Chinese Surinamese people are Surinamese residents of Han Chinese origin. Chinese Surinamese are a small part of the Surinamese people. There were 7,885 Chinese at the 2012 census, constituting 1.5% of the total population. They constitute the largest component of the'other' ethnic category, which makes up 2.3% of the population as per the CIA World Factbook. The majority of the Chinese Surinamese consider Hakka of Guangdong as their ancestral homes. There is a small minority of Jiangmen origin Cantonese and Hakkas as well. Many Chinese Surinamese are active in the retail and business community. Six percent of the Chinese in the Netherlands are from Suriname. In 1853, planters in Suriname feared a labor shortage, they asked the government to recruit other workers from abroad. The government of Java recruited a group of 18 Chinese for contract labor in the Catharina Sophia plantation in Saramacca; because of the high acquisition costs, it was decided to get a second group, not from Java, but from China instead.
In 1858, 500 Chinese laborers were recruited by the Dutch consul in Macau. They arrived in Suriname in April, but it turned out that no one wanted to hire people to do work that slaves would do "for free"; because of this, the contract with the Chinese was changed without their knowledge by Governor Charles Pierre Schimpf, in favor of the employers. The Chinese could now be treated like slaves; when they would revolt against this, they were, without due process and contrary to existing regulations, punished by police with cane strokes, an unlawful act, repeated again and again. An interpellation to the Minister of Colonies Jan Jacob Rochussen did not help. In the 1850s and 1860s, about 2,500 Chinese people went to Suriname. Most were employed as contract laborers on the plantations. After their contracts expired, many found opportunities in trade in food retail. Most of the male laborers were married to non-Chinese women; those who married Chinese women married with an imported bride. Other Chinese came to Suriname as free laborers and shop assistants in the 1950s and 1960s.
Further large numbers came in the 1990s. In 2007, there were over 70,000 Chinese in Suriname, the immigration is still ongoing; the growing demand in China for wood and minerals makes Suriname attractive to Chinese businesses. The new Chinese migrants from northern China are known in Suriname as "salt-water-Chinese". Since the 1960s, thousands of Chinese have emigrated from Suriname to the Netherlands; the Chinese held a prominent position in small and medium business for a long time, their well-educated offspring of mixed ancestry or Chinese ancestry can be found in various social sectors. The Surinamese people have adopted several Chinese customs; the original Chinese settlers were Hakka from the Fuitungon region of Guangdong. It was the only spoken variety of Chinese in the country. Paul Brendan Tjon Sie Fat of the University of Amsterdam stated that Hakka people in Suriname do not voice negative attitudes towards the fact that Kejia has a lower status than Dutch in Suriname. In the 1970s Cantonese was introduced into Suriname.
Beginning in the 1990s new migrants from China moved to Suriname, Putonghua, during circa 2004-2014, became the main Chinese lingua franca in the country. There are Cantonese television shows aired in Suriname. Hendrick Chin A Sen 陈亚先, President and Prime Minister of Suriname, 1980-1982.
Jan Klaasesz was a Dutch politician for the Labour Party, Governor of Suriname between 1949 and 1956, and, Queen's Commissioner of South Holland between 1956 and 1972. Media related to Jan Klaasesz at Wikimedia Commons
The Dutch Republic, or the United Provinces, was a confederal republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution of 1795. It was a predecessor state of the first Dutch nation state; the republic was known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, Republic of the Seven United Provinces, the United Provinces, Seven Provinces, Federated Dutch Provinces, or the Dutch Federation. Common names for the Republic in official correspondence were: Republic of the United Netherlands Republic of the United Provinces Republic of the Seven Provinces Republic of the Seven United Netherlands Republic of the Seven United Provinces United Provinces United Provinces of the Netherlands United States of the Netherlands United Regions Seven United Regions Until the 16th century, the Low Countries—corresponding to the present-day Netherlands and Luxembourg—consisted of a number of duchies and prince-bishoprics all of which were under the supremacy of the Holy Roman Empire, with the exception of the county of Flanders, under the Kingdom of France.
