Dirty Mary, Crazy Larry
Dirty Mary, Crazy Larry is a 1974 American car chase film based on the 1963 Richard Unekis novel titled The Chase. Directed by John Hough, the film stars Peter Fonda, Susan George, Adam Roarke, Vic Morrow. Although Jimmie Haskell is credited with writing the music score, the soundtrack contains no incidental music apart from the theme song "Time", sung by Marjorie McCoy, over the opening and closing titles, a small amount of music heard over the radio. Two NASCAR hopefuls, driver Larry Rayder and his mechanic Deke Sommers execute a supermarket heist to finance their jump into big-time auto racing, they extort $150,000 in cash from a supermarket manager by holding his daughter hostage. In making their escape, they are confronted by Mary Coombs, she coerces them to take her along for the ride in their souped-up 1966 Chevrolet Impala. The unorthodox sheriff, Captain Everett Franklin, obsessively pursues the trio in a dragnet, only to find his outmoded patrol cars unable to catch Larry and Deke after they ditch the Impala for a 1969 Dodge Charger R/T 440 at a flea market.
As part of the escape plan, Larry's vehicle enters an expansive walnut grove, where the trees provide significant cover from aerial tracking, the many intersecting roads making road blocks ineffective. The trio evades several Dodge Polara patrol cars, a specially-prepared high-performance police interceptor, Captain Franklin himself in a Bell JetRanger helicopter. Believing they've beaten the police and company meet their doom when they randomly collide with a freight train pulled by an Alco S1 locomotive. Peter Fonda as Larry Rayder Susan George as Mary Coombs Adam Roarke as Deke Sommers Vic Morrow as Capt. Everett Franklin Kenneth Tobey as Sheriff Carl Donahue Lynn Borden as Evelyn Stanton Adrianne Herman as Cindy Stanton James W. Gavin as Helicopter Pilot Roddy McDowall as George Stanton Dirty Mary, Crazy Larry is based on the novel titled The Chase by Richard Unekis, published in 1963; the story incorporated a phenomenon, new in 1963: major auto manufacturers were putting powerful V-8 engines into mid-sized cars and young thieves behind the wheel of these cars were now able to outrun the economy 6-cylinder sedans driven by police in many jurisdictions.
The protagonists of The Chase used such a vehicle, a Chevrolet, made use of the checkerboard of roads in the farm country of Illinois to outrun the police. According to Unekis' son, the rights to the book were bought for little money by director Howard Hawks, who had Steve McQueen in mind for the title role of a future film project. Hawks commissioned three scripts, all of which followed the book closely but Hawks elected to opt out of the project when he was offered US$50,000 for the film rights by two wealthy English industrialist partners, Sir James Hanson and Sir Gordon White. White and Hanson had purchased the book to read on their plane while flying to the U. S.. They both felt The Chase would make an entertaining film and presented the idea to personal friend Michael Pearson, who had produced an earlier successful car chase cult movie, Vanishing Point. After pitching their project to their movie mogul friends, who not only included Pearson but Albert R. Broccoli, Harold Robbins, Sam Spiegel, they soon discovered the movie business was not as easy as they had suspected.
In addition, they were saddled with an out of date book - and no screenplay - for which they grossly overpaid. With no interest from anyone in picking up the project Sir James and Sir Gordon soon lost interest in making movies. Leigh Brackett had worked as an actor and writer, was mentored by Howard Hawks, she took a year off returned to Los Angeles to restart her writing career. A script of hers was seen by Norman Herman. Over dinner one evening at Hanson's estate in Palm Springs, California they told their plight to friend and neighbor Jimmy Boyd. Boyd agreed with Hanson and White that it would make a great car chase. Boyd, a race car enthusiast, had built and raced cars along with his friend Lance Reventlow, had come close to pursuing race car driving as a career, he guaranteed White their fifty thousand dollars in return for the rights to the book. Boyd wrote the screenplay himself along the lines of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, updating the dialogue and humor for an early 1970s audience.
