The pun called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect. These ambiguities can arise from the intentional use of homophonic, metonymic, or figurative language. A pun differs from a malapropism in that a malapropism is an incorrect variation on a correct expression, while a pun involves expressions with multiple interpretations. Puns may be regarded as in-jokes or idiomatic constructions as their usage and meaning are specific to a particular language or its culture. Puns have a long history in human writing. For example, the Roman playwright Plautus was famous for word games. Puns can be classified in various ways; the homophonic pun, a common type, are not synonymous. Walter Redfern summarized this type with his statement, "To pun is to treat homonyms as synonyms." For example, in George Carlin's phrase "atheism is a non-prophet institution", the word prophet is put in place of its homophone profit, altering the common phrase "non-profit institution".
The joke "Question: Why do we still have troops in Germany? Answer: To keep the Russians in Czech" relies on the aural ambiguity of the homophones check and Czech. Puns are not homophonic, but play on words of similar, not identical, sound as in the example from the Pinky and the Brain cartoon film series: "I think so, but if we give peas a chance, won't the lima beans feel left out?" which plays with the similar—but not identical—sound of peas and peace in the anti-war slogan "Give Peace a Chance". A homographic pun exploits words which are spelled the same but possess different meanings and sounds; because of their nature, they rely on sight more than hearing, contrary to homophonic puns. They are known as heteronymic puns. Examples in which the punned words exist in two different parts of speech rely on unusual sentence construction, as in the anecdote: "When asked to explain his large number of children, the pig answered simply:'The wild oats of my sow gave us many piglets.'" An example that combines homophonic and homographic punning is Douglas Adams's line "You can tune a guitar, but you can't tuna fish.
Unless of course, you play bass." The phrase uses the homophonic qualities of tune a and tuna, as well as the homographic pun on bass, in which ambiguity is reached through the identical spellings of, and. Homographic puns do not need to follow grammatical rules and do not make sense when interpreted outside the context of the pun. Homonymic puns, another common type, arise from the exploitation of words which are both homographs and homophones; the statement "Being in politics is just like playing golf: you are trapped in one bad lie after another" puns on the two meanings of the word lie as "a deliberate untruth" and as "the position in which something rests". An adaptation of a joke repeated by Isaac Asimov gives us "Did you hear about the little moron who strained himself while running into the screen door?" Playing on strained as "to give much effort" and "to filter". A homonymic pun may be polysemic, in which the words must be homonymic and possess related meanings, a condition, subjective.
However, lexicographers define polysemes as listed under a single dictionary lemma while homonyms are treated in separate lemmata. A compound pun is a statement. In this case, the wordplay cannot go into effect by utilizing the separate words or phrases of the puns that make up the entire statement. For example, a complex statement by Richard Whately includes four puns: "Why can a man never starve in the Great Desert? Because he can eat the sand, there, but what brought the sandwiches there? Why, Noah sent Ham, his descendants mustered and bred." This pun uses sand, there/sandwiches there, Ham/ham, mustered/mustard, bred/bread. The phrase "piano is not my forte" links two meanings of the words forte and piano, one for the dynamic markings in music and the second for the literal meaning of the sentence, as well as alluding to "pianoforte", the older name of the instrument. Compound puns may combine two phrases that share a word. For example, "Where do mathematicians go on weekends? To a Möbius strip club!"
Puns on the terms Möbius strip club. A recursive pun is one in which the second aspect of a pun relies on the understanding of an element in the first. For example, the statement "π is only half a pie.". Another example is. Another example is "a Freudian slip is when you say one thing but mean your mother." The recursive pun "Immanuel doesn't pun, he Kant," is attributed to Oscar Wilde. Visual puns are sometimes used in logos, emblems and other graphic symbols, in which one or more of the pun aspects is replaced by a picture. In European heraldry, this technique is called canting arms. Visual and other puns and word games are common in Dutch gable stones as well as in some cartoons, such as Lost Consonants and The Far Side. Another type of visual pun exists in languages. For example, in Chinese, a pun may be based on a similarity in shape of the written character, despite a complete lack of phonetic similarity in the words punned upon. Mark Elvin describes how this "peculiarly Chinese form of visual punning involved comparing written characters to objects."