Most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. In 1549 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which further unified the Seventeen Provinces under his rule. Charles was succeeded by King Philip II of Spain. In 1568 the Netherlands, led by William I of Orange, revolted against Philip II because of high taxes, persecution of Protestants by the government, Philip's efforts to modernize and centralize the devolved-medieval government structures of the provinces; this was the start of the Eighty Years' War. In 1579, a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army; this was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II. In 1582, the United Provinces invited Duke of Anjou to lead them. After the assassination of William of Orange on 10 July 1584, both Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England declined offers of sovereignty.
However, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England, sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general. This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederacy; the Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the Anglo-French war, the internal territory was divided into two groups: the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American, the Orangists, who were pro-British; the Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of republican revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities. On the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787; the republican forces fled to France, but successfully re-invaded alongside the army of the French Republic, ousting stadtholder William V, abolishing the Dutch Republic, replacing it with the Batavian Republic.
After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland. The Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names "United Provinces of the Netherlands" and "United Netherlands" were used. In 1815, it was rejoined with the Austrian Netherlands and Liège to become the Kingdom of the Netherlands, informally known as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, to create a strong buffer state north of France. On 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands. Between 1815 and 1890, the King of the Netherlands was in a personal union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became unequivocally known as the "Kingdom of the Netherlands", as it remains today. During the Dutch Golden Age in the late-16th and 17th centuries, the Dutch Republic dominated world trade, conquering a vast colonial empire and operating the largest fleet of merchantmen of any nation.
The County of Holland was the most urbanized region in the world. In 1650 the urban population of the Dutch Republic as a percentage of total population was 31.7 percent, while that of the Spanish Netherlands was 20.8 percent, of Portugal 16.6 percent, of Italy 14 percent. In 1675 the urban population density of Holland alone was 61 percent, that of the rest of the Dutch Republic 27 percent; the free trade spirit of the time was augmented by the development of a modern, effective stock market in the Low Countries. The Netherlands has the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest bourse in the Netherlands; the Dutch East-India Company exchange went public in six different cities. A court ruled that the company had to reside in a single city, so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles. While the banking system evolved in the Low Countries, it was incorporated by the well-connected English, stimulating English economic output.
Between 1590 and 1712 the Dutch possessed one of the strongest and fastest navies in the world, allowing for their varied conquests, including breaking the Portuguese s
The Dutch guilder or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro. Between 1999 and 2002, the guilder was a "national subunit" of the euro. However, physical payments could only be made in guilder, as no euro coins or banknotes were available; the Netherlands Antillean guilder is still in use in Curaçao and Sint Maarten, but this currency is distinct from the Dutch guilder. In 2004, the Surinamese guilder was replaced by the Surinamese dollar; the Dutch name gulden was a Middle Dutch adjective meaning "golden", the name indicates the coin was made of gold. The symbol ƒ or fl. for the Dutch guilder was derived from the florin. The exact exchange rate, still relevant for old contracts and for exchange of the old currency for euros at the central bank, is 2.20371 Dutch guilders for 1 euro. Inverted, this gives EUR 0.453780 for NLG 1. Before the introduction of the first guilder, there were regional and foreign golden coins that were referred to as "gulden" in Dutch.
The first internationally accepted. Before that, the County of Holland had minted golden coins since 1378. An early guilder, a 10.61-gram.910 silver coin, was minted by the States of Holland and West Friesland in 1680. The original guilder design featured Pallas Athena standing, holding a spear topped by a hat in her right hand, resting with her left forearm on Gospels set on an ornate basis, with a small shield in the legend; this guilder was divided into each of 8 duiten or 16 penningen. The guilder replaced other silver coin denominations circulating in the United Netherlands: the florijn, the daalder, the rijksdaalder, the silver ducat and the silver rider ducaton. Between 1810 and 1814, the Netherlands was annexed to France and the French franc circulated. After the Napoleonic wars, the Kingdom of the Netherlands readopted the guilder. In 1817 it became decimalised, with one guilder equal to 100 cents. However, it was not until 1848 that the last pre-decimal coins were withdrawn from circulation, whilst some of the new, decimal coins continued to bear nicknames based on their values in the older currency system through to the 21st century.