He changed the two main characters from the escaped convicts in the book into a larcenous - but likable - NASCAR dreamer and his Mechanic, nicknamed Fast Floyd and Dirty Deke. Boyd incorporated the one-night stand female stowaway and the added dimension of a NASCAR-engined getaway car capable of 165 miles per hour. Except for the tires and wheels, it was a stock-appearing Ford built by the famous race car builders Traco Engineering. On the strength of his script Boyd had raised $2 million for the budget. Boyd had two young, then-unknown actors, David Soul and Sam Elliott, in mind for the lead roles when he got a phone call from James Nicholson and partner of Sam Arkoff at American International Pictures, a major producer of "B Movies". Nicholson was leaving AIP to form his own company, Academy Pictures, in partnership with 20th Century Fox: Fox would finance and distribute his films and give him complete control. Nicholson told Boyd he had read his script for Pursuit
Helen Kate Shapiro is an English pop singer, jazz singer and actress. She is best known for her two 1961 UK chart toppers, "You Don't Know" and "Walkin' Back to Happiness" both recorded when she was just fourteen years old. Shapiro was born at Bethnal Green Hospital in the East End district of London, her early childhood was spent in a Clapton council flat in the London borough of Hackney, where she attended Northwold Primary School and Clapton Park Comprehensive School until Christmas 1961. She is the granddaughter of Russian Jewish immigrants; the family moved from Clapton to the Victoria Park area of Hackney, on the Parkside Estate, when she was nine. "It was, remains, a beautiful place," she said in a 2006 interview. Although too poor to own a record player, Shapiro's parents encouraged music in their home. Shapiro played banjolele as a child and sang with her brother Ron in his youth club skiffle group, she had a deep timbre to her voice, unusual in a girl not yet in her teens: school friends gave her the nickname "Foghorn".
Aged ten, Shapiro was a singer with "Susie and the Hula Hoops," a school band which included Marc Bolan as guitarist. At 13 she started singing lessons at The Maurice Burman School of Modern Pop Singing, based in London's Baker Street, after the school produced singing star Alma Cogan. "I had always wanted to be a singer. I had no desire to slavishly follow Alma's style, but chose the school because of Alma's success", she said in a 1962 interview. Burman's connections led her to a young Columbia Records A&R man named John Schroeder, who recorded a demo of Shapiro singing "Birth of the Blues". In 1961, aged fourteen, she had a UK No. 3 hit with her first single, "Don't Treat Me Like a Child" and two number one hits in the UK, "You Don't Know" and "Walkin' Back to Happiness". The latter did not top the UK chart until 19 October 1961, by which time Shapiro had reached 15. Both singles sold over a million copies, her next single release, "Tell Me What He Said", peaked at No. 2, achieving her first four single releases in the top three of the UK Singles Chart.
Most of her recording sessions were at EMI's studios at Abbey Road in north west London. Her mature voice made her an overnight sensation, as well as the youngest female chart topper in the UK. Shapiro's final UK Top Ten hit single was with the ballad "Little Miss Lonely", which peaked at No. 8 for two weeks in 1962. Shapiro's recording manager at the time was Norrie Paramor. Before she was sixteen years old, Shapiro had been voted Britain's "Top Female Singer"; the Beatles first national tour of Britain, in the late winter/early spring of 1963, was as one of her supporting acts. During the course of the tour, the Beatles had their first hit single and John Lennon and Paul McCartney wrote the song "Misery" for her, but Shapiro did not record the composition. In 1995, during a This Is Your Life highlighting her life and career, Shapiro revealed, "It was turned down on my behalf before I heard it, actually. I never got to give an opinion. It's a shame, really." Shapiro lip-synched her then-current single, "Look Who It Is", on the British television programme Ready Steady Go! with three of the Beatles.
In 1962, Shapiro appeared as herself in the Billy Fury film Play It Cool, played the lead female role in Richard Lester's movie, It's Trad, Dad!, which co-starred another early 60s hitmaker, Craig Douglas. On 31 December 1969, Shapiro appeared on the BBC/ZDF co-production Pop Go The Sixties, singing "Walkin' Back to Happiness". By the time she was in her late teens, her career as a pop singer was on the wane. With the new wave of beat music and newer female singers such as Dusty Springfield, Cilla Black, Sandie Shaw and Lulu, Shapiro appeared old-fashioned and emblematic of the pre-Beatles, 50s era; as her pop career declined, Shapiro turned to cabaret appearances, touring the workingmen's clubs of the North East of England. Her final cabaret show took place at Peterlee's Senate Club on 6 May 1972, where she announced she was giving up touring as she was "travel-weary" and had had enough of "living out of a suitcase". After a change of mind, she branched out as a performer in stage musicals, jazz.
