In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control and occupied by settlers of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would found their own colonies; some colonies were countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception. The metropolitan state is the state. In Ancient Greece, the city that founded a colony was known as the metropolis. "Mother country" is a reference to the metropolitan state from the point of view of citizens who live in its colony. There is a United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Unlike a puppet state or satellite state, a colony has no independent international representation, its top-level administration is under direct control of the metropolitan state; the term informal colony is used by some historians to refer to a country under the de facto control of another state, although this term is contentious. The word "colony" comes from the Latin word colōnia.
This in turn derives from the word colōnus, which means colonist but implies a farmer. Cologne is an example of a settlement preserving this etymology. Other, less obvious settlements that began as Roman colonia include cities from Belgrade to York. A tell-tale sign of a settlement once being a Roman colony is a city centre with a grid pattern; the terminology is taken from architectural analogy, where a column pillar is beneath the head capital, a biological analog of the body as subservient beneath the controlling head. So colonies are not independently self-controlled, but rather are controlled from a separate entity that serves the capital function. Roman colonies first appeared; these were small farming settlements. A colony could take many forms, as a military base in enemy territory, its original definition as a settlement created by people migrating from a central region to an outlying one became the modern definition. Carthage formed as a Phoenician colony Cadiz formed as a Phoenician colony Cyrene was a colony of the Greeks of Thera Sicily was a Phoenician colony Durrës formed as a Greek colony Sardinia was a Phoenician colony Marseille formed as a Greek colony Malta was a Phoenician colony Cologne formed as a Roman colony, its modern name refers to the Latin term "Colonia".
Kandahar formed as a Greek colony during the Hellenistic era by Alexander the Great in 330 BC. Alaska: a colony of Russia from the middle 18th century until sold to the United States in 1867, it became the 49th American state in 1959. Angola: a colony of Portugal since the 16th century. Independent since 1975. Argentina gained its independence from Spain in 1810. Australia was formed as an independent country in 1901 from a federation of six distinct British colonies which were founded between 1788 and 1829. Barbados: was a colony of Great Britain important in the Atlantic slave trade, it gained its independence in 1966. Brazil: a colony of Portugal since the 16th century. Independent since 1822. Canada: was colonized first by France as New France and England under British rule, before achieving Dominion status and losing "colony" designation. Democratic Republic of the Congo: a colony of Belgium from 1908 to 1960. French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin and the Kingdom of Cambodia.
The federation lasted until 1954. In the four protectorates, the French formally left the local rulers in power, who were the Emperors of Vietnam, Kings of Cambodia, Kings of Luang Prabang, but in fact gathered all powers in their hands, the local rulers acting only as figureheads. Ghana: Contact between Europe and Ghana began in the 15th century with the arrival of the Portuguese; this soon led to the establishment of several colonies by European powers: Portuguese Gold Coast, Dutch Gold Coast, Swedish Gold Coast, Danish Gold Coast and Prussian Gold Coast and British Gold Coast. In 1957, Ghana was the first African colony south of the Sahara to become independent. Greenland was a colony of Denmark-Norway from 1721 and was a colony of Denmark from 1814 to 1953. In 1953 Greenland was made an equal part of the Danish Kingdom. Home rule was granted in 1979 and extended to self-rule in 2009. See Danish colonization of the Americas. Guinea-Bissau: a colony of Portugal since the 15th century. Independent since 1974.
