The Jeffersons is an American sitcom, broadcast on CBS from January 18, 1975 to July 2, 1985, lasting 11 seasons and a total of 253 episodes. The Jeffersons is one of the longest-running sitcoms, the second-longest-running American series with a African American cast, the first to prominently feature a married interracial couple; the show focuses on George and Louise Jefferson, a prosperous African-American couple who have been able to move from Queens to Manhattan owing to the success of George's dry-cleaner chain. The show was launched as the second spin-off of All in the Family, on which the Jeffersons had been the neighbors of Archie and Edith Bunker; the show was the creation of Norman Lear. The Jeffersons evolved into more of a traditional sitcom but did reference such issues as alcoholism, suicide, gun control, being transgender, adult illiteracy; the epithets "nigger" and "honky" were used especially during the earlier seasons. The Jeffersons had one spin-off, titled Checking In; the series was centered on Florence.
Checking In only lasted four episodes, after which Florence returned to The Jeffersons. The Jeffersons shared continuity with the show E/R, which featured Lynne Moody, who made a guest appearance in one episode of The Jeffersons. Sherman Hemsley guest-starred as George in two episodes of the series; the cancellation of The Jeffersons cleared the way for Marla Gibbs, who played Florence Johnston on the series, to move on to the new NBC sitcom 227 in the fall of 1985, a year earlier than scheduled. The Jeffersons ended in controversy after CBS abruptly canceled the series without allowing for a proper series finale; the cast was not informed until after the July 2, 1985, episode "Red Robins", actor Sherman Hemsley said he learned that the show was canceled by reading it in the newspaper. Sanford, who heard about the cancellation through her cousin who read it in the tabloids, has publicly stated that she found the cancellation with no proper finale to be disrespectful on the network's part; the cast reunited in a stage play based on the sitcom.
In the 1996 series finale of The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, the Jeffersons made a guest appearance as the buyers of the Banks family house. In an episode of Tyler Perry's House of Payne in 2011, Sherman Hemsley and Marla Gibbs reprised their roles of George Jefferson and Florence Johnston. In 1985, Hemsley and Sanford made a special joint guest appearance in the Canale 5 comedy show Grand Hotel, starring Italian actors Paolo Villaggio, Franco & Ciccio comic duo and Carmen Russo, they were guests in the fictional hotel, appeared just twice during the show, for a total of five minutes. Their voices were dubbed by Italian actors Enzo Garinei and Isa di Marzio, who dubbed their characters for the full series. Louise Jefferson, played by Isabel Sanford, first appeared in the All in the Family episode "Lionel Moves Into the Neighborhood", broadcast on March 2, 1971; the episode, the eighth of the series, centers on Louise, her son Lionel, her husband George's moving next door to Archie and Edith Bunker in the working-class section of Queens.
Lionel, played by Mike Evans, first appeared in "Meet the Bunkers", the premiere episode of All in the Family. Norman Lear created the character of George Jefferson for Hemsley. Lear intended for George to appear in the first season of the series. Lear created the character of Henry Jefferson, George's younger brother, replaced George with Henry in the series's scripts until Purlie finished its run. Mel Stewart was cast as Henry. George was introduced in the episode "Henry's Farewell", Hemsley and Stewart share their only scene together in its final minutes; the episode marked the final appearance of Henry. George and Lionel continued to appear on All in the Family until 1975, when the spin-off The Jeffersons created by Lear, premiered; the characters of Lionel's biracial fiancée, her family, all of whom first appeared in the 1974 All in the Family episode "Lionel's Engagement", were written into the new series. However, the roles were all recast, with Berlinda Tolbert taking over the role of Jenny, veteran actor Franklin Cover playing her father, Tom Willis, whose first name was changed from Louis, as it was in their first AITF appearance, Roxie Roker as her mother, Helen.