Richard J. Alexander notes two additional forms which puns may take: graphological (sometimes
Saint Jerome was a Christian priest, confessor and historian. He was born at a village near Emona on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia, he is best known for his translation of most of the Bible into Latin, his commentaries on the Gospels. His list of writings is extensive; the protégé of Pope Damasus I, who died in December of 384, Jerome was known for his teachings on Christian moral life to those living in cosmopolitan centers such as Rome. In many cases, he focused his attention on the lives of women and identified how a woman devoted to Jesus should live her life; this focus stemmed from his close patron relationships with several prominent female ascetics who were members of affluent senatorial families. Jerome is recognised as a saint and Doctor of the Church by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Lutheran Church, the Anglican Communion, his feast day is 30 September. Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus was born at Stridon around 347AD, he was of Illyrian ancestry, although his ability to speak the Illyrian languages causes controversy.
He was not baptized until about 360–366, when he had gone to Rome with his friend Bonosus of Sardica to pursue rhetorical and philosophical studies. He studied under the grammarian Aelius Donatus. There Jerome learned Latin and at least some Greek, though not the familiarity with Greek literature he would claim to have acquired as a schoolboy; as a student in Rome, Jerome engaged in the superficial escapades and sexual experimentation of students there, which he indulged in quite casually but for which he suffered terrible bouts of guilt afterwards. To appease his conscience, he would visit on Sundays the sepulchres of the martyrs and the Apostles in the catacombs; this experience would remind him of the terrors of hell: Often I would find myself entering those crypts, deep dug in the earth, with their walls on either side lined with the bodies of the dead, where everything was so dark that it seemed as though the Psalmist's words were fulfilled, Let them go down quick into Hell. Here and there the light, not entering in through windows, but filtering down from above through shafts, relieved the horror of the darkness.
But again, as soon as you found yourself cautiously moving forward, the black night closed around and there came to my mind the line of Vergil, "Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent". Jerome used a quote from Virgil—"On all sides round horror spread wide. Jerome used classical authors to describe Christian concepts such as hell that indicated both his classical education and his deep shame of their associated practices, such as pederasty, found in Rome. Although skeptical of Christianity, he was converted. After several years in Rome, he travelled with Bonosus to Gaul and settled in Trier where he seems to have first taken up theological studies, where, for his friend Tyrannius Rufinus, he copied Hilary of Poitiers' commentary on the Psalms and the treatise De synodis. Next came a stay of at least several months, or years, with Rufinus at Aquileia, where he made many Christian friends; some of these accompanied Jerome when about 373, he set out on a journey through Thrace and Asia Minor into northern Syria.
At Antioch, where he stayed the longest, two of his companions died and he himself was ill more than once. During one of these illnesses, he had a vision that led him to lay aside his secular studies and devote himself to God, he seems to have abstained for a considerable time from the study of the classics and to have plunged into that of the Bible, under the impulse of Apollinaris of Laodicea teaching in Antioch and not yet suspected of heresy. Seized with a desire for a life of ascetic penance, Jerome went for a time to the desert of Chalcis, to the southeast of Antioch, known as the "Syrian Thebaid", from the number of eremites inhabiting it. During this period, he seems to have found time for writing, he made his first attempt to learn Hebrew under the guidance of a converted Jew. Around this time he had copied for him a Hebrew Gospel, of which fragments are preserved in his notes, is known today as the Gospel of the Hebrews, which the Nazarenes considered to be the true Gospel of Matthew.
