The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software; the first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard; the iPhone can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video, take photos, play music and receive email, browse the web and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps; as of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released twelve generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the twelve major releases of the iOS operating system.
The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri; the iPhone 5 featured Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal, they were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models.
The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X; the original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have garnered praise; the iPhone is one of the most used smartphones in the world, its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" stands for internet, instruct and inspire. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue, in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599, went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.
The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, Germany in November 2007, Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it in June and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000; the back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal; the iPhone 3G was available in
IPad is a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. which run the iOS mobile operating system. The first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; as of May 2017, Apple has sold more than 360 million iPads, though sales peaked in 2013. It is the most popular tablet computer by sales as of the second quarter of 2018; the user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. All iPads can connect via Wi-Fi. IPads can shoot video, take photos, play music, perform Internet functions such as web-browsing and emailing. Other functions – games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, etc. – can be enabled by downloading and installing apps. As of March 2016, the App Store has more than million apps for the iPad by third parties. There have been eight versions of the iPad; the first generation established design precedents. The 2nd-generation iPad introduced a new thinner design, a dual-core Apple A5 processor, VGA front-facing and 720p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling.
The third generation added a Retina Display, the new Apple A5X processor with a quad-core graphics processor, a 5-megapixel camera, HD 1080p video recording, voice dictation, 4G. The fourth generation added the Apple A6X processor and replaced the 30-pin connector with an all-digital Lightning connector; the iPad Air added the Apple A7 processor and the Apple M7 motion coprocessor, reduced the thickness for the first time since the iPad 2. The iPad Air 2 added the Apple A8X processor, the Apple M8 motion coprocessor, an 8-megapixel camera, the Touch ID fingerprint sensor; the iPad introduced in 2017 added the Apple A9 processor, while sacrificing some of the improvements the iPad Air 2 introduced in exchange for a lower launch price. There have been five versions of the iPad Mini; the first generation has similar internal specifications to the iPad 2 but uses the Lightning connector instead. The iPad Mini 2 added the Retina Display, the Apple A7 processor, the Apple M7 motion coprocessor matching the internal specifications of the iPad Air.
The iPad Mini 3 added the Touch ID fingerprint sensor. The iPad Mini 4 features the Apple M8 motion coprocessor; the 5th generation features the Apple A12 SoC. There have been three generations of the iPad Pro; the first generation came with 9.7" and 12.9" screen sizes, while the second came with 10.5" and 12.9" sizes, the third with 11" and 12.9" sizes. The iPad Pros have unique features such as the Smart Connector, which are exclusive to this series of iPads. Apple co-founder Steve Jobs said in a 1983 speech that the company's strategy was simple: "What we want to do is we want to put an great computer in a book that you can carry around with you and learn how to use in 20 minutes... and we want to do it with a radio link in it so you don't have to hook up to anything and you're in communication with all of these larger databases and other computers." Apple's first tablet computer was the Newton MessagePad 100, introduced in 1993, powered by an ARM6 processor core developed by ARM, a 1990 spinout of Acorn Computers in which Apple invested.
Apple developed a prototype PowerBook Duo based tablet, the PenLite, but decided not to sell it in order to avoid hurting MessagePad sales. Apple released several more Newton-based PDAs. Apple re-entered the mobile-computing markets in 2007 with the iPhone. Smaller than the iPad, but featuring a camera and mobile phone, it pioneered the multi-touch finger-sensitive touchscreen interface of Apple's iOS mobile operating system. By late 2009, the iPad's release had been rumored for several years; such speculation talked about "Apple's tablet". The iPad was announced on January 27, 2010, by Steve Jobs at an Apple press conference at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco. Jobs said that Apple had begun developing the iPad before the iPhone. Jonathan Ive in 1991 had created an industrial design for a stylus-based tablet, the Macintosh Folio, as his first project for Apple. Ive stated that after seeking to produce the tablet first, he came to agree with Jobs that the phone was more important, as the tablet's innovations would work as well in it.