During the January 11, 1975 episode of All in the Family, titled "The Jeffersons Move Up", Edith Bunker gave a tearful good-bye to her neighbor Louise Jefferson as her husband George, their son Lionel, she moved from a working-class section of Queens, New York, into the luxurious Colby East, a ficitious high-rise apartment complex in Manhattan. The Jeffersons premiered the following week, on January 18, 1975. George's career as a dry-cleaner began in the first season of All in the Family in the third episode "Oh, My Aching Back". After his car was rear-ended by a bus, he filed a civil action and won $3200, enough to open his first store in Queens. At the beginning of The Jeffersons, he was operating five stores throughout New York City, with another two opening during the following seasons. Louise made friends with Tom and Helen Willis, an interracial couple with two adult children of their own: son Allan, a white-passing college drop-out.
What's Happening Now!!
What's Happening Now!! is an American sitcom sequel to the original ABC 1976–79 sitcom What's Happening!! Focusing on its main characters as adults, it aired in first-run broadcast syndication from September 7, 1985, to March 26, 1988, like the previous series, What's Happening Now!! is loosely based on the motion picture Cooley High. In the series, Roger "Raj" Thomas has become a fledgling writer, he bought half of the restaurant Rob's Place and was running the business with Shirley, making money for himself and his new wife Nadine, a social worker. Dwayne has become a computer programmer, Rerun a used-car salesman. Raj and Nadine live in Raj's childhood home while Dwayne share an apartment; the antics and sarcastic one-liners were reminiscent of the first series. Raj's little sister Dee showed up on a sporadic basis in guest spots, with the explanation that she had gone away to college. Raj and Nadine became foster parents to a young girl named Carolyn Williams, played by Reina King, who displayed the sass, seen in Dee when she was younger.
By the second season, both Fred Berry and Reina King left the series. The writers wrote Carolyn out of the series by saying she had moved in with an aunt she didn't know she had. Berry's departure, was more acrimonious. After the first season, Berry asked for a significant raise. Due to the popularity of his character, Berry believed he was the only reason viewers tuned in every week and that it should be reflected in his salary. Berry quit the series when the producers would not accede to his demands, in retaliation the writers removed Rerun from the series continuity altogether. Rerun was seen in flashbacks during the second-season episode "The Yard Sale," however, was mentioned by name. Berry's widow, Essie Berry, told Urbanite magazine at Georgia State University that their unwillingness to pay Fred Berry his due in both shows led to their early cancellations. During the third season, the series introduced a pair of characters that harkened back to the original incarnation of What's Happening!!.
Maurice Warfield was a teenager who spent his afternoons as a busboy at Rob's under the supervision of Shirley and Raj while his best friend Darryl hung out with him. Together, they had many misadventures not unlike the original trio of Raj and Rerun. Ernest Thomas Anne-Marie Johnson Haywood Nelson Fred Berry Shirley Hemphill Reina King Danielle Spencer Martin Lawrence Ken Sagoes The original What's Happening!! was a modest success in its network run on ABC, despite some serious production problems. But repeats of the show's 65 episodes did reasonably well in syndication. In some markets, the show was perceived to appeal to both children and adults in a similar way to The Brady Bunch and Happy Days; the show was aired in transitional hours where stations would go from cartoons to evening sitcoms. In a few markets the show had higher ratings in syndication than during the network run. This, combined with a trend of former network series finding new life in first-run syndication, going on during the 1980s, led to the development of what became What's Happening Now!!.
The show was produced by Columbia Pictures Television for its entire run. Colex Enterprises, a joint effort of CPT and LBS Communications, served as distributor for the first two seasons. In 1988 the partnership was dissolved and CPT's sister company Coca-Cola Telecommunications joined LBS as distributor. Shortly after the series ended, all 66 episodes were added to the previous show's syndication package, continuing on many local stations across the United States in an on-again, off-again manner until 2009. BET reran both series from September 20, 1993 to October 27, 1995. TV Land, which reran the previous series during the 2005–2006 television season, aired 30 select episodes during the summer of 2007. On February 21, 2014, a marathon of What's Happening Now!! Aired on BET Her; the show aired on FamilyNet in reruns, from September 1, 2014. TV One began airing twice a week on Friday nights; the series was shown on Antenna TV. On June 12, 2007, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment released the first season of What's Happening Now!! on DVD in Region 1.