Hong Kong was a British colony from 1841 to 1997. Is now a Special Administrative Region of China. India was an imperial political entity comprising present-day India, Bangladesh and the United Arab Emirates with regions under the direct control of the Government of the United Kingdom from 1858 to 1947. From the 15th century until 1961, Portuguese India was a colony of Portugal. Pondicherry and Chandernagore were part of French India from 1759 to 1954. Small Danish colonies of Tharangambadi and the Nicobar Islands) from 1620 to 1869 were known as Danish India. Indonesia was a Dutch colony for 350 years, from 1602 to full independence in 1949. Jamaica was part of the Spanish West Indies in the seventeenth centuries, it became an English colony in 1655. Liberia a colony set up in 1821 by American private citizens for the migration of African American freedmen. Liberian Declaration of Independ
Jimmy Floyd Hasselbaink
Jerrel "Jimmy" Floyd Hasselbaink is a Dutch former professional footballer and current manager. A forward, he began his career with Telstar and AZ, before leaving the Netherlands for Portuguese club Campomaiorense in August 1995, he joined Boavista the following year, won the Taça de Portugal with the club in 1997. That year he was signed by English side Leeds United for a £2 million fee, went on to win the Premier League Golden Boot award in 1998–99, he was sold on to Spanish club Atlético Madrid for £10 million in 1999, reached the final of the Copa del Rey with Atlético despite the club suffering relegation from La Liga. Hasselbaink returned to the Premier League with Chelsea for a club record £15 million fee in May 2000, he scored 23 league goals in his first season. He played in the 2002 FA Cup Final and made a career high second-place league finish in 2003–04, he moved to Middlesbrough on a free transfer in July 2004, played in the final of the UEFA Cup in 2006. He signed with Charlton Athletic in July 2006, before joining Cardiff City in August 2007.
He played on the losing side in the 2008 FA Cup Final before retiring. He scored nine goals in 23 matches in a four-year international career for the Netherlands national team, appeared at the 1998 FIFA World Cup. In May 2013 he was appointed manager of Royal Antwerp in the Belgian Second Division, where he stayed for one season. In November 2014, he was hired by Burton Albion, in his first season he led them to their first promotion to League One as champions of League Two. In December 2015, he was appointed manager of Queens Park Rangers in the Championship, lasted 11 months in the job until he was dismissed in November 2016. From September 2017 to April 2018 he managed League One club Northampton Town. Hasselbaink was born on 27 March 1972 in Paramaribo, Suriname, to Frank Ware and Cornelli Hasselbaink. At the age of three Hasselbaink was run over by a moped. In October 1978, his mother took three siblings to live in Zaandam, Netherlands; the next year Hasselbaink began playing youth football for Gestaagt Volharding Overwint as a goalkeeper.
He played for Zaansche Football club and Zaanlandia as a right winger. He joined a street gang as a teenager and spent three months in a youth detention facility for stealing. After his release he joined the youth team at DWS, but was dismissed from the club for stealing the watch of a first-team player, he began his senior career with Telstar, while still a gang member, had disciplinary issues at the club due to his persistent lateness. He made his Eerste Divisie debut on 27 October 1990, in a 2–0 defeat at VVV-Venlo. Head coach Niels Overweg dismissed him, he began training with AZ, where his brother Carlos was playing, impressed enough to win a professional contract. However Head coach Henk Wullems opted not to renew his contract in 1993, despite Hasselbaink making 46 appearances for the club, he had an unsuccessful trial with FC Eindhoven, after failing to agree terms with PEC Zwolle he instead spent the 1993–94 season training with HFC Haarlem. He played amateur football for Neerlandia whilst he looked abroad for a professional contract, spending time in Austria with Admira Wacker.
He signed for newly promoted Portuguese Primeira Divisão side Campomaiorense in August 1995 after impressing trainer Manuel Fernandes on a trial. The chairman wanted to keep his signing a secret, so told the press that he had signed a player called "Jimmy", but after his signing was revealed the name stuck and he was known as Jimmy rather than Jerrel for the rest of his career, he failed to score in his first four games and missed a penalty in his fifth game after insisting on taking the penalty ahead of regular taker Stanimir Stoilov, however he made amends for the miss in the game by scoring both goals in a 2–0 win over Gil Vicente. The small club were relegated in the 1995 -- 96 season. Hasselbaink was signed by Boavista for a €300,000 fee in summer 1996; the 1996–97 season was chaotic for the club, as the chairman dismissed two managers, Zoran Filipović and João Resende Alves, before ending the campaign with Rui Casaca. As a result, the "Panthers" only managed a seventh-place finish, but ended the campaign on a high note by winning the Taça de Portugal.
