Television in Argentina
Argentine television broadcasting began in 1951 with the inaugural of state-owned Canal 7, developed by Radio Belgrano executive Jaime Yankelevich. Color television broadcasting, was not available until after 1978, when the government launched Argentina Televisora Color, now Televisión Pública Argentina. Argentina is one of only five Latin American countries to use the PAL broadcast television system and is one of the only four Spanish-speaking countries to use PAL; the prevalence of cable television, increasing since the first CATV transmitter opened in the city of Junín in 1965, is now the third-widest in the world, reaching at least 78% of households. Argentina has adopted the Japanese standard ISDB-T, with modifications performed by Brazil. Argentina had selected ATSC standard in 1998, backed by Grupo Clarin over DVB-T promoted by the biggest incumbent telcos and European cellphone manufacturers like Nokia. There had been experimental ATSC broadcasts since 1999. There is an agreement between Brazil and Argentina, signed in the light of the Mercosur trade bloc, where both countries agree to share information and efforts to select the same Digital TV standard.
By August 27, 2009, the Argentine government announced that the Japanese standard was adopted, along with Chile and Perú at the same time. The goal behind this political decision is to achieve a wide, high quality regional TV. Major TV broadcasters, namely El Trece and Telefe had been showing off sample digital broadcasts at electronics and media sector shows like the CAPER exhibition, but Canal 13 still hasn't started to broadcast in the now official Argentine standard. HDTV-ready TV sales are increasing in Argentina, with the first TVs made available since 2005 by local firm Philips; the firm introduced back three HD-ready CRT TVs in 25, 29, 33-inch versions. These tvs were manufactured in Tierra del Fuego and included Pal-N/B and NTSC analogue tuners, plus HD component video inputs. Only a single model, the 25-inch, 16:9 one featured HDMI; as of 2008 the firm has switched to LCDs. In November 2008, local cable TV firm Cablevision, which merged with Multicanal, started offering its "Cablevision HD" service.
This rather expensive offering costs an additional $30 ARS over the standard Digital-TV service price. It uses ATSC and the firm makes mandatory the purchase of its "HD Tuner with DVR" at a cost of around $200 US dollars; as of late 2008 most LCDs advertised. As of December 2013, digital television has reached 80 percent of Argentina. Argentina will end all analogue broadcasts in 2019. Cable television had its origins in the 1960s, when a CATV service started to operate in Junín, Buenos Aires. Cable television is available in 5.5 million homes, the best ratio in Latin America and second in the world. In the 1980s cable operators started operations in the absence of local regulations; those earlier operators started a merged process which evolved toward the merge of Cablevision and Multicanal, the two biggest cable companies. The resultant company, named Cablevision, is owned by Grupo Clarin, the biggest newspaper in Argentina, the owner of LS85-TV TyC the owner of the monopoly of the soccer TV broadcast rights, thus turning into the dominant player.
Some small TV cable companies are operating, but the tendency now is that Cablevision will dominate this market in the future. Telecom Operator, Telefónica and Telecom, the monopoly in the fixed-cellular market is lobbying for opening the market towards the triple play; the Government is opening a window to allow the cable operators to enter in the telephony and extend internet coverage, before deregulating this market. In order to operate as a cable company in Argentina, a license from Comfer is required; this license is difficult to get. América Televisión Pública Argentina Canal 9 Telefe El Trece Viewing shares, October 2013: List of Latin American television channels
Universidad Nacional de las Artes
The National University of the Arts, in Spanish: UNA - Universidad Nacional de las Artes known as IUNA - Instituto Universitario Nacional de las Artes, is an Argentine university established in 1996 as an incorporation of various national institutions dedicated to the teaching of fine arts. The origins of the current UNA University lay in the 1875 founding of the National Society of the Stimulus of the Arts by painters Eduardo Schiaffino, Eduardo Sívori, others, their guild was rechartered as the National Academy of Fine Arts in 1905 and, in 1923, on the initiative of painter and academic Ernesto de la Cárcova, as a department in the University of Buenos Aires, the Superior Art School of the Nation. The latter in 1927 created the Museum of Comparative Sculpture. In 1936 theatre director Antonio Cunill Cabanellas founded the National Institute of Theatrical Studies; these institutions of Performing Arts, including the Carlos López Buchardo National Conservatory of Music, the National Institute of Superior Education and Folklore, the María Ruanova National Institute of Superior Education and Dance, the National Institutes of Liberal Arts Education, all united forming the new National University of the Arts, "Universidad Nacional de las Artes", issued in 1996 by Argentina's Ministry of Education.