What's Happening Now!! on IMDb What's Happening Now!! at TV.com What's Happening!! and What's Happening Now!! at tvheaven.com
Benson (TV series)
Benson is an American sitcom that aired on ABC from September 13, 1979 to April 19, 1986. The series was a spin-off of Soap in which the character Benson, portrayed by Robert Guillaume, first appeared as the wise-cracking yet level-headed African-American butler for the dysfunctional Tate family. However, Benson eschewed the soap opera format of its parent series for a more conventional sitcom structure, the lead character moved from his service position to a role as lieutenant governor; the series was created by Susan Harris, produced by Witt/Thomas/Harris Productions. In 1985, Guillaume won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series for his role in the series; the main character was Benson DuBois, hired to be the head of household affairs for scatterbrained and widowed Governor Eugene X. Gatling and his daughter Katie. Governor Gatling was a cousin of sisters Jessica Mary Campbell from Soap. Although the state of which Gatling was governor remained unidentified throughout the series, Soap was situated in Connecticut, the seal of the state of New York is visible when Benson wins the lieutenant governorship.
The series revolved around Benson's housekeeping dilemmas, his squabbles with German cook Gretchen Wilhemina Kraus and his interactions with John Taylor, who assisted Governor Gatling as chief of staff. After the first season, Taylor's job was filled by the pompous Clayton Endicott III. In spite of their adversarial relationship and Kraus became good friends. Benson had good friendships with the governor's secretary, Marcy Hill and her successor, Denise. Marcy left after her second-season wedding. Jerry Seinfeld played a small role as Frankie, a delivery boy and unsuccessful comedian, for three episodes in 1980. Denise and Pete Downey, the governor's press secretary and married, having a child in the show's fifth season. However, both were written out, with the reason given that Denise secured a job with NASA. Benson worked his way up the ladder during the series, going from head of household affairs to state budget director, was elevated to the position of lieutenant governor. During the final episodes of the 1985–86 season, Benson ran for governor against Gatling.
Kraus proved to be Benson's strongest supporter, he made her his personal assistant and campaign manager. The term-limited Governor Gatling ran for reelection as an independent candidate, with Benson securing the party nomination, setting the stage for the two to go head-to-head in the general election. At the end of the series' final episode and Gatling, who had strained relations due to the race, made peace with each other and watched the tight election returns together on television; as the broadcaster began to announce that a winner was at last being projected, the episode ended on a freeze frame of Benson and Gatling, leaving the series with an unresolved cliffhanger. Coincidentally, Guillaume's previous series, the one from which Benson spun off, was canceled with unresolved cliffhangers, though Guillaume had moved on to Benson by that point. In 2007, Benson showrunner Bob Fraser said that the season ended on a cliffhanger at the request of the network; the show was canceled. Fraser indicated that, had the show continued, Gatling would have won the election and Benson would have become a United States senator.
According to Gary Brown, who directed the finale and 20 other episodes of Benson, three outcomes were filmed, with Benson winning, Gatling winning, a tie. The intent was to decide over summer break. Brown stated that, regardless of the outcome, the long-term intent for the next season was for Benson to become the governor. Robert Guillaume as Benson DuBois, the main character, hired as head of household affairs for Governor Gatling and his daughter Katie. Quick-witted and quick-thinking, Benson has helped the governor on several issues, bailing him out of tight political and public situations. James Noble as Eugene X. Gatling, the widowed and scatterbrained governor. Gatling had a penchant for telling off-the-wall stories. Missy Gold as Katie Gatling, the governor's pre-teen daughter. Inga Swenson as Gretchen Kraus, the governor's chef. A fiercely proud German immigrant, she is at odds with Benson and trades insults with him. A running gag in the series was whenever she would walk out of the room, Under his breath, Benson would cast one last barb toward Kraus, to which she shouted from off-stage, "I He-e-e-ear You-u-u-u!".
