Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
Roxbury is a dissolved municipality and a officially recognized neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. Roxbury is one of 23 official neighborhoods of Boston used by the city for neighborhood services coordination; the city states that Roxbury serves as the "heart of Black culture in Boston." Roxbury was one of the first towns founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630, became a city in 1846 before being annexed to Boston on January 5, 1868. The original boundaries of the Town of Roxbury can be found in Drake's History of Roxbury and its noted Personages; those boundaries include the Christian Science Center, the Prudential Center and everything south and east of the Muddy River including Symphony Hall, Northeastern University, Boston Latin School, Madison Park Technical Vocational High School John D. O'Bryant School of Mathematics & Science, Roxbury Community College YMCA, Harvard Medical School and many hospitals and schools in the area; this side of the Muddy River is Roxbury, the other side is Boston.
Franklin Park, once within Roxbury when Jamaica Plain, West Roxbury and Roslindale were villages within the town of Roxbury until 1854, has been divided with the line between Jamaica Plain and Roxbury located in the vicinity of Peter Parley Road on Walnut Avenue, through the park to Columbia Road. Here, Walnut Avenue changes its name to Sigourney Street. One side of Columbia Road is the other Dorchester. Melnea Cass Boulevard is located over the Roxbury Canal that brought boats into Roxbury, bypassing the busy port of Boston in the 1830s; the neighborhood has added a new police station improving response time assisting its residents. This facility is energy efficient. Assisting the community are programs such as the Child Services of Roxbury, the youth build Boston programs, many more. New initiatives by the city of Boston have propelled the neighborhood of Boston to become eco-friendly. There has been development of new E+ buildings. Along with the move into an eco-friendly community, each building is now mandated to provide accessibility to people with handicaps.
The neighborhood has formed community gardens and developed the first urban farm of the city in accordance to the adoption of article 89, Urban Agricultural Ordinance, which provides framework for creating community resources for fresh produce, to be sold at low cost, to be donated to programs who help feed those who are in shelters or other care facilities alike. There are many emergency response facilities who help underprivileged people in the area, such as youth centers, social service centers; when it was a separate municipality, Roxbury was part of Norfolk County. The Massachusetts Bay Colony founded a group of six towns, including Boston and Roxbury. For more than 200 years, Roxbury encompassed West Roxbury and Jamaica Plain. Three miles south, the only land route to the capital led through Roxbury, which made the town important for both transportation and trade. Roxbury in the 1600s held many of the resources that the Colonists prized: arable land, a brook, stone for building; that particular stone exists only in the Boston basin.
The village of Roxbury was called "Rocksberry" for the rocks in its soil that made early farming a challenge. It is noted for its hilly geography and many large outcroppings of Roxbury Puddingstone, quarried for many years and used in the foundations of a large number of houses in the area; the settlers of Roxbury comprised the congregation of the First Church in Roxbury, established in 1632. During this time, the church served as a place of worship and as a meeting place for town government; the congregation had no time to raise a meeting house the first winter and so met with the neighboring congregation in Dorchester. One of the early leaders of this church was Amos Adams, among the founders were Richard Dummer and his wife Mary; the first meeting house was built in 1632, the building pictured here is the fifth meeting house, the oldest such wood-frame church in Boston. Boston was connected to mainland Massachusetts by a narrow isthmus called Boston Neck or Roxbury Neck, this was home to a number of early leaders of the colony, including original Massachusetts Bay Colony treasurer William Pynchon.
Pynchon left Roxbury in 1636 with nearly one third its men to found Springfield, Massachusetts on far less rocky and more arable soil. Within a few decades, Roxbury residents developed prized apple orchards, this led to another unique claim to fame: the Roxbury Russet apple suited for cider; the First Church of Roxbury was the starting point for William Dawes' "Midnight Ride" of April 18, 1775 to warn Lexington and Concord of the British raids at the opening of the American Revolutionary War. After the war, those able to afford it sought to live in free-standing, single-family houses away from their jobs in the city, this led to Roxbury becoming one of the first American suburbs. Many homes were built in the Greek Revival style, symbolizing the republic of ancient Greece, a democracy that the young United States admired. Trade was booming in the early 1800s in rum, salt and tobacco which brought in a horse-drawn carriage line across Boston Neck and down Washington Street, as well as the Boston to Providence, Rhode Island railroad in 1835.