Until 1948, the plural of cent used on coins was centen. The Netherlands was on a bimetallic standard, with the guilder equal to 605.61 milligrams of fine gold or 9.615 grams of fine silver. In 1840, the silver standard was adjusted to 9.45 grams, with the gold standard suspended in 1848. In 1875, the Netherlands adopted a gold standard with 1 guilder equal to 604.8 milligrams of fine gold. The gold standard was suspended between 1914 and 1925 and was abandoned in 1936. In 1914 the guilder was traded at a rate of 2.46 guilders = 1 U. S. dollar. As of 1938, the rate was 1.82 guilders = 1 U. S. dollar. One Dutch guilder in 1914 could buy the same amount of goods and services as 10.02 U. S. dollars or 8.17 Euros in December 2017. In 1938, the guilder purchasing power would be equal to 9.54 U. S. dollars or 7.78 Euros in December 2017. Overall, the guilder remained a stable currency and was the third highest-valued currency unit in Europe in the interwar period. Following the German occupation, on 10 May 1940, the guilder was pegged to the Reichsmark at a rate of 1 guilder = 1.5 Reichsmark.
This rate was reduced to 1.327 on 17 July of the same year. The liberating Allied forces set an exchange rate of 2.652 guilders = 1 U. S. dollar, which became the peg for the guilder within the Bretton Woods system. In 1949, the peg was changed to 3.8 guilders = 1 dollar matching the devaluation of the British pound. In 1961, the guilder was revalued to 3.62 guilders = 1 dollar, a change in line with that of the German mark. After 1967 guilders were made from nickel instead of silver. In 2002, the guilder was replaced by the euro at an exchange rate of 2.20371 guilders. Coins remained exchangeable for euros at branches of the Netherlands Central Bank until 1 January 2007. Banknotes valid at the time of conversion to the euro may be exchanged there until 1 January 2032. In the 18th century, coins were issued by the various provinces. There were copper 1 duit, silver 1, 2, 6 and 10 stuivers, 1 and 3 guilders, 1⁄2 and 1 rijksdaalder and 1⁄2 and 1 ducaton. Gold 1 and 2-ducat trade coins were minted.
Between 1795 and 1806, the Batavian Republic issued coins in similar denominations to the earlier provincial issues. The Kingdom of Holland minted silver 10 stuivers, 1 florin and 1 guilder, 50 stuivers and 2 1⁄2 guilder and 1 rijksdaalder, along with gold 10 and 20 guilders. Before decimalization, the Kingdom of the Netherlands issued some 1 rijksdaalder coins; the gold 1 and 2 ducat and silver ducat are still minted today as bullion coins. In 1817, the first coins of the decimal currency were issued, the copper 1 cent and silver 3 guilders; the remaining denominations were introduced in 1818. These were copper 1⁄2 cents, silver 5, 10 and 25 cents, 1⁄2 and 1 guilder, gold 10 guilders. In 1826, gold 5-guilder coins were introduced. In 1840, the silver content of the coinage was reduced and this was marked by the replacement of the 3-guilder coin by a 2 1⁄2-guilder piece; the gold coinage was su
Native American religion
Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. This article focuses on Native North Americans. Traditional Native American ceremonial ways can vary and are based on the differing histories and beliefs of individual tribes and bands. Early European explorers describe individual Native American tribes and small bands as each having their own religious practices. Theology may be monotheistic, henotheistic, shamanistic, pantheistic or any combination thereof, among others. Traditional beliefs are passed down in the forms of oral histories, stories and principles, rely on face to face teaching in one's family and community. From the 1600s, European Catholic and Protestant denominations sent missionaries to convert the tribes to Christianity; some of these conversions occurred through government and Christian church cooperative efforts that forcibly removed Native American children from their families into a Christian/state government-operated system of American Indian boarding schools where Native children were taught European Christian beliefs, the values of mainstream white culture, the English language.