Despite their rivalry and Kraus become close friends. She became Benson's strongest supporter when he ran for governor against Gatling. Lewis J. Stadlen as John Taylor, Governor Gatling's chief of staff. Caroline McWilliams as the governor's personal secretary. Unlucky in love, Marcy married toward the end of season 2. Didi Conn as Denise Stevens, Marcy's replacement Ethan Phillips as Pete Downey, Gatling's press secretary. René Auberjonois as Clayton Endicott III. Clayton is s
Bad Manners (1984 film)
Bad Manners is a 1984 American black comedy teen film released by New World Pictures. Written and directed by Robert Houston and produced by Kim Jorgensen, the film follows a group of teenage delinquents who escape the oppressive Catholic orphanage where they live in order to rescue one of their fellow "inmates". While the film's adult stars Martin Mull, Karen Black, Anne De Salvo, Murphy Dunne received top billing in promotional materials, the story is told through the perspective of the adolescent protagonists; the film begins at the ominous "Home of the Bleeding Heart" Catholic orphanage, where teenage delinquent "Piper" arrives by police escort. There he meets the cruel overseers: the stern head-mistress of the orphanage, Sister Serena, the cattle-prod wielding head-master, Mr. Kurtz. After disobeying the home's loathsome authority figures, Piper is sent into solitary confinement where he befriends a group of adolescent trouble-makers; as prospective "parents" come to the Home of the Bleeding Heart to assess the children for adoption, the orphans, desperate not to be separated from the "family" they have in each other, make every attempt not to be selected.
However, the family of young misfits is shattered when the Fitzpatricks, a self-absorbed upper-class couple, find Mouse irresistible and decide to adopt him, promptly whisking him away to their suburban home in Santa Barbara, California. Devastated by Mouse's departure, the group of young rebels devise a plan to "rescue" him, outwitting the maniacal staff and escaping the oppressive orphanage. In their odyssey to free Mouse, the four street-smart teenagers lie and steal their way to Santa Barbara, wreaking havoc on suburbia every step of the way. Although listed by several online sources under the title Growing Pains, in his October 1984 review of the film, Boston Phoenix film critic Owen Gleiberman referred to the film by the title Bad Manners; the film was both written and directed by 29-year-old, Robert Houston, whose only previous writing/directing credit was the Samurai themed action-adventure feature film, Shogun Assassin. Filmed in 1983 and produced by Growing Pains Productions, Bad Manners was released by New World Pictures in October 1984.
Songs for the film's soundtrack were written by Russell Mael of Sparks. Sparks performed several of the songs for the film, including the film's title song, "Bad Manners". Targeted to a teen audience, the film has received negative reviews from adult critics. In his October 2, 1984 review for the Boston Phoenix, film critic Owen Gleiberman criticized Houston's directing, writing, "Houston has fashioned a cinematic contradiction: the corporate cult film. He's taken the derisive black comedy of directors like John Waters and the pre-70s Roger Corman and repackaged it like laundry detergent.", adding, "Local publicists have been telling me that this is going to be the first cult movie for kids, but somehow it's hard to imagine packs of 12-year-olds jamming the Nickelodeon for an R-rated movie about abused orphans." Despite finding elements of the film cynical and contrived, Gleiberman would go on to praise some of the young stars' performances, writing "The actors are agreeably rowdy prepubescents, a couple of them are genuine finds.