Jerome translated parts of this Hebrew Gospel into Greek. Returning to Antioch in 378 or 379, Jerome was ordained there by Bishop Paulinus unwillingly and on condition that he continue his ascetic life. Soon afterward, he went to Constantinople to pursue a study of Scripture under Gregory Nazianzen, he seems to have spent two years there left, the next three he was in Rome again, as secretary to Pope Damasus I and the leading Roman Christians. Invited for the synod of 382, held to end the schism of Antioch as there were rival claimants to be the proper patriarch in Antioch. Jerome had accompanied one of the claimants, Paulinus back to Rome in order to get more support for him, distinguishing himself to the pope, took a prominent place in his papal councils. Jerome was given duties in Rome, he undertook a revision of the Latin Bible, to be based on the Greek manuscripts of the New Testament, he updated the Psalter containing the Book of Psalms in use in Rome, based on the Septuagint. Though he did not realize it
Anchor Bible Series
The Anchor Bible project, consisting of a commentary series, Bible dictionary, reference library, is a scholarly and commercial co-venture begun in 1956, when individual volumes in the commentary series began production. Having initiated a new era of cooperation among scholars in biblical research, over 1,000 scholars—representing Jewish, Eastern Orthodox, Muslim and other traditions—have now contributed to the project, their works offer discussions. The Anchor Bible project continues to produce volumes that keep readers current on recent scholarship and are grounded in analysis; the works bring advances in science and technology to bear on biblical materials, making historical and linguistic knowledge related to the interpretation of the biblical record available to experts and students alike. As of 2005, more than 120 volumes had been published, each edited by David Noel Freedman, General Editor and published by Doubleday, Freedman died in 2008. Since John J. Collins has served as the General Editor.
In 2007, Yale University Press purchased the Anchor Bible Series. Yale now publishes new titles as the Anchor Yale Bible Series; the Anchor Bible Commentary Series, created under the guidance of William Foxwell Albright, comprises a translation and exegesis of the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament and the Intertestamental Books. For each biblical book, the series includes an original translation of ancient texts, using modern knowledge of the ancient languages. Lengthy or complex biblical books are covered in more than one volume. A work in progress, as of 2006, the series has produced over 80 volumes, some of which are updates of earlier works; the series is 99% complete. Others such as II Chronicles and Revelation are under contract; the Anchor Bible Dictionary contains more than 6,000 entries from 800 international scholars. It has illustrations and line-art throughout, is available for download from Logos Bible Software or Accordance Bible Software; the "Dictionary" includes articles on the Dead Sea Scrolls, early Jewish-Christian relations, the historical Jesus and literary methods of biblical criticism, feminist hermeneutics, numerous entries on archaeological sites, as well as bibliographies with citations listed individually at the end of each article.
The Anchor Bible Reference Library is an open-ended series composed of more than thirty separate volumes with information about anthropology, ecology, history, literature, philosophy and theology, among others. Works in the Anchor Yale Bible commentary series include: Speiser, E. A.. Genesis. 1. ISBN 978-0-3001-4025-5. 454 pages. Hendel, Ronald S. Genesis. Propp, William H.. Exodus 1-18. 2. ISBN 978-0-3851-4804-7. 656 pages. Propp, William H.. Exodus 19-40. 2a. ISBN 978-0-3001-3939-6. 865 pages. Milgrom, Jacob. Leviticus 1-16. 3. ISBN 978-0-3001-3940-2. 1085 pages. Milgrom, Jacob. Leviticus 17-22. 3a. ISBN 978-0-3001-4056-9. 656 pages. Milgrom, Jacob. Leviticus 23-27. 3b. ISBN 978-0-3855-0035-7. 720 pages. Levine, Baruch A.. Numbers 1-20. 4. ISBN 978-0-3001-4077-4. 544 pages. Levine, Baruch A.. Numbers 21-36. 4a. ISBN 978-0-3001-3942-6. 624 pages. Weinfeld, Moshe. Deuteronomy 1-11. 5. ISBN 978-0-3851-7593-7. 480 pages. Weinfeld, Moshe. Deuteronomy 12-34. Boling, Robert G.. Joshua. 6. ISBN 978-0-3850-0034-5. 608 pages. Dozeman, Thomas B.. Joshua 1-12.