This forcible conversion and suppression of Indigenous languages and cultures continued through the 1970s. As part of the US government's suppression of traditional Indigenous religions, most ceremonial ways were banned for over 80 years by a series of US Federal laws that banned traditional sweat lodge and sun dance ceremonies, among others; this government persecution and prosecution continued until 1978 with the passage of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Some non-Native anthropologists estimate membership in traditional Native American religions in the 21st century to be about 9000 people. Since Native Americans practicing traditional ceremonies do not have public organizations or membership rolls, these "members" estimates are substantially lower than the actual numbers of people who participate in traditional ceremonies. Native American spiritual leaders note that these academic estimates underestimate the numbers of participants because a century of US Federal government persecution and prosecutions of traditional ceremonies caused believers to practice their religions in secrecy.
Many adherents of traditional spiritual ways attend Christian services, at least some of the time, which can affect statistics. Since the 80 years of those prior legal persecutions ended with AIRFA, some sacred sites in the United States are now protected areas under law; the Earth Lodge Religion was founded in northern California and southern Oregon tribes such as the Wintun. It spread to tribes such as the Achomawi and Siletz, to name a few, it was known as the "Warm House Dance" among the Pomo. It predicted occurrences similar to those predicted by the Ghost Dance, such as the return of ancestors or the world's end; the Earth Lodge Religion impacted the religious practice, the Dream Dance, belonging to the Klamath and the Modoc. "Ghost Dance" is a general term that encompasses different religious revitalization movements in the Western United States. In 1870, a Ghost Dance was founded by the Paiute prophet Wodziwob, in 1889–1890, a Ghost Dance Religion was founded by Wovoka, a Northern Paiute.
The Ghost Dance was meant to serve as a connection with traditional ways of life and to honor the dead while predicting their resurrection. In December 1888, thought to be the son of the medicine man Tavibo, fell sick with a fever during an eclipse of the sun, which occurred on January 1, 1889. Upon his recovery, he claimed that he had visited the spirit world and the Supreme Being and predicted that the world would soon end be restored to a pure aboriginal state in the presence of the Messiah. All Native Americans would inherit this world, including those who were dead, in order to live eternally without suffering. In order to reach this reality, Wovoka stated that all Native Americans should live and shun the ways of whites, he called for meditation, prayer and dancing as an alternative to mourning the dead, for they would soon resurrect. Wovoka's followers saw him as a form of the messiah and he became known as the "Red Man's Christ." Tavibo had participated in the Ghost Dance of 1870 and had a similar vision of the Great Spirit of Earth removing all white men, of an earthquake removing all human beings.
Tavibo's vision concluded that Native Americans would return to live in a restored environment and that only believers in his revelations would be resurrected. This religion spread to many tribes on reservations in the West, including the Shoshone, Arapaho and Sioux. In fact, some bands of Lakota and Dakota were so desperate for hope during wartime that they strengthened their militancy after making a pilgrimage to Nevada in 1889–1890, they provided their own understanding to the Ghost Dance which included the prediction that the white people would disappear. A Ghost Dance gathering at Wounded Knee in December 1890 was invaded by the Seventh Cavalry, who massacred unarmed Lakota and Dakota people; the earliest Ghost Dance influenced religions such as the Earth Lodge, Bole-Maru Religion, the Dream Dance. The Caddo Nation still practices the Ghost Dance today. Known as Tschida, the Indian Shaker Religion was influenced by the Waashat Religion and founded by John Slocum, a Squaxin Island member.