She played the role of Nancy in Lionel Bart's musical, Oliver! in London's West End and appeared in a British television soap opera, Albion Market, where she played one of the main characters until it was taken off air in August 1986. Shapiro played the part of Sally Bowles in "Cabaret" and starred in "Seesaw" to great critical acclaim. Between 1984 and 2001, she toured extensively with legendary British jazz trumpeter Humphrey Lyttelton and his band, whilst still performing her own jazz and pop concerts, her one-woman show "Simply Shapiro" ran from 1999 to the end of 2002, when she bade farewell to show business. Her autobiography, published in 1993, was entitled Walking Back to Happiness, she appeared as a guest on BBC Radio 4's'The Reunion' in August 2012. In March 2013 she appeared on BBC Radio 3's'Good Morning Sunday' Helen Shapiro has been married since 31 August 1988 to John Judd, an actor with numerous roles in British television and cinema, she is a convert from Judaism to Christianity and is associated with the evangelical Jews for Jesus group.
UK Helen 1961 Helen's Hit Parade 1962 More Hits from Helen 1962 A Teenager Sings the Blues 1962 Even More Hits from
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Royal Variety Performance
The Royal Variety Performance is a televised variety show held annually in the United Kingdom to raise money for the Royal Variety Charity. It is attended by senior members of the British Royal Family; the evening's performance is presented as a live variety show from a theatre in London and consists of family entertainment that includes comedy, dance and other speciality acts. The Royal Variety Performance traditionally begins with the entrance of the members of the British Royal Family followed by singing of the national anthem, God Save the Queen, performed by the participating acts as a traditional end to Royal Variety Performances; the first performance, on 1 July 1912, was called the Royal Command Performance, this name has persisted informally for the event. This was held in the Palace Theatre, Shaftesbury Avenue, London, in the presence of King George V and Queen Mary. After correspondence with Sir Edward Moss, the King said he would command a Royal Variety show in his coronation year, 1911, provided the profits went to the Variety Artistes' Benevolent Fund, as the Royal Variety Charity was known.
It was planned to be in the Empire Theatre, part of the vast Moss Empires group, but the building caught on fire a month before the show. After the death of Moss, Sir Alfred Butt was chosen as the impresario and it was staged in 1912; this was a lavish occasion, his London Palace Theatre was lavishly decorated, complete with some 3 million rose petals. Top performers included Vesta Tilley, Sir George Robey, David Devant, Anna Pavlova, Harry Lauder and Cecilia Loftus; the organisers did not invite Marie Lloyd, because of a professional dispute. Her act was deemed too risqué and her three public, unsuccessful marriages were thought to make her unfit to perform in front of royalty, she held a rival performance in a nearby theatre, which she advertised was "by command of the British public". The name of the event was changed to prevent possible royal embarrassment; the Royal Variety Performance became an annual event at the suggestion of King George V from 1921 and the British Broadcasting Corporation began to broadcast it on radio.
From 1928 through to 1938, the impresario-producer and manager of the London Palladium, George Black, took over the presentation of the Royal Variety Performance. He would facilitate as compere at the shows, his first production was held on 1 March 1928 at the London Coliseum and from 1930 to 1937 he held the shows at the London Palladium. His 1938 show returned to the London Coliseum. Throughout World War II from 1939 to 1944 no shows were presented; the show resumed in 1945. From 1960 to 2010, the BBC and ITV broadcast a recorded version of the show, alternating the production between their two main channels, with the BBC producing and televising the'even years' and ITV televising the'odd years'. In both 1976 and 1978, the BBC broadcast; the BBC staged the show in a West End theatre, ITV in regional theatres outside London. From 2011, ITV have exclusive rights to televise the show; the show has been staged in the London Palladium theatre, in the 1950s and 1960s a television show based on the same idea, called Sunday Night at the London Palladium and hosted by many entertainers, including Bruce Forsyth, ran for over 20 years.