Hasselbaink had a good season individually, finishing as the league's second highest scorer behind Porto's Mário Jardel. He scored his first professional hat-trick at the club, in a 3–1 victory over Marítimo at the Estádio do Bessa. Though head coach Casaca left Hasselbaink on the bench due to his arranged transfer to Leeds, Hasselbaink entered the final of the Taça de Portugal as a late substitute for Erwin Sánchez as Boavista held on to a 3–2 win over Benfica. Leeds United manager George Graham signed Hasselbaink in the summer of 1997 for a fee of £2 million, he scored on his Premier League debut in a 1–1 draw with Arsenal at Elland Road on 9 August, though he struggled to adapt to the pace of the English game. He scored only five league goals before Christmas, but ended the campaign with 26 goals in all competitions following a strong second half of the season; the following season, Hasselbaink's 18 goals in 36 appearances made him joint-winner of the Premier League Golden Boot as Leeds finished fourth in the league under the stewardship of new manager David O'Leary, thus winning the "White
Gerald Mervin Vanenburg is a Dutch retired footballer who played as a right winger. He amassed Eredivisie totals of 372 games and 112 goals for Ajax and PSV combined, winning fifteen major titles between the two clubs, including the 1988 European Cup with the latter. Subsequently he played in Japan and Germany, in a 20-year professional career. Vanenburg earned more than 40 caps for the Netherlands, appearing at the 1990 World Cup and Euro 1988 and winning the latter tournament. Born in Utrecht of Surinamese descent, Vanenburg finished his football formation with AFC Ajax, made his Eredivisie debuts one month after his 17th birthday, against ADO Den Haag, he finished his first season with 11 games and three goals, being soon dubbed Vaantje and Geraldinho for his above-average skills. Vanenburg became an undisputed starter for the Amsterdam side shortly after, providing countless assists for strikers Marco van Basten and Wim Kieft and adding 30 himself in two seasons combined as the club won back-to-back national championships.
Himself, van Basten, Kieft were amongst a steady stream of talented youngsters that included Frank Rijkaard that helped to the conquest of three league titles between 1982 and 1985. Vanenburg signed for PSV Eindhoven for 1986–87, netting nine goals in 34 matches in his first season, which ended in league conquest, he was part of the team that won the treble the following campaign, with the player appearing in the final of the European Cup and converting his penalty shootout attempt against S. L. Benfica; the backbone of this treble winning team was formed by many of his former teammates at Ajax, including Frank Arnesen, Ronald Koeman and Søren Lerby. Having rejected a lucrative move to A. S. Roma, Vanenburg played and scored for PSV in the following five seasons, winning a further three leagues and two Dutch Cups, he appeared in nearly 500 official games between the two clubs, scoring 150 goals. He was one of five European players to achieve the feat of winning four competitions – three with their club and one with the national team – in the same year, the others being teammates Berry van Aerle, Hans van Breukelen and Koeman.
Aged 29, Vanenburg had his first abroad experience, helping Júbilo Iwata promote to the J1 League in his first year playing a further two seasons with them. He finished the 1996–97 campaign back in his country, still being played as hometown's FC Utrecht ranked in 12th position; until his retirement in 2000 at the age of 36, Vanenburg played three more years of top flight football, with AS Cannes and TSV 1860 Munich, where he began appearing as a sweeper. Vanenburg made his debut for the Netherlands on 14 April 1982 at only 18, playing the full 90 minutes of a 1–0 friendly win with Greece, in Eindhoven. Vanenburg was a member of the Dutch squad at the 1983 FIFA World Youth Championship, he was selected for the UEFA Euro 1988 tournament in West Germany, appearing in all the games as the Oranje won the competition. Vanenburg was picked by manager Leo Beenhakker for his 1990 FIFA World Cup squad, but his contribution consisted of 45 minutes against Egypt, in an eventual round-of-16 exit in Italy.
