A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family. Depending on the culture, all members of a family unit may have identical surnames or there may be variations based on the cultural rules. In the English-speaking world, a surname is referred to as a last name because it is placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two surnames are used and in some families three or more are used. Surnames today are not universal in all cultures; this tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world. In Europe, the concept of surnames became popular in the Roman Empire and expanded throughout the Mediterranean and Western Europe as a result. During the Middle Ages this practice died out as Germanic and other influences took hold. During the late Middle Ages surnames re-emerged, first in the form of bynames, which evolved into modern surnames.

In China surnames have been the norm since at least the 2nd century BC. A family name is a part of a person's personal name which, according to law or custom, is passed or given to children from one or both of their parents' family names; the use of family names is common in most cultures around the world, with each culture having its own rules as to how these names are formed and used. However, the style of having both a family name and a given name is far from universal. In many cultures, it is common for people to have one name or mononym, with some cultures not using family names. In most Slavic countries, as well as other countries including Greece and Latvia, for example, there are different family name forms for male and female members of the family. Issues of family name arise on the passing of a name to a new-born child, on the adoption of a common family name on marriage, on renouncing of a family name and on changing of a family name. Surname laws vary around the world. Traditionally in many European countries for the past few hundred years, it was the custom or law that a woman would on marriage use the surname of her husband and that children of a man would have the father's surname.

If a child's paternity was not known, or if the putative father denied paternity, the new-born child would have the surname of the mother. That is still the law in many countries; the surname for children of married parents is inherited from the father. In recent years there has been a trend towards equality of treatment in relation to family names, with women being not automatically required or expected, or in some places forbidden, to take the husband's surname on marriage, children not automatically being given the father's surname. In this article, family name and surname both mean the patrilineal surname, handed down from or inherited from the father's, unless explicitly stated otherwise. Thus, the term "maternal surname" means the patrilineal surname which one's mother inherited from either or both of her parents. For a discussion of matrilineal surnames, passing from mothers to daughters, see matrilineal surname, it is common for women in the entertainment industry to keep their maiden name after they get married if they achieved their fame before marriage.

The same can be said for women. In English-speaking cultures, family names are used by children when referring to adults but are used to refer to someone in authority, the elderly, or in a formal setting, are used with a title or honorific such as Mr. Mrs. Ms. Miss, so on; the given name is the one used by friends and other intimates to address an individual. It may be used by someone, in some way senior to the person being addressed; this practice differs between cultures. The study of proper names is called onomastics. A one-name study is a collection of vital and other biographical data about all persons worldwide sharing a particular surname. In many cultures, the surname or family name is placed after the forename or given name. In other cultures the surname is placed first, followed by names; the latter is called the Eastern naming order because Europeans are most familiar with the examples from the East Asian cultural sphere China and Taiwan, Korea and Vietnam. This is the case in Cambodia, parts of South India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar.

But there are parts of Europe that follow the Eastern Order, such as Hungary, Austria, Albania and Romania. Since family names are written last in European societies, the terms last name or surname are used for the family name, while in Japan (with vertical w

Hare Splitter

Hare Splitter is a 1948 Warner Bros. Merrie Melodies animated short directed by Friz Freleng; the title is a play on "hair splitting", or focusing too much on fine details, reflecting how Bugs tries to "split up" Casbah and Daisy so Bugs can date her himself. Bugs Bunny and his next door neighbor, are preparing to go on a date with Daisy, but a fight for Daisy begins as soon as Casbah and Bugs exit their rabbit holes. Bugs and Casbah both leave their holes with flowers for Daisy. Seeing each other's gifts, they try to outdo each other with better gifts. Bugs throws an anvil on Casbah’s head to get rid of him; when Bugs arrives at Daisy’s home, he finds a note on her door saying she went shopping and will be back shortly. Bugs dresses up as Daisy, he starts flirting with him. When Casbah isn’t looking, Bugs hits him over the head, puts a mouse trap down, gives him an explosive carrot. In addition to tricking Casbah on the swing, Bugs pretends to kiss Casbah by using a plunger and hitting him on the head.

He continues tricking Casbah by painting a bomb to look like Daisy. Casbah is so excited by explosion of the bomb, he accidentally runs into the house. Once again, Bugs tries to trick Casbah by pretending to be Mr. Daniel Cupid and shooting him with an arrow. Casbah becomes enraged and sees through Bugs' disguise. Bugs tries to get Casbah out of hitting him by donning a pair of glasses, but Casbah still punches him in the face, breaking the glasses and making Bugs realize he's angered Casbah. Casbah chases Bugs as he is now on the warpath against Bugs, who manages to escape into Daisy's house and slam the door on Casbah's face. Bugs runs around the side of the house. Casbah thinks it is again Bugs dressed up as her; when Daisy enters the house, Casbah hits her upside the head with a vase. Off-screen, Daisy angrily proceeds to beat up Casbah breaking vases over his head and throws them at Casbah, chasing him out of the house in the process; the cartoon ends with Bugs showering Daisy with compliments and kissing Daisy after she has eaten an explosive carrot.

Both Bugs and Daisy think the explosive effect the carrot lends to the kiss is due to the other's romantic capabilities, they hop wildly and enthusiastically kiss again. Hare Splitter on the IMDB

University College Venlo

University College Venlo referred to as UCV, is a bachelor programme offered at the satellite location of Maastricht University, Campus Venlo. It welcomed its first students in September 2015. UCV was ranked second at the national Elsevier ranking 2016 of all university colleges in the Netherlands. Furthermore UCV has been ranked as the #2 Liberal Arts and Sciences programme in the Dutch University Guide: Keuzegids 2020 with a score of 84 points, making it a top rated programme. Maastricht University, of which UCV is part, was founded in 1976, making it one of the youngest universities in the Netherlands, as of 2014 have over 16,000 students and 3,600 employees. University College Venlo itself opened in September 2015, it has around 250 students studying in Venlo. UCV will offer the students a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science depending on the courses in their personal curriculum; the study is taught in English. Every student is, besides the courses doing several skill trainings and projects.

UCV uses, as compared to the other studies of Maastricht University, the problem-based learning method taught in small classes. On top of that, UCV uses the research-based learning method, which provides the students with opportunities to collaborate with industry and local institutions; this provides the students with a more practical insight in their future careers. Curriculum structure UCV students have dependent on their chosen courses a life science, social sciences or interdisciplinary concentration. With UCM using the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System a BA or BSc at UCM will comprise a total of 180 ECTS. Students subsequently enrol in a maximum of 30 ECTS per semester, or 60 ECTS for a full year, with students receiving 5 ECTS for courses and projects and 2.5 ECTS for skills trainings. Students create their own curriculum, with help of academic advisors, by choosing courses located within their respective concentration in addition to a requirement to complete a core curriculum.

By choosing their own courses and concentration, students will be able to develop a good background for future jobs or for enrolment in a Master programme after they finished their Bachelor studies. UCV is taught in a small building; this provides the students with a personal atmosphere and with close contact to the other Master studies and staff located at the same building. The location of Campus Venlo is close to the city centre of Venlo and is only a 5-minute walk from the Venlo Central train station, it has 28 On-campus student studios. UCV has two enrolment moments per year and February; every prospective student has to write a motivation letter. There are 250 students studying UCV; the student population is international with students coming from within and outside of the EU