Many Irish immigrants flooded to Massach
Charles Joseph Bonaparte
Charles Joseph Bonaparte was a French-American lawyer and political activist for progressive and liberal causes. From Baltimore, Maryland, he served in the cabinet of the 26th U. S. President, Theodore Roosevelt. Bonaparte was the U. S. Secretary of the Navy and the U. S. Attorney General. During his tenure as the attorney general, he created the Bureau of Investigation which grew and expanded by the 1920s under the director J. Edgar Hoover, as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, it was so renamed in 1935. He was a great-nephew of French Emperor Napoleon I. Bonaparte was one of the founders, for a time the president, of the National Municipal League, he was a long time activist for the rights of black residents of his city. Bonaparte was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on June 9, 1851, the son of Jerôme Napoleon Bonaparte, Susan May Williams, from whom the American line of the Bonaparte family descended, a grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte, the youngest brother of French Emperor Napoleon I and King of Westphalia, 1807–1813.
However, the American Bonapartes never used any titles. He graduated from Harvard College and Harvard Law School in Cambridge, across from Boston, where he served as a university overseer, he became prominent in municipal and national reform movements. In 1899, Bonaparte was the keynote speaker for the first graduating class of the Roman Catholic women's institution run by the Order of the School Sisters of Notre Dame, the College of Notre Dame of Maryland, he spoke on "The Significance of the Bachelor's Degree": Today, here for the first time in America, a Catholic college for the education of young ladies bestows the bachelor's degree.... The Style of Scholarship... which benefits the recipient of the bachelor's degree has two distinctive and essential marks. It implies in the first place a broad, generous sympathy with every form of honest and disinterested study or research. A Scholar, first of all, a gentleman may be... specially interested is some particular field of knowledge, but he is indifferent to none.
He knows. Young ladies, if this degree has such meaning for your brothers, what meaning has it for you. Bonaparte lived in a townhouse in the north Baltimore neighborhood of Mount Vernon-Belvedere and had a country estate in suburban Baltimore County, which surrounds the city on the west and east, his home, Bella Vista, was designed by the architects James Bosley Noel Wyatt, William G. Nolting, in the prominent local architectural partnership firm of Wyatt & Nolting in 1896, it lies east of the Harford Road in an area called Glen Arm. The house was not electrified since Bonaparte refused to have electricity or telegraph lines installed from a dislike of technology, verified by his use of horse-drawn coach until his death in the early 1920s. A founder of the Reform League of Baltimore, organized in 1885, which led to a certain amount of efficient municipal government with a clean sweep of an election by 1895 in which long-time minority progressive liberal Republicans ousted the long-time Democratic machine politicians in Democratic wards of Baltimore City and ruled with a clean hand for a brief time.
He was a member of the Board of Indian Commissioners from 1902 to 1904, chairman of the National Civil Service Reform League in 1904 and appointed a trustee of The Catholic University of America in northeast Washington, D. C.. Maryland voters elected him to be one of their presidential electors in 1904. In 1905, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed Bonaparte Secretary of the Navy. In 1906 Bonaparte moved to the office of Attorney General, which he held until the end of Roosevelt's term, he was active in suits brought against the trusts and was responsible for breaking up the tobacco monopoly. He became known as "Charlie, the Crook Chaser." In 1908, Bonaparte established a Bureau of Investigation within the Department of Justice, earlier established in 1870 under the direction of the Attorney General himself. By the 1920s, under its long-time director, J. Edgar Hoover, the Bureau had again been cleaned up and streamlined and in 1935 was renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Bonaparte died in Bella Vista, is interred at southwest Baltimore's landmark Loudon Park Cemetery.