The name comes from the shaking and twitching motions used by the participants to brush off their sins. The religion combines Christianity with traditional Indian teachings; this religion i
The Batavian Republic was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. It was proclaimed on 19 January 1795 and ended on 5 June 1806, with the accession of Louis I to the throne of Holland. From October 1801 onward, it was known as the Batavian Commonwealth. Both names refer to the Germanic tribe of the Batavi, representing both the Dutch ancestry and their ancient quest for liberty in their nationalistic lore. In early 1795, intervention by French revolutionary forces led to the downfall of the old Dutch Republic; the new Republic enjoyed widespread support from the Dutch population and was the product of a genuine popular revolution. It was founded with the armed support of the revolutionary French Republic; the Batavian Republic became a client state, the first of the "sister-republics", part of the French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte, its politics were influenced by the French, who supported no fewer than three coups d'état to bring the different political factions to power that France favored at different moments in its own political development.
The process of creating a written Dutch constitution was driven by internal political factors, not by French influence, until Napoleon forced the Dutch government to accept his brother as monarch. The political and social reforms that were brought about during the short duration of the Batavian Republic have had a lasting impact; the confederal structure of the old Dutch Republic was permanently replaced by a unitary state. For the first time in Dutch history, the constitution, adopted in 1798 had a genuinely democratic character. For a while, the Republic was governed democratically, although the coup d'état of 1801 put an authoritarian regime in power, after another change to the constitution; the memory of this brief experiment with democracy helped smooth the transition to a more democratic government in 1848. A type of ministerial government was introduced for the first time in Dutch history and many of the current government departments date their history back to this period. Though the Batavian Republic was a client state, its successive governments tried their best to maintain a modicum of independence and to serve Dutch interests where those clashed with those of their French overseers.
This perceived obduracy led to the eventual demise of the Republic when the short-lived experiment with the regime of "Grand Pensionary" Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck produced insufficient docility in the eyes of Napoleon. The new king, Louis Bonaparte did not slavishly follow French dictates either, leading to his downfall; the final days of the Dutch Republic, which had governed the Netherlands since the late 16th century, were quite eventful. Due to the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War fought at sea that went poorly and lost many of the plantation colonies of the Dutch, the Patriot party revolted against the authoritarian regime of stadtholder William V but were struck down through the intervention of William's brother-in-law Frederick William II of Prussia in September 1787. Most Patriots went into exile in France, while Holland's own "Ancien Régime" strengthened its grip on Dutch government chiefly through the Orangist Grand Pensionary Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel; this de facto status of Anglo-Prussian protectorate was internationally formalized in 1788 by the Act of Guarantee and the Triple Alliance between the Dutch Republic and Great Britain.
The French Revolution embraced many of the political ideas that the Patriots had espoused in their own revolt. The Patriots enthusiastically supported the Revolution, when the French revolutionary armies started to spread the revolution, the Patriots joined in, hoping to liberate their own country from its authoritarian yoke; the Stadtholder joined the ill-fated First Coalition of countries in their attempt to subdue the anti-Austrian French First Republic. The French Revolutionary War proceeded disastrously for the forces of the Stadtholder. In the severe winter of 1794/95 a French army under general Charles Pichegru, with a Dutch contingent under general Herman Willem Daendels, crossed the great frozen rivers that traditionally protected the Netherlands from invasion. Aided by the fact that a substantial proportion of the Dutch population looked favorably upon the French incursion, considered it a liberation, the French were able to break the resistance of the forces of the Stadtholder and his Austrian and British allies.
However, in many cities revolution broke out before the French arrived and Revolutionary Committees took over the city governments, the national government also. William was forced to flee to England on a fishing boat on 18 January 1795. Though the French presented themselves as liberators, they behaved like conquerors. After acrimonious negotiations between the representatives of the new Batavian Republic and those of the French Republic, a harsh Treaty of The Hague was concluded on 16 May 1795. Apart from imposing territorial concessions and a huge indemnity, this obligated the Dutch to maintain a French army of occupation of 25,000 men; this changed the Dutch republic from a client state of Prussia into a French one.