The iPad's internal codename was K48, revealed in the court case surrounding leaking of iPad information before launch. Apple began taking pre-orders for the first-generation iPad on March 12, 2010; the only major change to the device between its announcement and being available to pre-order was the change of the behavior of the side switch to perform either sound muting or screen rotation locking. The Wi-Fi version of the iPad went on sale in the United States on April 3, 2010; the Wi-Fi + 3G version was released on April 30. 3G service in the United States is provided by AT&T and was sold with two prepaid contract-free data plan options: one for unlimited data and the other for 250 MB per month at half the price. On June 2, 2010, AT&T announced that effective June 7 the unlimited plan would be replaced for new
The iPad Pro family is a line of iPad tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. that runs the iOS mobile operating system. Its current generation is available in two screen sizes, 11-inch and 12.9-inch, each with four options for internal storage capacities: 64, 256, 512 GB, or 1 TB. The first iPad Pro, the 12.9-inch version, was announced on September 9, 2015, released on November 11, 2015. It is larger than all previous iPad models and the first iPad tablet to feature LPDDR4 RAM; the 12.9-inch tablet was followed by the smaller 9.7-inch version, announced on March 21, 2016, released on March 31 that same year. On June 5, 2017, the second generation iPad Pro was announced, which features A10X Fusion processors, with basic storage of 64 GB, optional 512 GB. Upgraded displays include a new 10.5-inch version to replace the 9.7-inch model, while the 12.9-inch version was refreshed. Following this announcement, both models of the first generation iPad; the third generation of iPad Pro was announced on October 30, 2018.
It is available in two screen sizes: 12.9-inch. They feature full screen displays, with the 11-inch model replacing the 10.5-inch model of the previous generation. They feature up to 1 TB of storage and Face ID which works in both vertical and horizontal orientations, a feature that does not apply to iPhones with Face ID; the third generation does not feature a home button. The 12.9-inch version of the iPad Pro was announced during an Apple Special Event on September 9, 2015. It was released on November 11, 2015 with gold and space gray color options. Prices ranging from US$799.99 to $1,229.99 based on cellular connectivity. On March 21, 2016, the 9.7 inch version of the iPad Pro was announced at an Apple keynote with an additional rose gold color option. The 9.7 inch version introduced the ability to choose base 32GB Model with Cellular + WiFi option. The 9.7 inch model is priced from $599 to $1,129 depending on the configuration. It was released on March 31, 2016; the 9.7-inch iPad Pro, when compared to the iPad Air 2, features a faster CPU, a better camera, is the first iPad to feature True Tone Flash and Retina Flash.
It had the highest storage for an iPad at the time with a 256 GB storage option and has a True Tone display, which allows the LCD to adapt to ambient lighting to change its color and intensity in different environments. Both iPad Pro models include the Apple M9 motion co-processor; the 9.7 inch model, has a underclocked CPU and only 2 GB of RAM. A number of features are carried over from the standard iPad, such as Touch ID and the Retina Display. New features include a smart connector for a keyboard and four stereo speakers located in pairs on top and bottom of the device; the 12.9 inch model has a 2732-by-2048 Retina Display at 264 pixels per inch, the 9.7 inch model has a 2048-by-1536 Retina Display at 264 pixels per inch and features a variable refresh rate, a first for Apple. The 12.9 inch version of the iPad Pro is the first iPad to include 4 GB of RAM. A customized 12.9 inch iPad Pro was designed by Jony Ive and submitted to the Time for Design auction. The special edition iPad Pro has an "Edition 1 of 1" label engraved on its back and comes with a custom yellow-gold anodised finish, a blue leather Smart Cover and an orange leather Apple Pencil case cover, all of which are not sold by Apple elsewhere.
The second generation of iPad Pro was announced on June 5, 2017 alongside iOS 11 at the 2017 WWDC. The second-generation iPad Pro models, at 10.5-inch and 12.9-inch, have an A10X hexa-core CPU and with a 12-core GPU, Apple's ProMotion display technology which supports HDR10 and Dolby Vision content with a 120 Hz refresh rate and their True Tone display is 50 percent brighter than the earlier models. They have USB-C connection speeds using Lightning cables, with USB-C fast-charge support; the second generation iPad Pro has storage capacities up to 512 GB. On March 18, 2019, the 10.5-inch iPad Pro was replaced by a 10.5-inch iPad Air. The third generation of iPad Pro was announced on October 30, 2018, during an Apple Special Event at the Howard Gilman Opera House in Brooklyn, New York; the redesigned 2018 models feature new edge-to-edge Liquid Retina displays, Face ID, improved 12MP and 7MP cameras, USB-C connectors, Apple A12X Bionic processors. The tablets are offered in 11-inch and 12.9-inch sizes, are the first iPad models to offer tap-to-wake LCD displays, up to 1TB of internal storage.