He died of "Saint Vitus Dance". A nearby street in Baltimore County bears the name of Bonaparte Avenue. After Bonaparte's death, the house was owned by bootleggers Peter and Michael Kelly. After they left, it was destroyed in a fire caused by faulty wiring on January 20, 1933; the site was replaced by a poured concrete mansion, but a large carriage house, dating back to 1896, is still on the estate. On September 1, 1875, Bonaparte married the former Ellen Channing Day, daughter of attorney Thomas Mills Day and Anna Jones Dunn, they had no children. Bishop, Joseph Bucklin, Charles Joseph Bonaparte: His Life and Public Services, New York: C. Scribner's Sons Goldman, Eric F. Charles J. Bonaparte: Patrician Reformer, His Earlier Career, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press Works by or about Charles Joseph Bonaparte at Internet Archive Charles Joseph Bonaparte at Find a Grave If Walls Could Talk: Chateau Bonaparte on K Street - Ghosts of D. C. blog post on the Bonaparte residence in Washington, DC
Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte
Jérôme Napoléon "Bo" Bonaparte was a French-American farmer, chairman of the Maryland Agricultural Society, first president of the Maryland Club, the son of Elizabeth Patterson and Jérôme Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon I. He was born in 95 Camberwell Grove, London, but lived in the United States with his wealthy American mother. Jérôme's mother's marriage had been annulled by order of Jérôme's uncle, French Emperor Napoleon I; the annulment caused the rescission of his right to carry the Bonaparte name. It is speculated that Jérôme's prospective title is a reason the 11th Congress of the United States in 1810 proposed the Titles of Nobility Amendment to the U. S. Constitution that would strip an American of his citizenship if he accepted a title of nobility from a foreign nation; the amendment has never been approved, lacking the approval of only two state legislatures at that time. He graduated from Mount St. Mary's College in 1817 and received a law degree from Harvard but did not practice the law.
He was a founding member of the Maryland Club, serving as its first presidentIn November 1829, Jérôme Napoleon married Susan May Williams, an heiress from Baltimore, it is from them that the American line of the Bonaparte family descended. They had two sons: Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte II, officer in the armies of both the United States and France, had issue. Jérôme Napoleon had refused to wait for an arranged marriage to a European princess, instead opting for the $200,000 fortune that Susan brought to the marriage. In an attempt to match the railroad heiress's dowry, the groom's maternal grandfather, William Patterson — one of the wealthiest men in Maryland — gave the couple Montrose Mansion as a wedding gift. Jérôme Napoleon Bonaparte died in Baltimore, is buried in the Loudon Park Cemetery, Baltimore
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States, part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System. It ran 363 miles from where Albany meets the Hudson River to where Buffalo meets Lake Erie, it was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. When completed in 1825, it was the second longest canal in the world and affected the development and economy of New York, New York City, the United States; the canal was first proposed in the 1780s re-proposed in 1807. A survey was authorized and executed in 1808. Proponents of the project wore down opponents; the canal has 34 numbered locks starting with Black Rock Lock and ending downstream with the Troy Federal Lock. Both are owned by the federal government, it has an elevation difference of about 565 feet. It opened on October 26, 1825. In a time when bulk goods were limited to pack animals, there were no railways, water was the most cost-effective way to ship bulk goods.
The canal was denigrated by its political opponents as "Clinton's Folly" or "Clinton's Big Ditch". It was the first transportation system between the Eastern Seaboard and the western interior of the United States that did not require portage, it was faster than carts pulled by draft animals and cut transport costs by about 95%. The canal gave New York City's port an incomparable advantage over all other U. S. ushered in the state's 19th century political and cultural ascendancy. The canal fostered a population surge in western New York and opened regions farther west to settlement, it was enlarged between 1834 and 1862. The canal's peak year was 1855. In 1918, the western part of the canal was enlarged to become part of the New York State Barge Canal, which extended to the Hudson River running parallel to the eastern half of the Erie Canal. In 2000, the United States Congress designated the Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor to recognize the national significance of the canal system as the most successful and influential human-built waterway and one of the most important works of civil engineering and construction in North America.