6b. ISBN 978-0-3001-4975-3. 600 pages. Dozeman, Thomas B. Joshua 13-24. 6c. Boling, Robert G.. Judges. 6a. ISBN 978-0-3850-1029-0. 376 pages. Sasson, Jack M.. Judges 1-12. 6d. ISBN 978-0300190335. 592 pages. Schipper, Jeremy. Ruth. 7. ISBN 978-0-3001-9215-5. 240 pages. Replaced Campbell, Edward F. Jr.. Ruth. 7. ISBN 978-0-3850-5316-7. 216 pages. McCarter, P. Kyle, Jr.. 1 Samuel. 8. ISBN 978-0-3850-6760-7. 504 pages. McCarter, P. Kyle, Jr.. 2 Samuel. 9. ISBN 978-0-3850-6808-6. 576 pages. Cogan, Mordechai. 1 Kings. 10. ISBN 978-0-3001-4053-8. 576 pages. Cogan, Mordechai. 2 Kings. 11. ISBN 978-0-3001-4074-3. 408 pages. Knoppers, Gary N.. 1 Chronicles 1–9. 12. ISBN 978-0-3001-3952-5. 544 pages. Replaced Myers, Jacob M.. 1 Chronicles. 12. ISBN 978-0-3850-1259-1. 336 pages. Knoppers, Gary N.. 1 Chronicles 10–29. 12a. ISBN 978-0-3001-3953-2. 608 pages. Myers, Jacob M.. 2 Chronicles. 13. ISBN 978-0-3850-3757-0. 312 pages. Knoppers, Gary N. 2 Chronicles. Myers, Jacob M.. Ezra - Nehemiah. 14. ISBN 978-0-3850-4695-4. 360 pages. Eskenazi, Tamara Cohn. Ezra - Nehemiah. Moore, Carey A..
Esther. 7b. ISBN 978-0-3850-0472-5. 192 pages. Pope, Marvin H.. Job. 15. ISBN 978-0-3001-4075-0. 507 pages. Dahood, Mitchell. Psalms I 1–50. 16. ISBN 978-0-3850-2765-6. 384 pages. Dahood, Mitchell. Psalms II 51–100. 17. ISBN 978-0-3850-3759-4. 432 pages. Dahood
Belshazzar's feast, or the story of the writing on the wall tells how Belshazzar holds a great feast and drinks from the vessels, looted in the destruction of the First Temple. A hand writes on the wall; the terrified Belshazzar calls for his wise men. The queen advises him to send for Daniel, renowned for his wisdom. Daniel reminds Belshazzar that his father Nebuchadnezzar, when he became arrogant, was thrown down until he learned that God has sovereignty over the kingdom of men. Belshazzar had blasphemed God, so God sent this hand. Daniel reads the message and interprets it: God has numbered Belshazzar's days, he has been weighed and found wanting, his kingdom will be given to the Medes and the Persians; that night Belshazzar the Chaldean king was killed, Darius the Mede received the kingdom. The message of Daniel 5 is the contrast it offers between Nebuchadnezzar and Belshazzar: Nebuchadnezzar is humbled by God, learns his lesson, is restored to his throne. Belshazzar's feast is a legend conforming to the subgenre of the "tale of court contest," complicated by the inclusion of Daniel's indictment of Belshazzar's pride and his failure to honour the God of Israel.
This summarizes the narrative, as found in C. L. Seow's translation of the text in his commentary on Daniel. King Belshazzar holds a great feast for a thousand of his lords, commands that the Temple vessels from Jerusalem be brought in so that they can drink from them, but as the Babylonians drink, a hand appears and writes on the wall. Belshazzar calls for his magicians and diviners to interpret the writing, but they are unable to read them; the queen advises Belshazzar to send for Daniel, renowned for his wisdom. Daniel is brought in, the king offers to make him third in rank in the kingdom if he can interpret the writing. Daniel agrees to the request, he reminds Belshazzar that Nebuchadnezzar's greatness was the gift of God, that when he became arrogant God threw him down until he learned humility: "the Most High God has sovereignty over the kingdom of mortals, sets over it whomever He will." Belshazzar has drunk from the vessels of God's Temple and praised his idols, but he has not given honour to God, so God sent this hand and wrote these words: מנא מנא תקל ופרסין Daniel reads the words "MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN" and interprets them for the king: "MENE, God has numbered the days of your kingdom and brought it to an end.
