Surveyor Generals Corner
Surveyor Generals Corner is a remote point where the Australian state boundaries of South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory meet. These boundaries meet at the easternmost point of the 127-metre section of the Western Australian border with the Northern Territory border which runs east–west along the 26th parallel south latitude to meet the western boundary of the South Australian border. In 1922 an agreement was signed between the prime minister W. M. Hughes, the acting premier for South Australia, Sir John George Bice, the premier of Western Australia, Sir James Mitchell to set the border along the 129th meridian east longitude and defined the boundary by lines drawn north and south through the centre of the Deakin Obelisk, erected in 1926 near Deakin, Western Australia and the Kimberley Obelisk, erected in 1927, near Argyle Downs, in the Kimberley Region of Western Australia. In 1963 when the survey on the ground was continued it was realised that there was no possibility of these lines meeting at the 26th parallel south.
In June 1968 two monuments were erected at the junction of the boundaries 127 metres apart running east–west along the 26th parallel south. The most easterly monument common to all three jurisdictions was named Surveyor Generals Corner at the suggestion of the Director of National Mapping; the site is not named after a single Surveyor-General, because there were a number of them present as follows. On 4th June 1968, two concrete pillars were completed to mark Surveyor-Generals Corner in the presence V. T. O'Brien, Acting Director of Lands, N. T. P. J. Wells, Acting Surveyor-General, N. T.. A. Bailey, Surveyor-General, S. A.. A.. M. Allwright, Surveyor, N. T. From 7 March 2003, access to the area was restricted following a decision by the Irrunytju Community in whose traditional land the Surveyor Generals Corner is situated. Access to the area is limited to guided tours and visitors require a special permit in addition to the standard Great Central Road transit permit; the nearest settlement is the Aboriginal community of Kalka in South Australia, situated on the Gunbarrel Highway just a few kilometres to the south.
There are three occurrences of New Year's Eve at Surveyor Generals Corner, because it is located at the intersection of three time zones. Surveyor General of South Australia Surveyor General of the Northern Territory Surveyor General of Western Australia Department of Lands and Surveys, Western Australia "Border Lengths - States and Territories". Geoscience Australia. Retrieved 28 November 2018
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Colony of Vancouver Island
The Colony of Vancouver Island known as the Island of Vancouver and its Dependencies, was a Crown colony of British North America from 1849 to 1866, after which it was united with the mainland to form the Colony of British Columbia. The united colony joined Canadian Confederation, thus becoming part of Canada, in 1871; the colony comprised the Gulf Islands of the Strait of Georgia. Captain James Cook was the first European to set foot on the Island at Nootka Sound in 1778, claiming the territory for Great Britain. Fourteen years under the provisions of the Nootka Convention, Spain ceded its claims to Vancouver Island and the adjoining islands, it was not until 1843, that Britain – under the auspices of the Hudson's Bay Company – established a settlement on Vancouver Island. The settlement was in the form of a fur trading post named Fort Albert; the fort was located at the Songhees settlement of Camosack, 200 metres northwest of the present-day Empress Hotel on Victoria's Inner Harbour. With the signing of the Treaty of Washington in 1846, the mainland of Oregon Territory below the 49th parallel became American territory.
Thus in 1849, HBC moved its western headquarters from Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River to Fort Victoria. Chief Factor James Douglas, was relocated from Fort Vancouver to Fort Victoria to oversee the Company's operations west of the Rockies; this development prompted the British colonial office to designate the territory a Crown colony on 13 January 1849. The colony was leased to the HBC for a ten-year period, Douglas was charged with encouraging British settlement. Richard Blanshard was named the colony's governor. Blanshard discovered that the hold of the HBC over the affairs of the new colony was all but absolute, that it was Douglas who held all practical authority in the territory. There was no civil service, no police, no militia, every British colonist was an employee of the HBC. Frustrated, Blanshard abandoned his post a year returning to England. In 1851, his resignation was finalised, the colonial office appointed Douglas as governor. Douglas's situation as both the local chief executive of the Hudson's Bay Company as well as the civil governor of the colony from whom the company had leased all rights, was tenable from the outset.
Douglas performed the delicate balancing act well, raising a domestic militia and encouraging settlement. By the mid-1850s, the colony's non-aboriginal population was approaching 500, sawmill and coal mining operations had been established at Fort Nanaimo and Fort Rupert. Douglas assisted the British government in establishing a naval base at present-day Esquimalt to check Russian and American expansionism. Douglas's efforts at encouraging settlement were hampered by colonial officials in London who were given incentives to bring out labourers with them to work the landholdings; the result was that emigration was slow, the landless labourers fled the colony either to obtain free land grants in the United States, or work the newly discovered goldfields of California. A secondary result was the replication of the British class system, with the attendant resistance to non-parochial education, land reform, representative government. At the time of the establishment of the colony, Vancouver Island had a large and varied First Nations population of upwards of 30,000.
