The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
DJ Vix and raised in the east of London is a British-Asian DJ/music producer known for his bhangra tracks, as well as his remixes, taught by a special guru. In 1996, he formed Dhol n Bass Roadshow, he has worked in many places across the globe including Vancouver, Africa, Melbourne, Perth, LA, Washington DC, New York and Delhi. Guest mixes and shows on the Asian radio scene have included for the likes of BBC Radio 1, BBC 1xtra and BBC Asian Network. Signed up in 2002 by the internationally renowned Moviebox label, DJ Vix has received international recognition as a producer of mainstream Asian beats, with a style identical to none. Following on from his debut album DHOL N BASS UNCUT, he produced his next three albums VIX IT UP and IDENTICAL 2 NONE and MOVIEBOX VIX TAPE with'Ah Chak Bottle Daru Di' featuring Shin from DCS - the longest no.1 track on the BBC Asian Network that held top spot for a record breaking 13 weeks. In 2009 DJ Vix received his third award,'Best Club DJ' at the UK Asian Music Awards held at the Royal Festival Hall.
In 2011, Dj Vix worked in collaboration with Bhinda Jatt. Dj Vix has worked with artists like Miss Pooja, RnB superstar Jay Sean, Taz Stereo Nation, B21, XLNC, Debi Muksuspuri, H-Dhami and Ajay the ‘Brit Asia Superstar’ winner of 2010. In 2014, Dj Vix worked in collaboration with Malkit Singh MBE, produced the track'Desi Beat'. In 2014, he released another track,'Marda' feat Hunterz, along with the new album'MY TURN' from Manjit Pappu, his next, fifth solo album titled "Chapter V" is scheduled to be released on 26 February 2015. DJ Vix's Official Website
Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west; the state covers an area of 1.53 % of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With 27,704,236 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 22 districts. Punjabi is the most spoken and official language of the state; the main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs forming the demographic majority and Hindus forming a sizable minority. The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana; the five rivers from which the region took its name were Sutlej, Beas and Jhelum. The Punjab region was home to the Indus Valley Civilization until 1900 BCE.
The Punjab was invaded by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE and was captured by Chandragupta Maurya under Chanakya. The Punjab was home to the Gupta Empire, the empire of the Alchon Huns, the empire of Harsha, the Mongol Empire. Circa 1000, the Punjab was part of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. Sikhism originated in Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy after the fall of the Mughal Empire; the confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The entire Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849. In 1947, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab; the western part was assimilated into new country of Pakistan. The Indian Punjab as well as PEPSU was divided into three parts on the basis of language in 1966. Haryanvi-speaking areas were carved out as Haryana, while the hilly regions and Pahari-speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh, alongside the current state of Punjab.
Punjab's government has three branches – executive and legislative. Punjab follows the parliamentary system of government with the Chief Minister as the head of the state. Punjab is agriculture-based due to the presence of abundant water sources and fertile soils. Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, sewing machines, sports goods, tourism, bicycles and the processing of pine oil and sugar. Minerals and energy resources contribute to Punjab's economy to a much lesser extent. Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers", was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests.
The word Punjab is a compound of the Persian words āb. Thus Panjāb means "the land of five rivers"; the five rivers are the Sutlej, Ravi and Jehlum. Traditionally, in English, there used to be a definite article before the name, i.e. "The Punjab". The name is sometimes spelled as "Panjab"; the Greeks called Punjab an inland delta of five converging rivers. During the period when the epic Mahabharata was written, around 800–400 BCE, Punjab was known as Trigarta and ruled by Katoch kings; the Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of the Punjab region with cities such as Ropar. The Vedic Civilization spread along the length of the Sarasvati River to cover most of northern India including Punjab; this civilisation shaped subsequent cultures in the Indian subcontinent. The Punjab region was ruled by many ancient empires including the Gandhara, Mauryas, Kushans, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas and Hindu Shahis; the furthest eastern extent of Alexander the Great's exploration was along the Indus River. Agriculture flourished and trading cities such as Jalandhar and Ludhiana grew in wealth.
Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from both west and east. Punjab faced invasions by the Achaemenids, Scythians and Afghans; this resulted in the Punjab witnessing centuries of bitter bloodshed. Its culture combines Hindu, Islamic and British influences; the original Punjab region is now divided into several units: West Punjab, portions of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa such as the Gandharar region, the Indian states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and the Indian Union territory of Chandigarh and Jammu Division. The Punjab is the'Sapta Sindhu' region mentioned in the Rig Veda, the seven rivers are: Saraswati, Satadru/Shutadri, Asikani, Purushni, Vitasta/Vet and Sindhu. Among the classic books that were wholly or composed in this region are the following. Rigveda Grammar of Sakatayana Ashtadhyayi of Pāṇini Nirukta of Yaska Charaka Samhita Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita Brihatkatha of Gunadya Bakhshali ManuscriptThe world's oldest university Takshashila flourished here before the Buddha's birth.
The Brahmins of this region
Sukshinder Shinda is a bhangra Record producer and singer–songwriter from Handsworth in Birmingham, England. Since releasing his first professional recording in 1993, Dhol Beat Ek, Shinda has produced or collaborated on more than 200 albums, including all of Jazzy B's releases and the majority of Amrinder Gill's. Tapinder Singh,working as music director He started his career in music industry with song'still loving' by VS records nd many more songs released by different companies like'jeen jogya' by yaar anmulle records He worked on an English song'come on' by South African singer Jenni He is soon coming out with new projects In 2006, Sukshinder Shinda won two awards at the UK Asian Music Awards, "Best Album" and "Best Video". In 2008, he won another two awards at the UK Asian Music Awards, "Best Act" and "Best Album" for Living the Dream. In 2010, he won "Best Producer". In 2011 he was nominated for Best Album, Best Producer, Best Male Act and Best Desi Act and ended up winning only Best Producer.
One In A Million Video Press Release Official Website Sukshinder Shinda Biography
The Ramgarhia are a community of Sikhs from the Punjab region of northwestern India, encompassing members of the Lohar and Tarkhan subgroups. Called Thoka, meaning carpenter, the Ramgarhia are named after Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, whose birth name of Thoka became Ramgarhia in the 18th century when he was put in charge of rebuilding of what became known as Ramgarh Fort, at Ramrauni, near Amritsar, he rose from being a carpenter to the leader of a misl bearing the Ramgarhia name. The Ramgarhia was one of the three misls selected to guard the Golden Temple at Amritsar from attack. Jassa Singh Ramgarhia had Ramgarhia Bunga built in 1755 to the east of the temple; the fort houses the Mughal coronation stone, brought by Jassa Singh Ramgarhia from the Red Fort in Delhi. Aside from Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, notable leaders in the misl his son and successor, Jodh Singh Ramgarhia, his younger brother, Tara Singh Ramgarhia, his grandson, Mangal Singh Ramgarhia. Ramgarhias were traditionally carpenters but included other artisan occupations such as stonemasons and blacksmiths.
Sikh carpenters use Ramgarhia as a surname whereas Hindu carpenters use Dhiman. Their artisan skills were noted by the British, who encouraged many Ramgarhia to move to colonies in East Africa in the 1890s, where they assisted in the creation of that region's infrastructure and became Africanised. One significant project in which they and other Punjabi Sikhs were involved was the construction of the railway linking the present-day countries of Kenya and Uganda, completed in 1901; the British authorities encouraged Ramgarhias to migrate within India during the first quarter of the 20th century. Their inventiveness and skills at construction and maintenance were of much use at, for example, the tea plantations in Assam. Now distant from their landlords in Punjab, who were Jat Sikhs, the Ramgarhia diaspora in the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam were able to enhance their low social status; the lessons learned in Punjab, where they had established a few gurdwaras to aid community cohesion and had been loyal to the British and unwilling to support the Jat-led Akali movement, assisted their improved status in Assam.