His last international appearance came as a substitute in a 2–2 draw to Poland on 14 October 1992, in Rotterdam in a 1994 World Cup qualification match. After leaving 1860 Munich, Vanenburg returned to PSV where he was appointed the youth team's manager but, during that timeframe managed former club TSV during three months, starting in April 2004, with the team being relegated from the Bundesliga. In 2006–07, Vanenburg coached Helmond Sport in the Eerste Divisie, being fired on 17 February 2007. On 1 January of the following year he was appointed at another club in FC Eindhoven. Vanenburg was the nephew of manager Roy Vanenburg; the latter was considered one of the greatest footballers in the country's history, having won the SVB Hoofdklasse title six times and the CONCACAF Champions' Cup twice with S. V. Transvaal. Ajax Eredivisie: 1981–82, 1982–83, 1984–85 KNVB Cup: 1982–83, 1985–86PSV European Cup: 1987–88 Eredivisie: 1986–87, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1990–91, 1991–92 KNVB Cup: 1987–88, 1988–89, 1989–90 Johan Cruijff Shield: 1992 UEFA European Championship: 1988 Dutch Golden Boot: 1988, 1989 Gerald Vanenburg – FIFA competition record Gerald Vanenburg at National-Football-Teams.com Gerald Vanenburg at Wereld van Oranje Gerald Vanenburg at J.
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United States men's national soccer team
The United States Men's National Soccer Team is controlled by the United States Soccer Federation and competes in the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football. The team has appeared in ten FIFA World Cups, including the first in 1930, where they reached the semi-finals; the U. S. participated in the 1950 World Cups, winning 1 -- 0 against England in the latter. After 1950, the U. S. did not qualify for the World Cup until 1990. The U. S. hosted the 1994 World Cup. They qualified for five more consecutive World Cups after 1994, becoming one of the tournament's regular competitors and advancing to the knockout stage; the U. S. reached the quarter-finals of the 2002 World Cup. In the 2009 Confederations Cup, they eliminated top-ranked Spain in the semi-finals before losing to Brazil in the final, their only appearance in the final of a major intercontinental tournament; the team failed to qualify for the 2018 World Cup, having been eliminated in continental qualifying, ending the streak of consecutive World Cups at seven.
United States will co-host the 2026 FIFA World Cup along with Canada and Mexico, the automatic qualification of all three teams is as co-hosts. The U. S. competes in continental tournaments, including the CONCACAF Gold Cup and Copa América. The U. S. won six Gold Cups, has achieved a fourth-place finish in two Copa Américas, including the 2016 edition. The team's head coach is Gregg Berhalter, since November 29, 2018. Earnie Stewart is the team's General Manager since August 1, 2018; the first U. S. national soccer team was constituted in 1885, when it played Canada in the first international match held outside the United Kingdom. Canada defeated the U. S. 1–0 in Newark, New Jersey. The U. S. had its revenge the following year when it beat Canada 1–0 in Newark, although neither match was recognized. The U. S. earned both silver and bronze medals in men's soccer at the 1904 St. Louis Summer Olympics through Christian Brothers College and St. Rose Parish, though the tournament is declared official only by the IOC.
The U. S. played its first official international match under the auspices of U. S. Soccer on August 20, 1916, against Sweden in Stockholm, where the U. S. won 3–2. The U. S. fielded a team in the 1930 World Cup in Uruguay, the first World Cup to be played. The U. S. began group play by beating Belgium 3–0. The U. S. earned a 3–0 victory over Paraguay, with FIFA crediting Bert Patenaude with two of the goals. In November 2006, FIFA announced that it had accepted evidence that Patenaude scored all three goals against Paraguay, was thus the first person to score a hat trick in a World Cup. In the semifinals, the U. S. lost to Argentina 6–1. There was no third place game. However, using the overall tournament records in 1986, FIFA credited the U. S. with a third-place finish ahead of fellow semi-finalist Yugoslavia. This remains the U. S. team's best World Cup result, is the highest finish of any team from outside of South America and Europe. The U. S. qualified for the 1934 World Cup by defeating Mexico 4–2 in Italy a few days before the finals started.