Douglas completed fourteen separate treaties with tribes. Under the terms of these treaties, known today as the Douglas Treaties, the nations were obliged to surrender title to all land within a designated area, with the exception of villages and cultivated areas, in perpetuity, they were given permission to hunt and fish over unoccupied territories. For these concessions, the nations were given a one-time cash payment of a few shillings each; as settlement accelerated, resentment towards the HBC's monopoly – both economic and civil – over the colony swelled. A series of petitions were sent to the colonial office, one of which resulted in the establishment of the Legislative Assembly of Vancouver Island in 1855. At first, little changed, given that only a few dozen men met the voting requirement of holding twenty or more acres. Moreover, the majority of the representatives were employees of the HBC. However, as time went on, the franchise was extended, the assembly began to assert demands for more control over colonial affairs and criticised Douglas's inherent conflict of interest.
By 1857, Americans and British colonists were beginning to respond to rumours of gold in the Thompson River area. Overnight, some ten to twenty thousand men moved into the interior of New Caledonia, Victoria was transformed into a tent-city of prospectors, land-agents, speculators. Douglas – who had no legal authority over New Caledonia – stationed a gunboat at the entrance of the Fraser River to exert British authority by collecting licences from boats attempting to make their way upstream. To exert its legal authority, undercut any HBC claims to the resource wealth of the mainland, the district was converted to a Crown colony on 2 August 1858, given the name British Columbia. Douglas was offered the governorship of the new colony, on condition that he sever his relationship with the HBC. Douglas accepted these conditions, a knighthood, for the next six years would govern both colonies from Victoria; the remainder of Douglas's term as Vancouver Island governor was marked by increased expansion of the economy and settlement, greater agitation for both union of the two col
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Public Land Survey System
The Public Land Survey System is the surveying method developed and used in the United States to plat, or divide, real property for sale and settling. Known as the Rectangular Survey System, it was created by the Land Ordinance of 1785 to survey land ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, following the end of the American Revolution. Beginning with the Seven Ranges, in present-day Ohio, the PLSS has been used as the primary survey method in the United States. Following the passage of the Northwest Ordinance, in 1787, the Surveyor General of the Northwest Territory platted lands in the Northwest Territory; the Surveyor General was merged with the General Land Office, which became a part of the U. S. Bureau of Land Management. Today, the BLM controls the survey and settling of the new lands. Contrary to what some believe, the BLM does not manage the State Plane Coordinate System; the SPCS is managed by the National Geodetic Survey, known as the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
Proposed by Thomas Jefferson to create a nation of "yeoman farmers", the PLSS began shortly after the American Revolutionary War, when the federal government became responsible for large areas of land west of the original thirteen states. The government wished both to distribute land to Revolutionary War soldiers in reward for their services, as well as to sell land as a way of raising money for the nation. Before this could happen, the land needed to be surveyed; the Land Ordinance of 1785 marks the beginning of the Public Land Survey System. The Confederation Congress was in debt following the Declaration of Independence. With little power to tax, the federal government decided to use the sale of the Western Territories to pay off American Revolutionary War debt; the Public Land Survey System has been expanded and modified by Letters of Instruction and Manuals of Instruction, issued by the General Land Office and the Bureau of Land Management and continues in use in most of the states west of Pennsylvania, south to Florida and Mississippi, west to the Pacific Ocean, north into the Arctic in Alaska.
The original colonies continued the British system of bounds. This system describes property lines based on local markers and bounds drawn by humans based on topography. A typical, yet simple, description under this system might read "From the point on the north bank of Muddy Creek one mile above the junction of Muddy and Indian Creeks, north for 400 yards northwest to the large standing rock, west to the large oak tree, south to Muddy Creek down the center of the creek to the starting point." In New England, this system was supplemented by drawing town plats. The metes-and-bounds system was used to describe a town of a rectangular shape, 4 to 6 miles on a side. Within this boundary, a map or plat was maintained that showed all the individual lots or properties. There are some difficulties with this system: Irregular shapes for properties make for much more complex descriptions. Over time, these descriptions become problematic as trees streams move by erosion, it wasn't useful for the large, newly surveyed tracts of land being opened in the west, which were being sold sight unseen to investors.