Audiovisual Arts Dramatic Arts Kinetic Arts Music Visual Arts Art Criticism Folklore Educators Program Multimedia Writing Arts The Ernesto de la Cárcova Museum of Reproductions and Comparative Sculpture Eduardo Arnosi, music critic, radio personality, writer on music List of Argentine universities Official website
Tango is a style of music in 24 or 44 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. It is traditionally played on a solo guitar, guitar duo, or an ensemble, known as the orquesta típica, which includes at least two violins, piano, double bass, at least two bandoneóns. Sometimes guitars and a clarinet join the ensemble. Tango may include a vocalist. Tango music and dance have become popular throughout the world. Though present forms developed in Argentina and Uruguay from the mid 19th century, there are records of 19th and early 20th century Tango styles in Cuba and Spain, while there is a flamenco Tangos dance that may share a common ancestor in a minuet-style European dance. All sources stress the influence of the African communities and their rhythms, while the instruments and techniques brought in by European immigrants in the 20th century played a major role in its final definition, relating it to the Salon music styles to which Tango would contribute back at a stage.
Angel Villoldo's 1903 tango El Choclo was first recorded no than 1906 in Philadelphia. Villoldo himself recorded it in Paris. Villoldo had to record in Paris. Early tango was played by immigrants in Buenos Aires later in Montevideo; the first generation of tango players was called "Guardia Vieja". It took time to move into wider circles: in the early 20th century it was the favorite music of thugs and gangsters who visited the brothels, in a city with 100,000 more men than women; the complex dances that arose from such rich music reflects how the men would practice the dance in groups, demonstrating male sexuality and causing a blending of emotion and aggressiveness. The music was played on portable instruments: flute and violin trios, with bandoneón arriving at the end of the 19th century; the organito, a portable player-organ, broadened the popularity of certain songs. Eduardo Arolas was the major instrument of the bandoneón's popularization, with Vicente Greco soon standardizing the tango sextet as consisting of piano, double bass, two violins and two bandoneóns.
Like many forms of popular music, tango was associated with the underclass, attempts were made to restrict its influence. In spite of the scorn, like writer Ricardo Güiraldes, were fans. Güiraldes played a part in the international popularization of tango, which had conquered the world by the end of World War I, wrote a poem which describes the music as the "all-absorbing love of a tyrant, jealously guarding his dominion, over women who have surrendered submissively, like obedient beasts". One song that would become the most known of all tango melodies dates from this time; the first two sections of La Cumparsita were composed as a march instrumental in 1916 by teen-aged Gerardo Matos Rodríguez of Uruguay. Besides the global influences mentioned above, early Tango was locally influenced by Payada, the Milonga from Argentine and Uruguay Pampas, Uruguayan Candombe. In Argentina there was Milonga "from the country" since the mid eighteenth century; the first "payador" remembered is Santos Vega. The origins of Milonga seem to be in the Pampa with strong African influences though the local Candombe.
It is believed that this candombe existed and was practised in Argentina since the first slaves were brought into the country. Although the word "tango" to describe a music/dance style had been printed as early as 1823 in Havana, the first Argentinian written reference is from an 1866 newspaper, that quotes the song "La Coqueta". In 1876 a tango-candombe called "El Merenguengué" became popular, after its success in the Afro-Argentines carnival held in February of that year, it is played with harp and flute in addition to the Afro-Argentine Candombe drums. This has been considered as one of the strong points of departure for the birth and development of Tango; the first "group" of tango, was composed of two Afro-Argentines, "the black" Casimiro Alcorta and "the mulatto" Sinforoso. They did small concerts in Buenos Aires since the early 1870s until the early 1890s. "The black Casimiro" is author of "Entrada Prohibida" signed by the brothers Teisseire, "la yapa". It must be said, though that this duo was the author and performer of many of the early tangos now listed as "anonymous", since at that time were not used to signing works.