In a straight knock-out format, the team first played host Italy and lost 7–1, eliminating the U. S. from the tournament. At the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, the U. S. again lost to Italy in the first round and were eliminated, although this time with a score of 1-0. The 1950 World Cup in Brazil was the next World Cup appearance for the U. S. as it withdrew in 1938 and the tournament wasn't held again until 1950. The U. S. lost its first match 3–1 against Spain, but won 1–0 against England at Independência Stadium in Belo Horizonte. Striker Joe Gaetjens was the goal scorer. Called "The Miracle on Grass", the result is considered one of the greatest upsets in the history of the World Cup. Months before the World Cup, England had beaten an all-star "rest of Europe" side 6–1 in an exhibition match. In their third game of the tournament, a 5-2 defeat by Chile saw the U. S. eliminated from the tournament. It would be four decades before the U. S. would make another appearance in the World Cup finals. The national team spent the mid-to-late 20th century in near complete irrelevance in both the international game and the domestic sporting scene.
There was only one World Cup berth for CONCACAF during this period until 1982. The emergence of the North American Soccer League in the 1960s and 1970s raised hopes that the U. S. national team would soon become a global force. However such hopes were not realized and by the 1980s the U. S. Soccer Federation found itself in serious financial struggles, with the national team playing only two matches from 1981 to 1983. U. S. Soccer targeted the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles and the 1986 World Cup as means of rebuilding the national team and its fan base; the International Olympic Committee declared that teams from outside Europe and South America could field full senior teams, including professionals. The U. S. had a strong showing at the tournament, beating Costa Rica, tying Egypt, losing only to favorite Italy and finishing 1–1–1 but didn't make the second round, losing to Egypt on a tiebreaker. To provide a more stable national team program and renew interest in the NASL, U. S. Soccer entered the national team into the NASL league schedule for the 1983 season as Team America.
This team lacked the continuity and regularity of training that conventional clubs enjoy, many players were unwilling to
1978 FIFA World Cup
The 1978 FIFA World Cup, the 11th staging of the FIFA World Cup, quadrennial international football world championship tournament, was held in Argentina between 1 and 25 June. The Cup was won by the Argentine hosts, who defeated the Netherlands 3–1 in the final, after extra time; the final was held at River Plate's home stadium, Estadio Monumental, in the Argentine capital of Buenos Aires. This win was the first World Cup title for Argentina, who became the fifth team to be both hosts and world champions. Argentina, the Netherlands and Brazil were the gold and bronze medalists, respectively. Iran and Tunisia made their first appearances in the tournament; this was the last World Cup tournament to use the original inclusion of 16 teams. Since the first World Cup in 1930, only 15 teams had been allowed to qualify; the official match ball was the Adidas Tango. Argentina was chosen as the host nation by FIFA on 6 July 1966 in England. Mexico withdrew from the bidding process after having been awarded the 1970 competition two years earlier.
The logo is based on President Juan Perón's signature gesture: a salute to the crowd with both arms extended above his head. This was one of the most famous, populist images of Perón; the design was created in 1974, two years prior to the military coup in 1976. The military leadership were aware that the World Cup's logo symbolized Perón's gesture, they tried to change the competition's logo. At this point, the design was broadly commercialized and the merchandise had been made: a forced modification "would trigger a sea of lawsuits against the country", so the military "munched the defeat". England, Belgium and the Soviet Union failed to qualify for the second World Cup in succession, losing out to Italy, the Netherlands and Hungary respectively. 1974 Quarter-finalists East Germany and Yugoslavia were eliminated by Austria and Spain and thus failed to qualify for the finals, along with Bulgaria which failed to qualify for the first time since 1958 after losing to France. Bolivia's win meant Uruguay failed to qualify for the first time since 1958.