In addition this system didn't work until there were people on the ground to maintain records. In the 1783 Treaty of Paris recognizing the United States, Britain recognized American rights to the land south of the Great Lakes and west to the Mississippi River; the Continental Congress passed the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance in 1787 to control the survey and settling of the new lands. The original 13 colonies donated their western lands to the new Union, for the purpose of giving land for new states; these include the lands that formed the Northwest Territory, Tennessee and Mississippi. The state that gave up the most was Virginia, whose original claim included most of the Northwest Territory and Kentucky, too; some of the western land was claimed by more than one state in the Northwest, where parts were claimed by Virginia and Connecticut, all three of which had claimed lands all the way to the Pacific Ocean. The first surveys under the new rectangular system were in eastern Ohio in an area called the Seven Ranges.
The Beginning Point of the U. S. Public Land Survey is located at a point on the Ohio-Pennsylvania border between East Liverpool and Ohioville, Pennsylvania, on private property. A National Historic Landmark marker commemorating the site lies on the side of a state highway 1,112 feet to the north of the point. Ohio was surveyed in several major subdivisions, collectively described as the Ohio Lands, each with its own meridian and baseline; the early surveying in Ohio, was performed with more speed than care, with the result that many of the oldest townships and sections vary from their prescribed shape and area. Proceeding westward, accuracy became more of a consideration than rapid sale, the system was simplified by establishing one major north-south line and one east-west line that control descriptions for an entire state or more. For example, a single Willamette Meridian serves both Washington. County lines follow the survey, so there are many rectangular counties in the Midwest and the West.
The system is in use in some capacity in most of the country. The territory under the jurisdiction of the Thirteen Colonies at the time of independence did not adopt the PLSS, with the exception of th
Province of North Carolina
The Province of North-Carolina was a British colony that existed in North America from 1712 to 1776, created as a proprietary colony. The power of the British government was vested in a Governor of North-Carolina, but the colony declared independence from Great Britain in 1776; the Province of North-Carolina had four capitals: Bath, Edenton and New Bern. The colony became the states of North Carolina and Tennessee, parts of the colony combined with other territory to form the states of Georgia and Mississippi. For history prior to 1712, see Province of Carolina. King Charles II of England granted the Carolina charter in 1663 for land south of Virginia Colony and north of Spanish Florida, he granted the land to eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660. The northern half of the colony differed from the southern half, transportation and communication were difficult between the two regions, so a separate deputy governor was named to administer the northern half of the colony starting in 1691.
The division of the colony into north and south was completed at a meeting of the Lords Proprietors held at Craven House in London on December 7, 1710, although the same proprietors continued to control both colonies. The first Governor of the separate North-Carolina province was Edward Hyde. Unrest against the proprietors in South Carolina in 1719 led King George I to appoint a royal governor in that colony, whereas the Lords Proprietor continued to appoint the governor of North-Carolina. Both Carolinas became royal colonies in 1729, after the British government had tried for nearly 10 years locate and buy out seven of the eight Lords Proprietors; the remaining one-eighth share of the Province was retained by members of the Carteret family until 1776, part of North-Carolina known as the Granville District. Expansion westward began early in the 18th century from the province's seats of power on the coast after the conclusion of the Tuscarora and Yamasee wars, in which the largest barrier was removed to colonial settlement farther inland.
Settlement in large numbers became more feasible over the Appalachian Mountains after the French and Indian War and the accompanying Anglo-Cherokee War, in which the Cherokee and Catawba tribes were neutralized. King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763 in order to stifle potential conflict with Indians in that region, including the Cherokee; this barred any settlement near the headwaters of any rivers or streams that flowed westward towards the Mississippi River. It included several North-Carolina rivers, such as the French Broad Watauga River; this proclamation was not obeyed and was detested in North Carolina, but it delayed migration to Tennessee until after the American Revolutionary War. Settlers continued to flow westwards in smaller numbers, despite the prohibition, several trans-Appalachian settlements were formed. Most prominent was the Watauga Association, formed in 1772 as an independent territory within the bounds of North-Carolina which adopted its own written constitution.
Notable frontiersmen such as Daniel Boone traveled back and forth across the invisible proclamation line as market hunters, seeking valuable pelts to sell in eastern settlements, many served as leaders and guides for groups who settled in Tennessee and Kentucky. Two important maps of the province were reproduced: one by Edward Moseley in 1733, another by John Collet in 1770. Other maps exist dating to the early period of the Age of Discovery that depict portions of the province, or, more the coastline of the province along with that of South Carolina; the Court Act of 1746 established a supreme court known as the General Court, which sat twice a year at New Bern, consisting of a Chief Justice and three Associate Justices. Chief Justices of the Supreme Court History of North Carolina Cheshire, Jr. Joseph Blount; the Church in the Province of North Carolina. Joint Centennial Convention of the Dioceses of North and East Carolina. Tarboro, N. C. – via Internet Archive. Collet, John. A Compleat map of North-Carolina from an actual Survey.