Belshazzar gave the command, Daniel was clothed in purple, a chain of gold was put around his neck, a proclamation was made… that he should rank third in the kingdom. The Chaldean wise men are unable to read the writing on the wall, let alone interpret it, but Daniel does so by supplying vowels in two different ways, first so the words are read as nouns as verbs; the nouns are monetary weights: a mənê, equivalent to a Jewish mina or sixty shekels, a təqêl, equivalent to a shekel, p̄arsîn, meaning "half-pieces". The last involves a word-play on the name of the Persians, suggesting not only that they are to inherit Belshazzar's kingdom, but that they are two peoples and Persians. Daniel interprets the words as verbs, based on their roots: mənê is interpreted as meaning "numbered", təqêl, from a root meaning to weigh, as meaning "weighed", pərês, the singular form of p̄arsîn, from a root meaning "to divide", denoting that the kingdom is to be "divided" and given to the Medes and Persians. If the "half-pieces" means two half-shekels the various weights—a mənê or sixty shekels, another shekel, two half-shekels—add up to 62, which the tale gives as the age of Darius the Mede, indicating that God's will is being worked out.
It is accepted that the Book of Daniel originated as a collection of folktales among the Jewish community in Babylon in the Persian and early Hellenistic periods, was expanded in the Maccabean era with the visions of chapters 7–12. Modern scholarship agrees that Daniel is a legendary figure, it is possible that his name was chosen for the hero of the book because of his reputation as a wise seer in Hebrew tradition. Chapters 2–7 of the book form a chiasm: A. – A dream of four kingdoms replaced by a fifth B. – Daniel's three friends in the fiery furnace C. – Daniel interprets a dream for Nebuchadnezzar C'. – Daniel interprets the handwriting on the wall for Belshazzar B'. – Daniel in the lions' den A'. – A vision of four world kingdoms replaced by a fifthDaniel 5 is thus composed as a companion-piece to Daniel 4, the tale of the madness of Nebuchadnezzar, the two giving variations on a single theme. This is spelled out in chapter 5 when Daniel draws a direct parallel between the two kings: the fate of Belshazzar illustrates what happens
Daniel in the lions' den
The story of Daniel in the lions' den tells how Daniel is raised to high office by his royal master Darius the Mede, but jealous rivals trick Darius into issuing a decree which condemns Daniel to death. Hoping for Daniel's deliverance, but unable to save him, the king has him cast into the pit of lions. At daybreak he hurries back. Daniel replies that God had sent an angel to close the jaws of the lions, "because I was found blameless before him." The king has those who had conspired against Daniel, their wives and children, thrown to the lions in his place, commands to all the people of the whole world to "tremble and fear before the God of Daniel". Modern scholarship agrees; the book of which he is the hero comprises two parts, a set of tales in chapters 1–6, the series of visions in chapters 7–12: the tales are no earlier than the Hellenistic period, the visions date from the Maccabean era. The stories were originally independent, but were collected in the mid-2nd century by the author of chapter 7 and expanded again shortly afterwards with the visions in chapters 8-12 to produce the modern book.
Chapter 6, the story of Daniel in the lions' den, parallels chapter 3, the story of the "fiery furnace": each begins with the jealousy of non-Jews towards successful Jews and an imperial edict requiring the Jews to compromise their religion, concludes with divine deliverance and a king who confesses the greatness of the God of the Jews and issues an edict of royal protection. Daniel is raised to high office by his royal master Darius the Mede. Daniel's jealous rivals trick Darius into issuing a decree that for thirty days no prayers should be addressed to any god or man but Darius himself. Daniel continues to pray to the God of Israel, the king, although distressed, must condemn Daniel to death, for the edicts of the Medes and Persians cannot be altered. Hoping for Daniel's deliverance, he has him cast into the pit. At daybreak the king hurries to the place and cries out anxiously, asking if God had saved his friend. Daniel replies that his God had sent an angel to close the jaws of the lions, "because I was found blameless before him."
The king commands that those who had conspired against Daniel should be thrown to the lions in his place, along with their wives and children, writes to all the people of the whole world commanding that all should tremble and fear before the God of Daniel. It is accepted that the Book of Daniel originated as a collection of folktales among the Babylonian diaspora, the Jewish community living in Babylon and Mesopotamia in the Persian and Hellenistic periods. Chapters 4–6, which includes the tale of Daniel in the lions' den, may belong to the earliest stage, as these differ quite markedly in the oldest texts. Although the entire book is traditionally ascribed to Daniel the seer, the tales of chapters 1-6, including the story of the lion's den, are the voice of an anonymous narrator, it is possible that the name of Daniel was chosen for the hero because of his reputation as a wise seer in Hebrew tradition. Chapters 2-7 are in Aramaic, are in the clear form of a chiasm: A. – A dream of four kingdoms replaced by a fifth B.