The canal has been used by recreational watercraft since the retirement of the last large commercial ship, Day Peckinpaugh, in 1994. The canal saw a recovery in commercial traffic in 2008. From the first days of the expansion of the British colonies from the coast of North America into the heartland of the continent, a recurring problem was that of transportation between the coastal ports and the interior; this was not unique to the Americas, the problem still exists in those parts of the world where muscle power provides a primary means of transportation within a region. An ancient solution was implemented in many cultures — floating vessels move more than land vehicles since friction becomes less. Close to the seacoast, rivers provided adequate waterways, but the Appalachian Mountains, 400 miles inland, running over 1,500 miles long as a barrier range with just five places where mule trains or wagon roads could be routed, presented a great challenge. Passengers and freight had to travel overland, a journey made more difficult by the rough condition of the roads.
In 1800, it took 2-1/2 weeks to travel overland from New York to Cleveland, Ohio. The principal exportable product of the Ohio Valley was grain, a high-volume, low-priced commodity, bolstered by supplies from the coast, it was not worth the cost of transporting it to far-away population centers. This was a factor leading to farmers in the west turning their grains into whiskey for easier transport and higher sales, the Whiskey Rebellion. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, it became clear to coastal residents that the city or state that succeeded in developing a cheap, reliable route to the West would enjoy economic success, the port at the seaward end of such a route would see business increase greatly. In time, projects were devised in Virginia, Maryland and deep into the coastal states; the successes of the Canal du Midi in France, Bridgewater Canal in Britain, Eider Canal in Denmark spurred on what was called in Britain "canal mania". The idea of a canal to tie the East Coast to the new western settlements was discussed as early as 1724: New York provincial official Cadwallader Colden made a passing reference to improving the natural waterways of western New York.
Gouverneur Morris and Elkanah Watson were early proponents of a canal along the Mohawk River. Their efforts led to the creation of the "Western and Northern Inland Lock Navigation Companies" in 1792, which took the first steps to improve navigation on the Mohawk and construct a canal between the Mohawk and Lake Ontario, but it was soon discovered that private financing was insufficient. Christopher Colles surveyed the Mohawk Valley, made a presentation to the New York state legislature in 1784, proposing a shorter canal from Lake Ontario; the proposal was never implemented. Jesse Hawley had envisioned encouraging the growing of large quantities of grain on the western New York plains for sale on the Eastern seaboard. However, he went bankrupt trying to ship grain to the coast. While in Canandaigua debtors' prison, Hawley began pressing for the construction of a canal along the 90-mile (140 km
Lewis Wallace was an American lawyer, Union general in the American Civil War, governor of the New Mexico Territory, politician and author from Indiana. Among his novels and biographies, Wallace is best known for his historical adventure story, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ, a bestselling novel, called "the most influential Christian book of the nineteenth century."Wallace's military career included service in the Mexican–American War and the American Civil War. He was commanded the 11th Indiana Infantry Regiment. Wallace, who attained the rank of major general, participated in the Battle of Fort Donelson, the Battle of Shiloh, the Battle of Monocacy, he served on the military commission for the trials of the Lincoln assassination conspirators, presided over the trial of Henry Wirz, the Confederate commandant of the Andersonville prison camp. Wallace resigned from the U. S. Army in November 1865 and served as a major general in the Mexican army, before returning to the United States. Wallace was appointed governor of the New Mexico Territory and served as U.