A wide range of acts has performed at the Royal Variety Performance, including Laurel and Hardy in 1947, the Beatles in 1963, the Supremes in 1968 and the Blue Man Group in 2005. At the 1963 show, John Lennon delivered the famous line: The money raised by the Royal Variety Performance provides most of the funding for the Royal Variety Charity and its care-home for retired members of the entertainment profession and their dependents, Brinsworth House. In 2017, Miranda Hart presented the Royal Variety Performance in the presence of the Duke of Cambridge and the Duchess of Cambridge making her the first solo female presenter in 105 years. After the first Royal Variety Performance on 1 July 1912 presented by Sir Alfred Butt, it was seven years before the next show, on 28 July 1919 held at the Coliseum Theatre presented this time by Sir Oswald Stoll; the orchestra was conducted by Edward Elgar. In 1921 it moved to the Hippodrome, was held in November, it was the first time. In 1923 it moved to the Coliseum Theatre.
After a gap in 1924, moved to the Alhambra Theatre in February 1925, where it remained in 1926, held on 27 May. It was the first Royal Variety Performance to be broadcast, with the BBC providing live radio coverage. In 1927 there was another move, this time to the Victoria Palace Theatre, with J. A. Webb the compère; the 1928 show, on 13 December, was held at the Coliseum Theatre. The next show, on 22 May 1930, moved to the London Palladium with George Black and Val Parnell compèring, it was the start of seven successive years at the venue. In 1935 the Royal Variety Performance was held in the Silver Jubilee year of King George V and Queen Mary; this was the last time King George V attended – he died three months in January 1936. There have been two Royal Scottish Variety Performances, both attended by Queen Elizabeth, presented by Howard & Wyndham Ltd in Glasgow's Alhambra Theatre, which Sir Alfred Butt had opened, in 1958 and 1963. In 1990, A Royal Birthday Gala to celebrate the 90th birthday of the Queen Mother, was staged at the London Palladium on August 4.
In place of the traditional show, a special programme Thirty Years of the Royal Variety Performance, shown on BBC One on 29 December 1990, hosted by Bruce Forsyth, was a look back at the BBC's television
What a Crazy World
What a Crazy World is a 1963 film directed by Michael Carreras from a script by Carreras and Alan Klein, from the latter's stage play. It is a pop musical featuring a number of late 1950s and early 1960s pop acts, including an appearance by Freddie and the Dreamers. An unemployed working class lad Alf Hitchens has an on-off relationship with his girlfriend Marilyn, whilst trying to sell a song he has written. Michael Ripper can be seen in several cameo roles bemoaning the "bleeding kids". Joe Brown – Alf Hitchens Susan Maughan – Marilyn Marty Wilde – Herbie Shadbolt Harry H. Corbett – Sam Hitchens Avis Bunnage – Mary Hitchens Michael Ripper – The Common Man Monte Landis – Solly Gold Michael Goodman – Joey Hitchens Jessie Robins – Fat Woman Freddie and the Dreamers – Frantic Freddie and The DreamersOn Network Video July 2014 with the original theatrical trailer. What a Crazy World on IMDb
In popular music, a cover version, cover song, revival, or cover, is a new performance or recording by someone other than the original artist or composer of a recorded, commercially released song. Before the onset of rock'n' roll in the 1950s, songs were published and several records of a song might be brought out by singers of the day, each giving it their individual treatment. Cover versions could be released as an effort to revive the song's popularity among younger generations of listeners after the popularity of the original version has long since declined over the years. On occasion, a cover can become more popular than the original, such as Elvis Presley's version of Carl Perkins' original "Blue Suede Shoes", Santana's 1970 version of Peter Green's and Fleetwood Mac's 1968 "Black Magic Woman", Johnny Cash's version of Nine Inch Nails' "Hurt", Whitney Houston's versions of Dolly Parton's "I Will Always Love You" and of George Benson's "The Greatest Love of All", Glenn Medeiros's version of George Benson's "Nothing's Gonna Change My Love for You" or Jimi Hendrix's version of Bob Dylan's "All Along the Watchtower".