– Daniel's three friends in the fiery furnace C. – Daniel interprets a dream for Nebuchadnezzar C'. – Daniel interprets the handwriting on the wall for Belshazzar B'. – Daniel in the lions' den A'. – A vision of four world kingdoms replaced by a fifthThe story of Daniel in the lions' den in chapter 6 is paired with the story of Shadrach and Abednego and the "fiery furnace" in Daniel 3. The parallels include the jealousy of non-Jews, an imperial edict requiring Jews to compromise their religion on pain of death, divine deliverance; each story climaxes with the king confessing the greatness of the God of the Jews and issuing an edict of royal protection. In each case life is preserved through divine presence in the pit; the structure of Daniel 6 itself is in the form of a chiasm: A. Introduction: Daniel’s success B. Darius’s edict and Daniel’s response C. Daniel’s opponents plot his death D. Darius hopes for Daniel’s deliverance D'. Darius witnesses Daniel’s deliverance C'. Daniel’s opponents sentenced to death B'.
Darius’s edict and doxology A'. Conclusion: Daniel’s success According to Josippon, "the beasts in the den received Daniel as faithful dogs might receive their returning master, wagging their tails and licking him." The Midrash Tehillim says that "the mouth of the den was closed with a huge stone, which had rolled of itself from Palestine to Babylon for that purpose" and that "upon this stone sat an angel in the shape of a lion, so that Daniel's enemies might not harass him." Although Daniel is sometimes depicted as a young man in illustrations of the incident, James Montgomery Boice points out that he would have been over eighty years old at the time. Painters who have depicted this incident include: Jan Brueghel the Younger, Daniel in the Lions' Den Briton Rivière, Daniel's Answer to the King Peter Paul Rubens, Daniel in the Lions' Den Henry Ossawa Tanner, Daniel in the Lions' Den David Teniers the Younger, Daniel in the Lions' Den The 1929 gospel blues song "I've Got the Key to the Kingdom" by Washington Phillips retells the story The Stanley Brothers recorded "Daniel Prayed", a bluegrass retelling of
Chapters and verses of the Bible
The Bible is a compilation of many shorter books written at different times by a variety of authors, assembled into the biblical canon. Since the early 13th century, most copies and editions of the Bible present all but the shortest of these books with divisions into chapters a page or so in length. Since the mid-16th century editors have further subdivided each chapter into verses - each consisting of a few short lines or sentences. Sometimes a sentence spans more than one verse, as in the case of Ephesians 2:8–9, sometimes there is more than one sentence in a single verse, as in the case of Genesis 1:2; as the chapter and verse divisions did not appear in the original texts, they form part of the paratext of the Bible. The Jewish divisions of the Hebrew text differ at various points from those used by Christians. For instance, in Jewish tradition, the ascriptions to many Psalms are regarded as independent verses or parts of the subsequent verses, making 116 more verses, whereas established Christian practice treats each Psalm ascription as independent and unnumbered.
Some chapter divisions occur in different places, e.g. Hebrew Bibles have 1 Chronicles 5:27–41 where Christian translations have 1 Chronicles 6:1–15. Early manuscripts of the biblical texts did not contain the chapter and verse divisions in the numbered form familiar to modern readers. In antiquity Hebrew texts were divided into paragraphs that were identified by two letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Peh פ indicated an "open" paragraph that began on a new line, while Samekh ס indicated a "closed" paragraph that began on the same line after a small space; these two letters begin the Hebrew words open and closed, are, open פ and closed ס. The earliest known copies of the Book of Isaiah from the Dead Sea Scrolls used parashot divisions, although they differ from the Masoretic divisions; the Hebrew Bible was divided into some larger sections. In Israel the Torah were divided into 154 sections so that they could be read through aloud in weekly worship over the course of three years. In Babylonia it was divided into 54 sections so it could be read through in one year.