S. minister to the Ottoman Empire. Wallace retired to his home in Crawfordsville, where he continued to write until his death in 1905. Lewis "Lew" Wallace was born on April 1827, in Brookville, Indiana, he was the second of four sons born to Esther French David Wallace. Lew's father, a graduate of the U. S. Military Academy in West Point, New York, left the military in 1822 and moved to Brookville, where he established a law practice and entered Indiana politics. David served in the Indiana General Assembly and as the state's lieutenant governor, governor, as a member of Congress. Lew Wallace's maternal grandfather was Congressman John Test. In 1832 the family moved to Covington, where Lew's mother died from tuberculosis on July 14, 1834. In December 1836, David married nineteen-year-old Zerelda Gray Sanders Wallace, who became a prominent suffragist and temperance advocate. In 1837, after David's election as governor of Indiana, the family moved to Indianapolis. Lew began his formal education at the age of six at a public school in Covington, but he much preferred the outdoors.
Wallace had a talent for drawing and loved to read. In 1836, at the age of nine, Lew joined his older brother in Crawfordsville, where he attended the preparatory school division of Wabash College, but soon transferred to another school more suitable for his age. In 1840, when Wallace was thirteen, his father sent him to a private academy at Centerville, where his teacher encouraged Lew's natural affinity for writing. Wallace returned to Indianapolis the following year. Sixteen-year-old Lew went out to earn his own wages in 1842, after his father refused to pay for more schooling. Wallace found a job copying records at the Marion County clerk's office and lived in an Indianapolis boardinghouse, he joined the Marion Rifles, a local militia unit, began writing his first novel, The Fair God, but it was not published until 1873. Wallace said in his autobiography that he had never been a member of any organized religion, but he did believe "in the Christian conception of God". By 1846, at the start of the Mexican–American War, the nineteen-year-old Wallace was studying law at his father's law office, but left that pursuit to establish a recruiting office for the Marion Volunteers in Indianapolis.
He was appointed a second lieutenant, on June 19, 1846, mustered into military service with the Marion Volunteers. Wallace rose to the position of regimental adjutant and the rank of first lieutenant while serving in the army of Zachary Taylor, but Wallace did not participate in combat. Wallace was mustered out of the volunteer service on June 15, 1847, returned to Indiana, where he intended to practice law. After the war and William B. Greer operated The Free Soil Banner, in Indianapolis. In 1848 Wallace met Susan Arnold Elston at the Crawfordsville home of Henry Smith Lane, Wallace's former commander during the Mexican War. Susan was the daughter of Major Isaac Compton Elston, a wealthy Crawfordsville merchant, Maria Akin Elston, whose family were Quakers from upstate New York. Susan accepted Wallace's marriage proposal in 1849, they were married in Crawfordsville on May 6, 1852; the Wallaces had one son, Henry Lane Wallace, born on February 17, 1853. Wallace was admitted to the bar in February 1849, moved from Indianapolis to Covington, where he established a law practice.
In 1851 Wallace was elected prosecuting attorney of Indiana's 1st congressional district, but he resigned in 1853 and moved his family to Crawfordsville, in Montgomery County, Indiana. Wallace continued to practice law and was elected as a Democrat to a two-year term in the Indiana Senate in 1856. From 1849 to 1853, his office was housed in the Fountain County Clerk's Building. While living in Crawfordsville, Wallace organized the Crawfordsville Guards Independent Militia called the Montgomery Guards. During the winter of 1859–60, after reading about elite units of the French Army in Algeria, Wallace adopted the Zouave uniform and their system of training for the group; the Montgomery Guards would form the core of his first military command, the 11th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, during the American Civil War. Wallace, a staunch supporter of the Union, became a member of the Republican party, began his full-time military career soon after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, on April 12, 1861.
Indiana's governor, the Republican
Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte
Elizabeth "Betsy" Patterson Bonaparte was an American socialite. She was the daughter of a Baltimore merchant, the first wife of Jérôme Bonaparte, Napoleon's youngest brother. Elizabeth's father, William Patterson, was born in Ireland and came to North America prior to the American Revolutionary War, he was a Presbyterian from Donegal, he became the wealthiest man in Maryland after Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence of the United States. Elizabeth's brother, married Carroll's granddaughter, Marianne Caton. Elizabeth and Jérôme Bonaparte were married on Christmas Eve, December 24, 1803, at a ceremony presided over by John Carroll, the Bishop of Baltimore. Betsy became known for her risqué taste in fashion, starting with her wedding dress. Jérôme's brother Napoleon ordered his brother back to France and demanded that the marriage be annulled. Jérôme ignored Napoleon's initial demand. In the fall of 1804, Jérôme and a pregnant Betsy attempted to travel to France in time for his brother's coronation, but a number of false starts delayed them.