Additionally, the third generation tablets lack both a headphone jack. They are only available in silver and space gray. There are four accessories made for iPad Pro, all of which are sold separately: a "smart" screen cover. Smart Keyboard docks with iPad Pro using the Smart Connector, a magnetic connection that provides data transfer and power. Smart Keyboard, which doubles as a kickstand, is comparable to that of the competing Microsoft Surface Pro; the design of the Smart Keyboard is similar to the design of the Smart Cover accessory. The first generation Apple Pencil is a precision stylus exclusive to the iPad Pro, iPad 2018, the iPad Air a
The iPad Air is the first-generation iPad Air tablet computer designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It was announced on October 22, 2013, was released on November 1, 2013; the iPad Air features a thinner design with similarities to the contemporaneous iPad Mini 2 with the same 64-bit Apple A7 processor with M7 coprocessor. It was discontinued with the launch of a 9.7 inch iPad Pro on March 21, 2016. Its successor, the iPad Air 2, was announced on October 16, 2014, was sold until its discontinuation on March 21, 2017; the "iPad Air" name was brought back with the announcement of the third-generation iPad Air on March 18, 2019. The iPad Air was announced during a keynote at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts on October 22, 2013; the theme of the keynote was named'We still have a lot to cover'. The iPad Air comes with the iOS 7 operating system, released on September 18, 2013. Jonathan Ive, the designer of iOS 7's new elements, described the update as "bringing order to complexity", highlighting features such as refined typography, new icons, layering and gyroscope-driven parallaxing as some of the major changes to the design.
The design of both iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks noticeably depart from skeuomorphic elements such as green felt in Game Center, wood in Newsstand, leather in Calendar, in favor of flat, colourful design. It can act as a hotspot with some carriers, sharing its Internet connection over Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or USB, access the Apple App Store, a digital application distribution platform for iOS; the service allows users to browse and download applications from the iTunes Store that were developed with Xcode and the iOS SDK and were published through Apple. From the App Store, GarageBand, iMovie, iPhoto, the iWork apps are available; the iPad Air comes with several applications, including Siri, Mail, Video, Music, iTunes, App Store, Notes, Game Center, Photo Booth, Contacts. Like all iOS devices, the iPad can sync content and other data with a Mac or PC using iTunes, although iOS 5 and can be managed and backed up without a computer. Although the tablet is not designed to make phone calls over a cellular network, users can use a headset or the built-in speakers and microphone to place phone calls over Wi-Fi or cellular using a VoIP application, such as Skype.
The device has a dictation application, using the same voice recognition technology as the iPhone 4S. This enables users to speak and the iPad types what they say on the screen, though the iPad must have an internet connection because the speech is processed by Apple servers. Apple began giving away its popular iLife and iWork apps with the device. On June 8, 2015, it was announced at the WWDC that the iPad Air would support most of iOS 9's new features when it is released in Q3 2015. Air users with iOS 9 will be able to take advantage of two features called Slide Over and Picture in Picture. Slide Over allows a user to "slide" a second app in from the side of the screen in a smaller window, have it display information alongside the initial app. Picture in Picture allows a user to watch video in a small, moveable window while remaining in another app. Another feature, dubbed Split View, will not be supported by the Air, instead it will only run on iPad Air 2, it was announced at the WWDC 2016 that the iPad Air will support iOS 10.
It was announced at the WWDC 2017 that the iPad Air will support the latest version of iOS, iOS 11, while dropping support to its immediate predecessor, the 4th generation iPad. Apple announced the iPad Air will support the iOS 12 update making iPad Air one of the longest supported iOS device having to support six major versions of iOS from iOS 7 all the way to iOS 12; the iPad Air marks the first major design change for the iPad since the iPad 2. Apple reduced the overall volume for the iPad Air by using thinner components resulting in a 22% reduction in weight over the iPad 2. Though it still uses the same 9.7-inch Retina Display as the previous iPad model, an improved front-facing camera makes using FaceTime much clearer. The new front-facing camera is capable of video in 720p HD, includes face detection, backside illumination; the rear camera received an upgrade as well. The device is available in space gray and silver colors; as with previous generations, Apple continued to use recyclable materials.
The enclosure of the iPad Air is milled from a solid block of aluminum making it 100% recyclable. The iPad Air is free of harmful materials such as BFRs and PVC. Although the Air inherits most of the same hardware components from the iPhone 5S, such as its 64-bit Apple A7 system-on-chip and Apple M7 motion processor, it uses the same home button, built in previous iPad models and therefore does not support Touch ID and fingerprint sensor; the A7 present in the iPad Air is different however, in that it does not use a PoP design which stacks the RAM on top of the SoC. It features a metal heat spreader to compensate for the faster clock speed and better thermal management; the Air includes a 5 megapixel rear-facing camera, a FaceTime HD front-facing camera, support for 802.11n, an estimated 10 hours of battery life. It boots faster than any previous iPad model. A