The Hendrix recording, released six months after Dylan's original, became a Top 10 single in the UK in 1968 and was ranked 48th in Rolling Stone magazine's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Another famous example is the Beatles' cover of "Twist and Shout" by the Top Notes, their cover of the song, "Til There Was You", by Meredith Willson, among many others; the term "cover" goes back decades when cover version described a rival version of a tune recorded to compete with the released version. The Chicago Tribune described the term in 1952: "trade jargon meaning to record a tune that looks like a potential hit on someone else's label". Examples of records covered include Paul Williams' 1949 hit tune "The Hucklebuck" and Hank Williams' 1952 song "Jambalaya". Both had numerous hit versions. Before the mid-20th century, the notion of an original version of a popular tune would have seemed odd – the production of musical entertainment was seen as a live event if it was reproduced at home via a copy of the sheet music, learned by heart or captured on a gramophone record.
In fact, one of the principal objects of publishing sheet music was to have a composition performed by as many artists as possible. In previous generations, some artists made successful careers of presenting revivals or reworkings of once-popular tunes out of doing contemporary cover versions of current hits. Musicians now play what they call "cover versions" of songs as a tribute to the original performer or group. Using familiar material is an important method of learning music styles; until the mid-1960s most albums, or long playing records, contained a large number of evergreens or standards to present a fuller range of the artist's abilities and style. Artists might perform interpretations of a favorite artist's hit tunes for the simple pleasure of playing a familiar song or collection of tunes. A cover band plays such "cover versions" exclusively. Today three broad types of entertainers depend on cover versions for their principal repertoire: Tribute acts or bands are performers who make a living by recreating the music of one particular artist or band.
Bands such as Björn Again, Led Zepagain, The Fab Four, Australian Pink Floyd Show, The Iron Maidens and Glory Days are dedicated to playing the music of ABBA, Led Zeppelin, The Beatles, Pink Floyd, Iron Maiden and Bruce Springsteen respectively. Some tribute acts salute the Who, many other classic rock acts. Many tribute acts target artists who remain popular but no longer perform, allowing an audience to experience the "next best thing" to the original act; the formation of tribute acts is proportional to the enduring popularity of the original act. Many tribute bands attempt to recreate another band's music as faithfully as possible, but some such bands introduce a twist. Dread Zeppelin performs reggae versions of the Zeppelin catalog and Beatallica creates heavy metal fusions of songs by the Beatles and Metallica. There are situations in which a member of a tribute band will go on to greater success, sometimes with the original act they tribute. One notable example is Tim "Ripper" Owens who, once the lead singer of Judas Priest tribute band British Steel, went on to join Judas Priest himself.
Cover acts or bands are entertainers who perform a broad variety of crowd-pleasing cover songs for audiences who enjoy the familiarity of hit songs. Such bands draw from current Top 40 hits and/or those of previous decades to provide nostalgic entertainment in bars, on cruise ships and at such events as weddings, family celebrations and corporate functions. Since the advent of inexpensive computers, some cover bands use a computerized catalog of songs, so that the singer can have the lyrics to a song displayed on a computer screen; the use of a screen for lyrics as a memory aid can increase the number of songs a singer can perform. Revivalist artists or bands are performers who are inspired by an entire genre of music and dedicate themselves to curating and recreating the genre and introducing it to younger audiences who have not experienced that music first hand. Unlike tribute bands and cover bands who rely on audiences seeking a nostalgic experience, revivalist bands seek new young audiences for whom the music is fresh and has no nostalgic value.
For example, Sha Na Na
Eastbourne is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, 19 miles east of Brighton. Eastbourne is to the east of Beachy Head, the highest chalk sea cliff in Great Britain and part of the larger Eastbourne Downland Estate. With a seafront consisting of Victorian hotels, a pier and a Napoleonic era fort and military museum, Eastbourne was developed at the direction of the Duke of Devonshire from 1859 from four separate hamlets, it has a growing population, a broad economic base and is home to companies in a wide range of industries. Though Eastbourne is a new town, there is evidence of human occupation in the area from the Stone Age; the town grew as a fashionable tourist resort thanks to prominent landowner, William Cavendish to become the Duke of Devonshire. Cavendish appointed architect Henry Currey to design a street plan for the town, but not before sending him to Europe to draw inspiration; the resulting mix of architecture is Victorian and remains a key feature of Eastbourne.
