stoma in the body end in -ostomy. Reconstruction, plastic or cosmetic surgery of a body part starts with a name for the body part to be reconstructed and ends in -oplasty. Rhino is used as a prefix for "nose", therefore a rhinoplasty is reconstructive or cosmetic surgery for the nose. Repair of damaged or congenital abnormal structure ends in -rraphy. Reoperation refers to a return to the operating theater after an initial surgery is performed to re-address an aspect of patient care best treated surgically. Reasons for reoperation include persistent bleeding after surgery, development of or persi

Th. Emil Homerin

Thomas Emil Homerin is an American scholar of religion. Homerin is one of the most notable scholars of religion in the United States and publishes, including books, essays and entries in major encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica, he is Professor of Religion in the Department of Religion & Classics at the University of Rochester, where he teaches courses on Islam, classical Arabic literature, Mt. Hope Cemetery in Rochester. Thomas Emil Homerin, who abbreviates his first name to "Th." for publication, is the son of Floyd and Miriam Homerin, brother of John A. Homerin. While growing up in Pekin, Homerin attended Douglas Elementary School, Washington Junior High School, Pekin Community High School, he is a graduate of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, completed his Ph. D. with honors at the University of Chicago. Homerin married Nora Walter in 1977, they have two sons and Elias. A specialist in Arabic literature and Islam, Homerin has lived and worked in Egypt for a number of years.

Among his many publications are The Wine of Love & Life: Ibn al-Fârid's al-Khamrîyah and al-Qaysarî’s Quest for Meaning, From Arab Poet to Muslim Saint and his anthology of translations, Ibn al-Fârid: Sufi Verse & Saintly Life published as part of the esteemed Paulist Press series Classics in Western Spirituality. The last of these books features a cover painting by fellow former Pekinite Mark Staff Brandl. Homerin authored several chapters on Islam in The Religious Foundations of Western Civilization, edited by Jacob Neusner. Death and the afterlife have been a major focus of Homerin’s work, he has carried out field work in Cairo's al-Qarafah cemetery; this initiated his interest in American funerary customs and practice which evolved into his course Speaking Stones on Mt. Hope Cemetery in Rochester, New York; this course examines western funeral ritual and practice, with a particular focus on cemeteries in the United States, how the iconography and epigraphy of graves and funerary monuments forge symbolic connections among the living and the dead.

Homerin and his students have published the results of their research in Epitaph, the newsletter of the Friends of Mt. Hope Cemetery. Homerin has been the recipient of grants from the Mrs. Giles Whiting Foundation, the Fulbright Foundation, the American Research Center in Egypt, the National Endowment for the Humanities, he has received a number of awards including the American Association of Teachers of Arabic Translation Prize, the Golden Key International Honour Society's recognition for his contributions to undergraduate education, the G. Granyon & Jane W. Curtis Award for Excellence in Nontenured Teaching, the University of Rochester’s Teacher of the Year Award, the Georgen Award for Distinguished Achievement and Artistry in Undergraduate Education. Official site Speaking Stones - a course on Mt. Hope Cemetery Epitaph

Coralville, Iowa

Coralville is a city in Johnson County, United States. It is part of the Iowa City Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 18,907 at the 2010 census. Coralville is the location of the Edgewater Park Site, a 3,800-year-old archaeological site along the Iowa River. Edgewater is the oldest site in Iowa with evidence of domesticated plant use. Coralville incorporated as a city in June first, 1857; the city's name comes from the fossils. In 1864 Louis Agassiz, a Harvard University zoologist, gave a lecture at the nearby University of Iowa titled “The Coral Reefs of Iowa City”. During the lecture he presented local samples of fossilized Devonian period coral; the lecture was well helped raise public interest in the local fossils. In 1866, more corals were discovered at the site of a new mill, inspiring the citizens of the area to name the settlement "Coralville"; the first mill at Coralville was built in 1844, in the years that followed, a number of mills were powered by the Coralville mill dam along the Iowa River, but all of the mills had closed by 1900, except for a low-head hydroelectric plant that remained in operation until the mid 20th century.

Coralville is the location where some 1300 Mormon immigrants stopped to make camp in their migration of 1856 after having traveled west by rail to Iowa City, the westernmost rail terminus at the time. They built handcarts out of native woods during their encampment so that an adult could haul a 600–700 pound load and cover about 15 miles per day on foot in their continuing trek to Salt Lake City. A historical marker commemorating the Mormon Handcart Brigade was erected in 1936 by the Iowa Society DAR, with members of the Pilgrim Chapter present. Placed just south of 5th Street and west of 10th Street, it was moved in 1998 to S. T. Morrison Park and rededicated by the Nathaniel Fellows Chapter, placed near the entrance and pond. Today, the Mormon Handcart Nature Preserve commemorates the site. There is a street, Mormon Trek Blvd, named for the Mormons who went through that area. After World War II Coralville began to grow as many university students began to make their homes there, it had only 433 people in 1940, but by 1970 Coralville's population had jumped to 6,130.

The construction of Interstate 80 in the 1960s brought several motels, fast-food restaurants, gas stations to Coralville. By the mid-1960s, the independent school district of Coralville was annexed by the Iowa City Community School District. Junior and senior high school students rode buses into Iowa City. Elementary students attended Central Elementary School. Kirkwood Elementary school was opened in the fall of 1964, giving the growing town its second school. By the fall of 1968, all high school students from Coralville began attending the newly opened West High School. In 1971 the district built Northwest Junior High on property just to the south of Kirkwood Elementary, which began handling 7th and 8th graders who lived west of the Iowa River. In 1997 Wickham Elementary School was opened. In 1958 the United States Army Corps of Engineers completed Coralville Dam along the Iowa River four miles north of the city, creating Coralville Lake. Except for the Great Flood of 1993 and the Great Iowa flood of 2008, the dam has helped prevent serious flooding in the city.

From June through August 1993, all three of Coralville's main transportation links with Iowa City were submerged. The economic impact that year was severe, but the city had fully recovered within two years; the 2008 flood proved to be more costly as the Iowa River surpassed the 1993 record crest at over 31.5 feet. The First Methodist Church was built 1963 to the designs by architect Thomas Patrick Reilly of Crites & McConnell, 860 17th Street S. E, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52403. On July 29, 1998, the Coral Ridge Mall opened with more than 100 stores the largest shopping center in the state. Around that time a "city center" area was created along the U. S. Route 6 "strip" near its intersection with 12th Avenue. Coral Ridge Mall's opening would usher in a new era of retail development as big box stores such as Wal-Mart, Kohl's, Lowe's opened in the area surrounding the mall; this has helped boost taxable sales in Coralville from $155.3 million in 1996 to $549.7 million in 2006. Xtream Arena, a 5,100-seat venue, is projected to open in 2020 in the city's Iowa River Landing neighborhood.

Coralville is located in Johnson County at 41°41′18″N 91°35′12″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.05 square miles, of which 12.01 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. The Iowa River forms part of the boundary with Iowa City. Interstate 80 runs east–west through Coralville, most of the city's newer housing subdivisions are located north of I-80. U. S. Highway 6 runs along Coralville's south edge, while Interstate 380, U. S. Highway 218, Iowa Highway 27 run along the city's west edge; the cloverleaf interchange of I-80 and I-380/U. S. 218/Iowa 27 is divided between the city limits of Coralville and neighboring Tiffin after recent annexations. As of the census of 2010, there were 18,907 people, 7,763 households, 4,229 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,574.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,310 housing units at an average density of 691.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.4% White, 7.9% African American, 0.3% Native American, 7.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.0% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.1%