Newcomers to the finals were Tunisia. Peru and Mexico returned after missing the previous tournament. For the first time, more than 100 nations entered the competition; the following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament: A controversial fact surrounding the 1978 World Cup was that Argentina had suffered a military coup only two years before the cup, a coup known as the National Reorganization Process. Less than a year before the World Cup, in September 1977, Interior Minister General Albano Harguindeguy, stated that 5,618 people had disappeared; the infamous Higher School of Mechanics of the Navy held concentration camp prisoners of the Dirty War and those held captive could hear the roars of the crowd during matches held at River Plate's Monumental Stadium, located only a mile away. Because of the political turmoil, some countries, most notably the Netherlands, considered publicly whether they should participate in the event. Despite this, all teams took part without restrictions. Allegations that Dutch star Johan Cruyff refused to participate because of political convictions were denied by him 30 years later.
More controversy surrounded the host, Argentina, as all of their games in the first round kicked off at night, giving the Argentines the advantage of knowing where they stood in the group. This issue would arise again in Spain 1982, which prompted FIFA to change the rules so that the final two group games in subsequent World Cups would be played simultaneously. Argentina's controversial and favorable decisions in their matches has caused many to view their eventual win as illegitimate. Desperate to prove their stability and prominence to the world after their coup two years earlier, the government used whatever means necessary to ensure that the team would progress far in the tournament. Suspicions of match fixing arose before the tournament began, he talked about the financial imperative to have Argentina win the World Cup: “The success of Argentina is financially so important to the tournament.”From Will Hersey’s article “Remembering Argentina 1978: The Dirtiest World Cup of All Time”: "The other teams in Argentina and Hungary’s group were the much-fancied France and Italy, establishing the tournament’s toughest qualifying section.
After the victory against Hungary, one junta official remarked to Luque, that “this could turn out to be the group of death as far as you are concerned”. It was delivered with a smile. “Uppermost in my mind was that earlier that day, the brother of a close friend of mine had disappeared,” recalled Luque. “His body was found by villagers on the banks of the River Plate with concrete attached to his legs. At that time, opponents of the regime were sometimes thrown out of aeroplanes into the sea.”"In their second group stage game against France, Argentina were the beneficiaries of multiple favorable calls. After France was denied what
Patrick Stephan Kluivert is a former Dutch footballer and former director of football for Paris Saint-Germain in France. Kluivert is the assistant manager of Cameroon, he played as a striker, most notably for FC Barcelona and the Netherlands national team. He was part of Ajax's Golden Generation of the 1990s at the age of 18, scoring the winner in the 1995 UEFA Champions League Final, he spent six years with Spanish club Barcelona where he formed a successful partnership with Rivaldo, where both won the Spanish La Liga championship of 1999 and Kluivert scored 124 goals from 249 appearances in all. Kluivert played for the Dutch national team from 1994 to 2004. With 40 goals in 79 appearances, he is the third highest top goalscorer for Oranje, he played in three European Championships and the 1998 FIFA World Cup, was joint top scorer at Euro 2000 where upon the scoresheet he tallied a total of 5 times. In 2004, he was named in the FIFA 100, a list of the 125 greatest living footballers chosen by Pelé as part of FIFA's centenary observances.
He began his coaching career as an assistant at AZ and NEC. He had a brief coaching stint in Australia with the Brisbane Roar, before coaching Jong FC Twente to a national title in the Dutch reserves league, he was assistant manager to Louis van Gaal with the Netherlands national football team when they finished third at the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. In 2015, he took over as head coach of the Curaçao national team for the country's 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying and the 2017 Caribbean Cup qualifying campaigns. In 2016, it was announced that he would take over the Ajax A1 selection, coaching his son, Justin Kluivert, before taking a position as director of football for Paris Saint-Germain. Kluivert was born on 1 July 1976 in Netherlands, his father, a professional football player, was born in his mother in Curaçao. Kluivert learned to play football on the street. After a year at football club Schellingwoude, he joined the Ajax Youth Academy at the age of seven, he played several different positions including defender.