Dutch Reformed Church
The Dutch Reformed Church was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930. It was the foremost Protestant denomination, and—since 1892—one of the two major Reformed denominations along with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, it spread to the United States, South Africa, Sri Lanka and various other world regions through the Dutch colonization. It has been the original denomination of the Dutch Royal Family until being merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands, a United church of both Reformed and Evangelical Lutheran theological orientations; the allegiance to the Dutch Reformed Church was a common feature among Dutch immigrant communities around the world, became a crucial part of Afrikaner nationalism in South Africa. It developed during the Protestant Reformation, being shaped theologically by John Calvin, but other major Reformed theologians, it was founded in 1571. The Dutch Reformed Church was shaped by various theological developments and controversies during its history, including Arminianism, the Nadere Reformatie and a number of splits in the 19th century that diversified Dutch Calvinism.
The church functioned until 2004, the year it merged with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands. At the time of the merger, the Church had 2 million members organised in 1,350 congregations. A minority of members of the church chose not to participate in the merger and instead formed the Restored Reformed Church. Before the demise of the Dutch Republic in 1795, the Dutch Reformed Church enjoyed the status of "public" or "privileged" church. Though it was never formally adopted as the state religion, the law demanded that every public official should be a communicant member; the Church had close relations with the Dutch government. A privilege of members of the Dutch Reformed Church was that they could have their businesses open on Sundays, otherwise considered a religious day and not one for business; the Dutch Reformed Church was disestablished in 1795 with the end of the Republic.
Although it remained endorsed by the Royal Family, the Netherlands never had any public church afterwards. The Reformation was a time of religious violence and persecution by the established Catholic Church and governments, in some cases. Efforts to form a Reformed church in the southern provinces stemmed from a secret meeting of Protestant leaders at Antwerp in 1566, despite Spanish repression, many nobles joined the Protestant movement. Two years in 1568, following an attack on the Netherlands by the forces of the Duke of Alba, many Netherlanders fled to the German city of Wesel, where a Synod was convened at which the Belgic Confession and Heidelberg Catechism were adopted, provisions were made for the offices of pastor, elder and deacon; the first Synod of 23 Dutch Reformed leaders was held in October 1571 in the German city of Emden. The Synod of Emden is considered to be the founding of the Dutch Reformed Church, the oldest of the Reformed churches in the Netherlands; the Synod both affirmed the actions of the earlier Synod of Wesel, as well as established presbyterian church government for the Dutch Reformed Church.
The first Synod to be located in the Dutch Republic was held in Dordrecht in 1578. This synodical meeting is not to be confused with the better known Second Synod of Dort of 1618. Large groups of Marranos converted to Christianity. All Marranos, many Jewish groups converted to Christianity around 1649 to the Nederduitsche, Niederdeutsche church on Dutch Reformed Church. In the latter meeting, the Church fathers expelled Arminians and added the Canons of Dort to the Confessions; the Canons of Dort, together with the adopted Belgic Confession and Heidelberg Catechism, were called the Drie formulieren van Enigheid. Most conflicts and splits in the Church arose because of disagreement over the substance and interpretation of these doctrinal documents; the government of the Dutch Republic, which had instigated the Arminians' expulsion, subsequently prohibited the Reformed Church from assembling synodically. No Synod was held in the Netherlands until after the end of the Republic in 1795; the 17th and early 18th centuries were the age of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie, led by Gisbertus Voetius and Wilhelmus à Brakel, influenced by English Puritanism.
In the 19th century, theological liberalism led to splits in the Dutch Reformed Church. King William I of the Netherlands imposed a new form of government for the church, in which the civil authorities selected the commissioners to the National Synod in 1816, making it difficult for ministers to speak out against perceived errors. In 1834, the minister Hendrik de Cock of the town of Ulrum was told by church leaders that he could not preach against certain colleagues, who he believed held erroneous views, he and his congregation seceded from the Dutch Reformed Church. In time, the Afscheiding led to the departure of 120 congregations from the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1886, another separation, the Doleantie, led by Dutch Reformed businessman and politician Abraham Kuyper; the Dutch Reformed Church remained the largest church body in the Netherlands until the middle of the 20th century, when it was overtaken by the Roman Catholic Church. The rapid secularisation of the Netherlands in the 1960s reduced participation in the mainstream Protestant church.
From the'60s onward, a number of attempts were made to