As Piper, Georg Olden has a charisma and physical grace far beyond his years, musclebound Christopher Brown playing a suave black kid named, uh, has the penetrating presence of a mini Yaphet Kotto."In her overview of the film, Eleanor Mannikka of AllRovi felt the "comedy" elements of the film fell short, writing "Everyone is a stereotypical extreme in this sometimes mean-spirited black comedy about the vicious staff at an orphanage, the garrulous punk kids who live there, the pretentious overblown rich couple who adopt one of the orphans – this is not a happy world. With a low-brow, low-budget approach, the premises are meant to key in to the slapstick characterizations, but for some viewers the comic moments may not assuage the meaner undertones of the film." TV Guide's review felt the film had potential, but was played too over-the-top: "Sort of a modern-day version of Oliver Twist, Bad Manners was an independently made movie that might have made noise at the box office had more attention been paid to detail and less to overplaying.
The film takes lots of whacks at "The Establishment," and the shame of it is that in the right hands this might have been a good film." Bad Manners on IMDb Bad Manners at AllMovie Bad Manners at Rotten Tomatoes Bad Manners at TV Guide
AfterMASH is an American sitcom produced as a spin-off and continuation of M*A*S*H that aired on CBS from September 26, 1983, to May 31, 1985. The series takes place following the end of the Korean War and chronicles the adventures of three characters from the original series: Colonel Sherman T. Potter, Maxwell Klinger and Father John Mulcahy. M*A*S*H supporting cast-member Kellye Nakahara joined them, albeit off-camera, as the voice of the hospital's public address system. Rosalind Chao rounded out the starring cast as Soon-Lee Klinger, a Korean refugee whom Klinger met, fell in love with and married in the M*A*S*H series finale "Goodbye and Amen." In the one-hour pilot episode "September of'53/Together Again", Colonel Potter returned home from Korea to his wife Mildred in Hannibal, Missouri. He soon found physically forced retirement stifling, Mildred suggested he return to work. Potter was soon hired by the bombastic and bureaucratic hospital administrator Mike D'Angelo as the chief of staff at General Pershing Veteran's Hospital, located in the fictional River Bend, Missouri.
Max Klinger had found himself in trouble with the law in Toledo. Colonel Potter offered him a job as his administrative assistant. Klinger's nemesis at General General was D'Angelo's executive secretary Alma Cox, a mean-spirited woman, forever trying to "get the goods" on him, from rifling through his desk to giving him just one day to prepare for a civil service exam, the latter of which, despite her underhanded efforts, he still manages to pass. Father Mulcahy, whose hearing was damaged in the final episode of M*A*S*H, was suffering from depression and drinking heavily. Potter arranged for Mulcahy to receive an operation at another VA Hospital in St. Louis. After his hearing was surgically corrected, he stopped drinking and joined Potter and Klinger at "General General" as its Catholic chaplain. On hand was the idealistic and hungry young resident surgeon Gene Pfeiffer, attractive secretary Bonnie Hornbeck, who had an eye for Klinger, old-timer Bob Scannell who served under then-Sergeant Potter in World War I and was now a hospital resident of 35 years.
Unlike the other patients and staff who addressed Potter by his retired rank of colonel, Scannell called him "Sarge" at Potter's request. Halfway through the first season, Dr. Ron Boyer was introduced as a hardened veteran who lost a leg in Korea and had a hard time adjusting to civilian life. Despite only having signed on for two episodes, his character began appearing more toward the end of the season, so that Dr. Pfeiffer was pulled from the cast after Dr. Boyer's debut episode; the only other main character from the original series to appear on AfterMASH was Radar, who appeared in a first season two-part episode. As Potter and Mulcahy prepare to head to Iowa for Radar's wedding, Radar shows up in a panic at Potter's house in Missouri, believing his intended fiancée has cheated on him in "It Had to Be You." The Radar character appeared in a pilot called W*A*L*T*E*R, in which Radar moved from Iowa to St. Louis, after his wife left him on his wedding night, he became a police officer; the season included home scenes with the Potters, most notably when they were deluged with guests in "Thanksgiving of'53", Potter tried to keep the phone occupied so Klinger could not call his relatives, who were on the way over to surprise him.