Before the 1900s, the following tangos were being played: "El queco", "Señora casera", "Andate a la recoleta", "El Porteñito", "Tango Nº1", "Dame la lata", "Que polvo con tanto viento", "No me tires con la tapa de la olla", "El Talar". One of the first women to write tango scores was Eloísa D’Herbil, she wrote such pieces as Y a mí qué, Che no calotiés! and others, between 1872 and 1885. The first is in the Museum of the City Score Rosario. On the other hand, the first copyrighted tango score is "El entrerriano", released in 1896 and printed in 1898 – by Rosendo Mendizabal, an Afro-Argentine; as for the transiti
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Ovidio Cátulo González Castillo was an Argentine poet and tango music composer. He was the author of many famous works, such as Organito de la tarde, El aguacero, Tinta roja and Caserón de tejas, María and La última curda, El último café; the tango La calesita, which he composed with Mariano Mores, inspired the film of the same name directed in 1962 by Hugo del Carril. His father, José González Castillo, an anarchist, wanted to list himself in the civil registry as Descanso Dominical González Castillo, but was convinced by his friends not to, kept his other name; as an infant, Cátulo lived in Chile. He returned to Argentina in 1913. Cátulo affiliated with the Communist Party. Cátulo composed Organito de la tarde, his first tango, at the age of 17, he was a boxer becoming the featherweight champion in Argentina and was pre-selected for the Paris Olympics, attending as part of his country's delegation, but not competing. In 1926, he traveled to Europe, where he would conduct his own orchestra. During the 30's, he obtained one of the cathedras of the Municipal Conservatory of Manuel de Falla in Buenos Aires.
In 1950, he would become the director of that conservatory. During the 40's and 50's, when tango was at its peak, he dedicated himself to poetry and wrote with distinguished composers: Mores, Pugliese, Sebastián Piana, his main collaborator after 1945: Aníbal Troilo, he wrote for many journals, published the book Danzas Argentinas in 1953, composed songs for different films, wrote the lyrical sainete El Patio de la Morocha, was both secretary and president of SADAIC in different years. In 1953, he became president of the National Commission of Culture of the Nation. Two years the military government, the so-called Revolución Libertadora, stripped him of everything he had achieved, his wife, Amanda Pelufo, recalls those times: Because of persecution by Pedro Eugenio Aramburu's government, he had to abandon his profession. Included on blacklists with dozens of other tangueros like Hugo de Carril, Nelly Omar, Héctor Mauré, Anita Palmero, Chola Luna, among others, he was persecuted for his political ideas, did not return to work until the regime's fall.
With the political thaw in the 60's, Cátulo returned to his former activity. He continued composing, writing radical screenplays, working in SADAIC, he published un hombre, which became a film directed by Hugo del Carril. He published Prostibulario, on his correspondence with Perón, in 1971. Among his most popular songs were: Maria, El último café, La última curda, La Calesita, Café de los Angelitos, Desencuentro, Y a mi qué, A Homero, Mensaje, Tinta roja, Patio mío, Caserón de tejas. In 1974, he was named Illustrious Citizen of Buenos Aires. Upon receiving the award, he told a short fable: He died 19 October 1975 from a heart attack. AuthorEl patio de la morocha La calesita Amalio Reyes, un hombre Perón, sinfonía del sentimiento MusicInternado Juan Moreira Los muchachos se divierten Arrabalera SoundtracksAyúdame a vivir Eclipse de sol Buenos Aires a la vista Vivir un instante La muerte flota en el río Últimas imágenes del naufragio TextsÉsta es mi Argentina Gobello, José. Mujeres y hombres que hicieron el tango.
Buenos Aires. Centro Editor de Cultura Argentina. ISBN 950-898-081-8. Manrupe, Raúl. Un diccionario de films argentinos. Buenos Aires: Editorial Corregidor. ISBN 950-05-0896-6. Cátulo Castillo, Todo Tango Información sobre Cátulo Castillo on the Argentine national film website