London: S. Hooper – via University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Colonial Period at NCpedia North Carolina Colony Facts at Softschools.com
New Netherland was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic, located on the east coast of America. The claimed territories extended from the Delmarva Peninsula to southwestern Cape Cod, while the more limited settled areas are now part of New York, New Jersey and Connecticut, with small outposts in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island; the colony was conceived by the Dutch West India Company in 1621 to capitalize on the North American fur trade. It was settled at first because of policy mismanagement by the WIC and conflicts with American Indians; the settlement of New Sweden by the Swedish South Company encroached on its southern flank, while its northern border was redrawn to accommodate an expanding New England Confederation. The colony experienced dramatic growth during the 1650s and became a major port for trade in the north Atlantic Ocean; the Dutch surrendered Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan island to England in 1664, contributing to the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1673, the Dutch retook the area but relinquished it under the Treaty of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War the next year.
The inhabitants of New Netherland were European colonists, American Indians, Africans imported as slave laborers. The colony had an estimated population between 7,000 and 8,000 at the time of transfer to England in 1674, half of whom were not of Dutch descent. During the 17th century, Europe was undergoing expansive social and economic growth, known as the Dutch Golden Age in the Netherlands. Nations vied for domination of lucrative trade routes around the globe those to Asia. Philosophical and theological conflicts were manifested in military battles across the European continent; the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands had become a home to many intellectuals, international businessmen, religious refugees. In the Americas, the English had a settlement at Jamestown, the French had small settlements at Port Royal and Quebec, the Spanish were developing colonies to exploit trade in South America and the Caribbean. In 1609, English sea captain and explorer Henry Hudson was hired by the Dutch East India Company located in Amsterdam to find a Northeast Passage to Asia, sailing around Scandinavia and Russia.
He was turned back by the ice of the Arctic in his second attempt, so he sailed west to seek a Northwest Passage rather than return home. He ended up exploring the waters off the east coast of North America aboard the Flyboat Halve Maen, his first landfall was at the second at Cape Cod. Hudson believed that the passage to the Pacific Ocean was between the St. Lawrence River and Chesapeake Bay, so he sailed south to the Bay turned northward, traveling close along the shore, he first began to sail upriver looking for the passage. This effort was foiled by sandy shoals, the Halve Maen continued north. After passing Sandy Hook and his crew entered the Narrows into the Upper New York Bay. Hudson believed that he had found the continental water route, so he sailed up the major river that now bears his name, he found the water too shallow to proceed several days at the site of Troy, New York. Upon returning to the Netherlands, Hudson reported that he had found a fertile land and an amicable people willing to engage his crew in small-scale bartering of furs, trinkets and small manufactured goods.
His report was first published in 1611 by the Dutch Consul at London. This stimulated interest in exploiting this new trade resource, it was the catalyst for Dutch merchant-traders to fund more expeditions. Merchants such as Arnout Vogels sent the first follow-up voyages to exploit this discovery as early as July 1610. In 1611–12, the Admiralty of Amsterdam sent two covert expeditions to find a passage to China with the yachts Craen and Vos, captained by Jan Cornelisz Mey and Symon Willemsz Cat respectively. In four voyages made between 1611 and 1614, the area between Maryland and Massachusetts was explored and charted by Adriaen Block, Hendrick Christiaensen, Cornelius Jacobsen Mey; these surveys and charts were consolidated in Block's map, which used the name New Netherland for the first time. During this period, there was some trading with the Indian population. Fur trader Juan Rodriguez was born in Santo Domingo of African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–14, trapping for pelts and trading with the Indians as a representative of the Dutch.
He was the first recorded non-native inhabitant of New York City. The immediate and intense competition among Dutch trading companies in the newly charted areas led to disputes in Amsterdam and calls for regulation; the States General was the governing body of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, it proclaimed on March 17, 1614 that it would grant an exclusive patent for trade between the 40th and 45th parallels. This monopoly would be valid for four voyages. All of which had to be undertaken within three years. Block's map and the report that accompanied it were used by the New Netherland Company to win its patent, which expired on January 1, 1618; the New Netherland Company ordered a survey of the Delaware Valley. This was undertaken by Cornelis Hendricksz of Monnickendam who explored the Zuyd Rivier in 1616 from its bay to its northernmost nav