As a seaside resort Eastbourne derives a large and increasing income from tourism, with revenue from traditional seaside attractions augmented by conferences, public events and cultural sightseeing. The other main industries in Eastbourne include trade and retail, education, manufacturing, professional scientific and the technical sector. Eastbourne's population is growing; the 2011 census shows that the average age of residents has decreased as the town has attracted students and those commuting to London and Brighton. Flint mines and Stone Age artefacts have been found in the surrounding countryside of the Eastbourne Downs. Celtic people are believed to have settled on the Eastbourne Downland in 500BC. There are Roman remains buried beneath the town, such as a Roman bath and section of pavement between Eastbourne Pier and the Redoubt Fortress. There is a Roman villa near the entrance to the Pier and the present Queens Hotel. In 2014, skeletal remains of a woman who lived around 425AD were discovered in the vicinity of Beachy Head on the Eastbourne Downland Estate.
The remains were found to be of a 30-year-old woman who grew up in East Sussex, but had genetic heritage from sub-Saharan Africa, giving her black skin and an African skeletal structure. Her ancestors came from below the Saharan region, at a time when the Roman Empire extended only as far as North Africa. An Anglo-Saxon charter, circa 963 AD, describes a landing stream at Burne; the original name came from the'Burne' or stream which ran through today's Old Town area of Eastbourne. All that can be seen of the Burne, or Bourne, is the small pond in Motcombe Gardens; the bubbling source is guarded by a statue of Neptune. Motcombe Gardens are overlooked by St. Mary's Church, a Norman church which lies on the site of a Saxon ‘moot’, or meeting place; this gives Motcombe its name. In 2014 local metal-detectorist Darrin Simpson found a coin minted during the reign of Æthelberht II of East Anglia, in a field near the town, it is believed that the coin may have led to Æthelberht's beheading by Offa of Mercia, as it had been struck as a sign of independence.
Describing the coin, expert Christopher Webb, said, "This new discovery is an important and unexpected addition to the numismatic history of 8th century England." Following the Norman conquest, the Hundred of what is now Eastbourne, was held by Robert, Count of Mortain, William the Conqueror's half brother. The Domesday Book lists 28 ploughlands, a church, a watermill and salt pans; the Book referred to the area as'Borne'.'East' was added to ‘Borne’ in the 13th century, renaming the town. A charter for a weekly market was granted to Bartholomew de Badlesmere in 1315–16. During the Middle Ages the town was visited by King Henry I and in 1324 by Edward II. Evidence of Eastbourne's medieval past can seen in the 12th century Church of St Mary, the manor house called Bourne Place. In the mid-16th century Bourne Place was home to the Burton family, who acquired much of the land on which the present town stands; this manor house is owned by the Duke of Devonshire and was extensively remodelled in the early Georgian era when it was renamed Compton Place.
It is one of the two Grade I listed buildings in the town. Eastbourne has Cornish connections, most notably visible in the Cornish high cross in the churchyard of St Mary's Church, brought from an unspecified location in Cornwall. In 1752, a dissertation by Doctor Richard Russell extolled the medicinal benefits of the seaside, his views were of considerable benefit to the south coast and, in due course, Eastbourne became known as "the Empress of Watering Places". Eastbourne's earliest claim as a seaside resort came about following a summer holiday visit by four of King George III's children in 1780. In 1793, following a survey of coastal defences in the southeast, approval was given for the positioning of infantry and artillery to defend the bay between Beachy Head and Hastings from attack by the French. Fourteen Martello Towers were constructed along the western shore of Pevensey Bay, continuing as far as Tower 73, the Wish Tower at Eastbourne. Several of these towers survive: the Wish Tower is an important feature of the town's seafront and was the subject of a painting by James Sant RA, part of Tower 68 forms the basement of a house on St. Antony's Hill.
Between 1805 and 1807, the construction took place of a fortress known as the Eastbourne Redoubt, built as a barracks and storage depot, armed with 10