He was strong in technique, football intelligence, speed, but was considered too impulsive. Kluivert played for the Dutch national teams under-15, under-16 and under-17. Kluivert was part of Ajax's Golden Generation of the 1990s, he made his debut in the senior team of Ajax on 21 August 1994 at the age of 18 in the Dutch Supercup win against the old arch rival Feyenoord, in which he scored his first goal. He went on to top score for Ajax in the 1994–95 Eredivisie with 18 goals in 25 appearances, as Louis van Gaal's team won the Dutch championship without losing a match; the 1994–95 season saw Kluivert make his mark – along with a host of youngsters from the Ajax youth academy, including Edgar Davids, Clarence Seedorf, Edwin van der Sar – on the European stage with a triumph in the UEFA Champions League. Kluivert came off the bench to score an 85th-minute winner in the 1995 Champions League Final against A. C. Milan in Vienna, Austria; the youngest player to score in a final of the main event of the European continent, when he was only 18 years, 10 months and 23 days.
He again top-scored for Ajax in 1995–96 with 15 goals in 28 appearances as the club won five trophies, including the Eredivisie title. He scored the winning goal in extra time of the season opening Dutch Supercup against Feyenoord and scored the team's away goal in the 5–1 aggregate win over Real Zaragoza in the 1995 UEFA Super Cup. On 28 November 1995, Kluivert was the only Ajax player to miss his kick in the 4–3 penalty shootout win over Grêmio in Tokyo that saw de Godenzonen win the Intercontinental Cup. Kluivert was in excellent form during Ajax's defence of their Champions League trophy, scoring in away wins at Real Madrid and Borussia Dortmund, but a knee injury prevented him from participating for the full 90 minutes in the team's loss to Juventus in the 1996 UEFA Champions League Final. At the end of an injury hit 1996–97 season in which he made only 17 league appearances, Kluivert joined A. C. Milan on a Bosman transfer after rejecting Ajax's offer of a new contract, he ended his spell at the Amsterdam club with 39 goals from 70 Eredivisie matches.
Kluivert's career at Milan started well, with the striker scoring a sensational goal against Juventus in the Trofeo Luigi Berlusconi However, he spent only one season at the San Siro, scoring six times in 27 Serie A matches, as the Rossoneri finished in 10th place. On 28 August 1998, an hour before the transfer deadline, Kluivert signed a four-year contract with FC Barcelona for a fee of £8.75 million. Kluivert was reunited with a mentor from his days at Ajax. Kluivert scored 16 league goals and formed a successful partnership with Rivaldo, which enabled Barça to defend the Spanish La Liga in 1998–99; the following season was a successful one for Kluivert. Although Barcelona failed to win a third consecutive league title, Kluivert finished the season as the club's top scorer with 15 league goals. Kluivert went on to top score twice more in his next four seasons at Camp Nou but the team completed a period of five years without a major trophy after their title success in 1999. In the summer of 2004, Kluivert was one of four Dutch players released by Barcelona.
He ended his career at Barça with 124 goals from 249 appearances. In 2016, the Dutchman once again featured for Barca in a legends game against Uganda all stars where he, in lobbing the ball, scored an amazing goal. Kluivert joined Newcastle United on a free transfer in July 2004, he stated that his reasons for joining Newcastle was due to the overwhelming reaction he received whilst playing for Barcelona against Newcastle during a pre season friendly as well as teaming up with Newcastle's star players
Franklin Edmundo Rijkaard is a Dutch former footballer and former manager who played as a midfielder or defender. Rijkaard has played for Ajax, Real Zaragoza and Milan and represented the Netherlands national team side 73 times, scoring 10 goals. In his managerial career, he has been at the helm of the Netherlands national team, Sparta Rotterdam, Barcelona and the Saudi Arabia national team. Regarded as one of the best defensive midfielders in footballing history and as one of the best players of his generation, in 2010 Rijkaard was described by British broadsheet The Daily Telegraph as having been "a stylish player of faultless pedigree". Rijkaard was born in Amsterdam, his mother Neel is Dutch and his father Herman was a Surinamese footballer who arrived in the Netherlands along with the father of Ruud Gullit. Rijkaard was just 17 when Ajax coach Leo Beenhakker gave him his senior squad debut on 23 August 1980, he made an immediate impact, scoring the third goal in a 4–2 away victory over Go Ahead Eagles, the first league match in the 1980–81 season.