When they arrived, Elizabeth was denied permission to set foot in continental Europe by order of Napoleon. Jérôme traveled to Italy in an attempt to reason with his brother, writing to his wife, "My dearest Elsa, I will do everything that must be done," but she would never see him again, except for a brief eye-to-eye contact in 1817. After remaining in limbo, unable to disembark in either France or the Netherlands, she gave birth to a son on 5 July 1805 at 95 Camberwell Grove in Camberwell, London. Jérôme gave in to his brother, returned to the French Navy, married the German princess Catharina of Württemberg on August 22, 1807, in the Royal Palace at Fontainebleau, France. Betsy returned to Baltimore with her son, Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, called "Bo" by his mother, lived with her father while she continued to flaunt her royal connection. After the Battle of Waterloo, she returned to Europe, where she was well received in the most exclusive circles and much admired for her beauty and wit.
In 1815, by special Act of the Legislature of Maryland, she secured a divorce. Her last years were spent in Baltimore in the management of her estate, the value of which she increased to $1.5 million. Betsy died in the midst of a court battle over whether the state of Maryland could tax her out-of-state bonds; the case reached the Supreme Court. The court decided in favor of Maryland. In 1861, she filed an inheritance claim in the Tribunal of First Instance at Paris after her former husband, Prince Jérôme, died on June 24, 1860. On February 15, 1861, the Tribunal of the Seine ruled that "demands of Madame Elizabeth Patterson and her son, Jerome Bonaparte, are not admissible, must be rejected."On April 4, 1879, she died in Baltimore and was interred in Green Mount Cemetery, Baltimore. Her tomb bears an epitaph: "After life's fitful fever she sleeps well." Elizabeth Patterson outlived Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte, by nine years. Her grandson Charles Joseph Bonaparte became Roosevelt's Secretary of the Navy in 1905, the U.
S. Attorney General in 1906. Betsy's brother's widow, Marianne Patterson, married Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, older brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. Another brother, Edward Patterson, was the owner of Joppa Iron Works in Eastern Baltimore County, MD; the story of Elizabeth and Jérôme's marriage and annulment is the basis for the 1908 play Glorious Betsy by Rida Johnson Young and the two film adaptations, Glorious Betsy and Hearts Divided. She was portrayed by Marion Davies in the latter; the episode "Duty" of the Hornblower television series features Elizabeth and Jérôme trying to land in France, the diplomatic difficulties. A historical novel about her life, The Ambitious Madame Bonaparte by Ruth Hull Chatlien, was published in 2013. In the 2016 book A Woman of Two Worlds: Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte, the author, Alexandra Deutsch, Director of Collections and Interpretation at the Maryland Historical Society, analyzes Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte’s personal belongings and letters to create a material culture biography of the woman whose seductive beauty and tragic marriage have long been documented.
F. B. Goodrich, The Court of Napoleon III. Philadelphia, 1864. E. L. Didier and Letters of Madame Bonaparte. New York, 1879. M. Farquhar, Foolishly Forgotten Americans. New York, 2008. Charlene M. Boyer Lewis, Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte: An American Aristocrat in the Early Republic. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. Berkin, Carol. Wondrous beauty: the life and adventures of Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 9780307592781. LCCN 2013015270. Edward C. Papenfuse, Maryland State Archives. Maryland Tax Exempt Bonds: The Case of Betsy Patterson, 1868–1882, 2007. Media related to Elizabeth Patterson-Bonaparte at Wikimedia Commons "Bonaparte, Jerome". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte at Find a Grave