Despite Sikhism rejecting the Hindu caste system, it does have its own similar socio-economic hierarchy, with its constituents described as castes. In that, according to Peter Childs, the Ramgarhias today rank second. However, Joginder Singh says that they still lack influence in the Punjab, a region dependent on agriculture and dominated by some influential peasant farmers Jat but some from communities such as the Labanas and Sainis; those people, says Singh, have "captured the control of Sikh socio-religious institutions and political parties." Associations representing the less influential but numerically superior people have formed in reaction to this, including Ramgarhia groups that are running their own educational and socio-religious institutions as well as mobilising their diaspora and any prominent individuals who might assist in enhancing their identity
Ludhiana is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab, India's largest city north of Delhi, with an area of 310sq. Km and an estimated population of 1,618,879 as of the 2011 census; the population increases during the harvesting season due to the migration of labourers from populated states like Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Odisha. The city stands on the Sutlej River's old bank, 13 kilometres south of its present course, it is an industrial center of northern India. Ludhiana was among the list of smart cities. According to World Bank Group Ludhiana is the best city in India to do business. Ludhiana is 107 kilometres west of the state capital, Chandigarh, on NH 95, is centrally located on National Highway 44, which runs from New Delhi to Amritsar, it is 142 km southeast of Amritsar. Ludhiana is located at 30.9°N 75.85°E / 30.9. It has an average elevation of 244 metres. Ludhiana City, to its residents, consists of the New City; the land dips steeply to the west where, before 1785, the river Sutlej ran.
The Old Fort was at the banks of the Sutlej. Legend has it that an underground tunnel connects it to the fort in Phillaur – although why this should be is debatable, as the Sutlej was the traditional dividing line between the principalities occupied by enemy forces; the ground is of yellow sandstone and granite, forming small hillocks and dips. The tree of largest natural extraction was the kikar, or Acacia indica, but has been supplanted by the eucalyptus, transplanted from rural Australia in the late 1950s by the government of Chief Minister Pratap Singh Kairon. Gulmohars and jacarandas were planted by the British along the avenues of Civil Lines, as were other flowering trees, while the Old City contains no vegetation or parks, except for a few isolated pipal trees, holy to the Hindus, as it is supposed to be the abode of Lord Shiva. Ludhiana features a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification, with three defined seasons. Ludhiana on average sees 890 millimetres of precipitation annually.
Ludhiana has one of the worst air pollution problems in India, with particulate matter being over six times the World Health Organization recommended standard, making it the 13th most polluted city in the world. Industrial water pollution is of significant concern in portions of Ludhiana, notably along the Budha Dariya; as per provisional data of 2011 census Ludhiana had a population of 1,618,879. The literacy rate was 82.50 per cent. This population consists of 743,530 females; the World Bank ranked Ludhiana as the city in India with the best business environment in 2009 and 2013. The riches are brought by small-scale industrial units, which produce industrial goods, machine parts, auto parts, household appliances, hosiery and garments. Ludhiana is Asia's largest hub for bicycle manufacturing and produces more than 50% of India's bicycle consumption of more than 10 million each year. Ludhiana produces a large portion of auto and two-wheeler parts. Many parts used in German cars Mercedes and BMW are produced in Ludhiana to satisfy the world requirement.
It is one of the largest manufacturer of domestic sewing machines. Hand tools and industrial equipment are other specialties; the apparel industry of Ludhiana, popularly known as Ludhiana Hosiery industry provides employment to millions of people and produces world best brands of winter wears preferably woolens and jackets. It is famous all over India for its woolen sweaters and cotton T-shirts; as a result of its dominance in the textile industry it is dubbed as the Manchester of India. Ludhiana has a growing IT sector with multiple software services and product companies having development centers in the city. Ludhiana is home to the Ludhiana Stock Exchange Association. LSC is situated on NH95 in Feroze Gandhi market near Mini Secretariat Ludhiana. Stock trading is one the main course of action of LSC. Ludhiana has 363 senior secondary, 367 high, 324 middle, 1129 primary, pre-primary recognised Schools, with a total of 398,770 students. Most of these schools are either run by the Central Board of Secondary Education or by Punjab School Education Board.
Ludhiana is home to the largest agricultural university in Asia and one of the largest in the world, Punjab Agricultural University. The College of Veterinary Sciences at PAU was upgraded to the Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. GADVASU was established at Ludhiana by an act of the Punjab Legislature No. 16 of 2005 notified in the Punjab Government Gazette on August 9, 2005 and it started functioning w.e.f. April 21, 2006 for promoting livestock production and prevention of the disease through integrated teaching and extension programme. Christian Medical College, the first medical school for women in Asia, was founded by Dr Dame Edith Mary Brown in 1894. Christian Medical College is a major and reputed tertiary care hospital in India where the world's first face transplant was done. Dayanand Medical College and Hospital is a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ludh