One of the season's standout episodes was the Emmy-nominated "Fall Out", where Potter and Klinger considered leaving General General, but reconsidered when they linked the leukemia seen in a patient with exposure to atomic testing. The season closed in March with Klinger being arrested for decking a shady real estate agent as pregnant Soon Lee went into labor. In May, CBS announced. Season Two opened with Klinger escaping from the River Bend County Jail to attend the birth of his child and remaining a fugitive until a judge sent him to the psychiatric unit at General General, where Klinger feigned insanity to avoid prison and the Potters took in Soon Lee and the baby. Mike D'Angelo was transferred to Montana and was replaced by smarmy new administrator Wally Wainwright. Anne Pitoniak was brought in to replace Barbara Townsend as Mildred Potter. David Ackroyd was promoted to a regular cast member after multiple guest appearances in the second half of the first season. An attractive new psychiatrist, Dr. Lenore Dudziak, arrived to begin the daunting task of evaluating Klinger, while Potter was horrified that Wainwright assigned Alma Cox as his new secretary.
The recurring M*A*S*H character Colonel Flagg appeared in the second season, now working for an unspecified intelligence agency whose agents are authorized to carry sidearms in their shoes. Character actors Arliss Howard, Timothy Busfield, William Sadler and David Graf all appeared as patients. Only three other charact
Half-Life is a 2008 independent film directed by Jennifer Phang, starring Sanoe Lake, Julia Nickson-Soul, Leonardo Nam, Ben Redgrave, Lee Marks, James Eckhouse, Susan Ruttan and Alexander Agate. The film premiered in the 2008 Sundance Film Festival and has since been touring the American and international film festivals circuits, it premiered internationally in the Tokyo International Film Festival in competition, in Europe at the Mannheim-Heidelberg International Film Festival in competition. Half-Life was the opening night film for the International Women's Film Festival in Korea; the film made a theatrical debut on December 2009 in selected cities. Set in the near future amidst accelerating global cataclysms, the film follows a troubled young boy, Tim Wu, his jaded older sister, Pam as they use their imaginations to escape their broken lives after their airplane pilot father and unexpectedly abandons them, their mother Saura struggles to make ends meet and move on with her life while involved with her manipulative boyfriend, Wendell.
Pam, who works cleaning airplanes, seeks solace in her friend Scott, who struggles to be accepted as gay by his willfully ignorant, staunchly Christian, adoptive parents. Meanwhile, Tim's schoolteacher and Scott's lover, attempts to reach out to Tim; the film has won the Gen Art Acura Grand Jury Prize 2008, the Asian American International Film Festival Best Feature Film Award, the San Francisco International Asian American Film Festival Best Narrative Feature Award, the Visionary Award at Calgary's Fairy Tales International. It was nominated for the Tokyo Grand Prix at the Tokyo International Film Festival. Official website Half-Life on IMDb
Joseph Hill Whedon is an American screenwriter, producer, comic book writer, composer. He is the founder of Mutant Enemy Productions and co-founder of Bellwether Pictures, is best known as the creator of several television series, including Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Firefly and Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D.. Whedon co-wrote the Pixar animated film Toy Story and directed the Firefly film continuation Serenity, co-wrote and directed the Internet miniseries Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog, co-wrote and produced the horror comedy film The Cabin in the Woods, he wrote and directed the Marvel Cinematic Universe superhero films The Avengers and its sequel Avengers: Age of Ultron, co-wrote the script for the DC Extended Universe superhero film Justice League, for which he served as director on reshoots. Born in New York City on June 23, 1964 as Joseph1 Hill Whedon, being a third-generation TV writer, he is a son of Tom Whedon, a screenwriter for Alice in the 1970s and The Golden Girls in the 1980s, a grandson of John Whedon, who worked on The Donna Reed Show in the 1950s and The Dick Van Dyke Show in the 1960s, as well as writing for radio shows like The Great Gildersleeve.