He would play another 23 games for Ajax in his first season. In 1981–82, he won his first league championship with Ajax and went on to defend the title the following season. Rijkaard stayed at Ajax for seven-and-a-half seasons. During this period, he won the Dutch Cup three times. In the 1986–87 season, he won the Cup Winners' Cup with Ajax over Lokomotiv Leipzig, winning 1–0. In September 1987, what would have been Rijkaard's third season under Dutchman Johan Cruyff as head coach, Rijkaard stormed off the training field and vowed never to play under him again, he was subsequently signed by Sporting Clube de Portugal, but he signed too late to be eligible to play in any competition. He was loaned out to Real Zaragoza, but upon completing his first season at Zaragoza was signed by A. C. Milan. Rijkaard played for five seasons at Milan, it was coach Arrigo Sacchi who saw Rijkaard as playing a pivotal role at Milan and transformed the central defender into a world class holding midfielder, where the Dutchman's aggressive and firm style would go on to influence the likes of Patrick Vieira to replicate in future years.
Playing alongside fellow country-men Marco van Basten and Ruud Gullit, Rijkaard won the European Cup twice and the domestic Serie A championship twice. In the 1990 European Cup Final, he scored the only goal to win the cup for Milan. After five seasons in Italy, Rijkaard returned to Ajax in 1993. With Louis van Gaal at the helm and Danny Blind formed the experienced defensive core of the Ajax team that won the first two of three consecutive Dutch championships. Ajax were the unbeaten champions of the Netherlands in the 1994–95 season, carried that success into Europe. In his final game, Rijkaard won the Champions League with a 1–0 victory over Milan in the 1995 final at the Ernst-Happel-Stadion in Vienna, he was named in Pelé's list of the 125 World's Greatest Footballers. On the international stage, Rijkaard made his debut for the Netherlands in 1981, he was part of the Dutch side that won UEFA Euro 1988 with a 2–0 win in the final over the Soviet Union, playing at centre-back alongside Ronald Koeman.
He scored 10 goals. Rijkaard played for the Netherlands during the 1990 and 1994 FIFA World Cups and at Euro 1992. At Euro 1992, Rijkaard scored a late equalizer for the Netherlands in a 2–2 draw with Denmark at the semi-final stage but the Dutch went out on penalties, he made his final appearance for the Netherlands in the 3–2 defeat against eventual winners Brazil in the quarter-finals of the 1994 World Cup. Rijkaard was the cause of an incident with Rudi Völler when West Germany played the Netherlands in the 1990 World Cup. Rijkaard was booked for a tackle on Völler and, as Rijkaard took up position for the free kick, he spat in Völler's hair. Völler was booked as well. From the resulting free kick, Völler handled the ball and went to the ground to avoid a collision with Dutch keeper Hans van Breukelen, while others, notably Rijkaard and van Breukelen, saw Voller's handball and his resulting action as a dive in hopes for a penalty. Van Breukelen was angry at this but Rijkaard annoyed by Völler's previous antics, again confronted the West German by twisting his ear and stamping on his foot.
Argentine referee Juan Carlos Loustau was tired of both Völler and Rijkaard's hostile antics towards each other in such a short period of time, fearing a fight between the two, sent off both Rijkaard and Völler. As he jogged back to the entrance tunnel, Rijkaard again spat in Völler's hair as they left the pitch; the German press nicknamed him "Llama" for his spitting. Rijkaard would apologise for his behaviour to Völler, who accepted. Regarded as one of the greatest players in his position, Rijkaard was a quick, strong and tenacious defensive midfielder, praised by pundits throughout his career for his physical and athletic attributes, his work rate, his acute tactical intelligence and decision-making, as well as his outstanding consistency and ability to read the game. Due to his aggression and versatility, he was capable of playing as a central or box-to-box midfielder, in a defensive role in the centre. Although Rijkaard was known as strong tackler, he was elegant for a player of his size, possessed good technique, passing ability, link-up play