His mother, Ann Lee Stearns from Kentucky, was a teacher at Riverdale Country School as Lee Whedon, an aspiring novelist. His parents had both acted, appeared in a play together at the Harvard Radcliffe Dramatic Club. Whedon is the younger sibling of Samuel and Matthew Whedon and older sibling of writers Jed and Zack Whedon. At a young age, he showed great interest in British television with series like Masterpiece and Monty Python, he started out as a staff writer for 1990 sitcom Rosanne Whedon attended Riverdale Country School in New York City where his mother taught history. He spent three years at Winchester College in England, taking note of omnipresent bullying, he concluded, "it was clear to me from the start that I must take an active role in my survival". Whedon graduated from Wesleyan University in 1987, where he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Letters in 2013. There, he studied under renowned academic Richard Slotkin. After leaving Wesleyan, Whedon came up with the first incarnation of Buffy Summers, "Rhonda, the Immortal Waitress".
From 1989 to 1990, Whedon worked as a staff writer on the sitcoms Parenthood. As a script doctor, Whedon was an uncredited writer on films including The Getaway, Speed and Twister. X-Men, on which Whedon worked on an early draft, contained at least two dialogue exchanges of Whedon's contribution, while the final cut of Speed left in most of his dialogue. While he was script consulting, he wrote Buffy the Vampire Slayer—the film that would precede the series—Alien Resurrection and an early draft for Atlantis: The Lost Empire and co-wrote Toy Story and Titan A. E. the former of which earned him a shared Academy Award nomination for Best Original Screenplay. Whedon has expressed strong dissatisfaction with the released versions of the films Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Titan A. E. and Alien Resurrection. In 1997, Whedon created his first television series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer.2 The series depicts Buffy Summers, the latest in a line of young women called to battle against vampires and other forces of darkness.
The idea came directly from his aversion to seeing the Hollywood formula of "the little blonde girl who goes into a dark alley and gets killed in every horror movie". Whedon said he wanted to subvert the idea and create someone, a hero; this conception came from "the first mission statement of the show, the joy of female power: having it, using it, sharing it". The writing process came together from conversations about the emotional issues facing Buffy Summers, how she would confront them in her battle against supernatural forces. Whedon directed episodes from his own scripts that held the most cathartic moments in Buffy's story; the series received numerous awards and nominations, including an Emmy Award nomination for the 1999 episode "Hush". The 2001 episode "The Body" was nominated for a Nebula Award in 2002, the fall 2001 musical episode "Once More, with Feeling" was nominated for a Best Dramatic Presentation Hugo Award and a Best Script Nebula Award; the final episode "Chosen" was nominated for a Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form Hugo Award in 2003.
All written and directed by Whedon, they are considered some the most effective and popular episodes of the series. Scholar A. Asbjørn Jøn recognized that the series has shifted the way vampires have since been depicted in popular culture representations. Since the end of the series, Whedon has stated that his initial intention was to produce a "cult" television series and acknowledged a corresponding "rabid insane fan base" that subsequently emerged. In June 2012, Slate magazine identified it as the most written about popular culture text of all time. "ore than twice as many papers and books have been devoted to the vampire drama than any of our other choices—so many that we stopped counting when we hit 200". A lifelong comic book fan, Whedon authored the Dark Horse Comics miniseries Fray, which takes place in the far future of the Buffyverse. Like many writers of the show, he contributed to the series' comic book continuation, writing for the anthology Tales of the Slayers, the main storyline of the miniseries Tales of the Vampires.
Whedon and the other writers released a new ongoing series, taking place after the series finale "Chosen", which he recognizes as the canonical eighth season. Whedon returned to the world of Fray during the season eight-story arc "Time of Your