The New Testament was divided into topical sections known as kephalaia by the fourth century. Eusebius of Caesarea divided the gospels into parts that he listed in canons. Neither of these systems corresponds with modern chapter divisions. Chapter divisions, with titles, are found in the 9th century Tours manuscript, Paris Bibliothèque Nationale MS Lat. 3, the so-called Bible of Rorigo. Archbishop Stephen Langton and Cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caro developed different schemas for systematic division of the Bible in the early 13th century, it is the system of Archbishop Langton. While chapter divisions have become nearly universal, editions of the Bible have sometimes been published without them; such editions, which use thematic or literary criteria to divide the biblical books instead, include John Locke's Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistles of St. Paul, Alexander Campbell's The Sacred Writings, Daniel Berkeley Updike's fourteen-volume The Holy Bible Containing the Old and New Testaments and the Apocrypha, Richard Moulton's The Modern Reader's Bible, Ernest Sutherland Bates's The Bible Designed to Be Read as Living Literature, The Books of the Bible from the International Bible Society, Adam Lewis Greene's five-volume Bibliotheca, the six-volume ESV Reader's Bible from Crossway Books.
Since at least 916 the Tanakh has contained an extensive system of multiple levels of section and phrasal divisions that were indicated in Masoretic vocalization and cantillation markings. One of the most frequent of these was a special type of punctuation, the sof passuq, symbol for a full stop or sentence break, resembling the colon of English and Latin orthography. With the advent of the printing press and the translation of the Bible into English, Old Testament versifications were made that correspond predominantly with the existing Hebrew full stops, with a few isolated exceptions. Most attribute these to Rabbi Isaac Nathan ben Kalonymus's work for the first Hebrew Bible concordance around 1440; the first person to divide New Testament chapters into verses was Italian Dominican biblical scholar Santi Pagnini, but his system was never adopted. His verse divisions in the New Testament were far longer than those known today. Robert Estienne created an alternate numbering in his 1551 edition of the Greek New Testament, used in his 1553 publication of the Bible in French.
Estienne's system of division was adopted, it is this system, found in all modern Bibles. Estienne produced a 1555 Vulgate, the first Bible to include the verse numbers integrated into the text. Before this work, they were printed in the margins; the first English New Testament to use the verse divisions was a 1557 translation by William Whittingham. The first Bible in English to use both chapters and verses was the Geneva Bible published shortly afterwards in 1560; these verse divisions soon gained acceptance as a standard way to notate verses, have since been used in nearly all English Bibles and the vast majority of those in other languages. (Nevertheless, some Bibles have removed the verse numbering, including the ones noted above that removed chapter numbers.
Daniel 8 tells of Daniel's vision of a two-horned ram destroyed by a one-horned goat, followed by the history of the "little horn", Daniel's code-word for the Greek king Antiochus Epiphanes. The subject of the vision is Antiochus' oppression of the Jews–he outlawed Jewish customs such as circumcision, Jewish monthly/Lunar calendar, dietary restrictions, Sabbath observance, made ownership of the Torah scroll a capital offense, built an altar to Zeus in the Temple, his program sparked a popular uprising which led to the retaking of Jerusalem and the Temple by Judas Maccabeus. In the third year of Belshazzar, king of Babylon, Daniel in a vision sees himself in Susa, in Elam. In his vision he sees a ram with one greater than the other. Daniel sees a male goat with a single horn come from the west without touching the ground and strike the ram and destroys it. At the height of his power the goat's horn is broken and in its place four horns grow. One of the horns is small but grows great and prospers in everything it does, throwing stars down to the earth, stopping the daily sacrifice, destroying the sanctuary and throwing truth to the ground.
Daniel is told the vision will be fulfilled in 2,300 evenings and mornings, when the sanctuary will be cleansed. The angel Gabriel tells Daniel that this is a vision about the time of the end; the Book of Daniel originated as a collection of folktales among the Jewish community in Babylon and Mesopotamia in the Persian and early Hellenistic periods, was expanded by the visions of chapters 7-12 in the Maccabean era. Daniel is a legendary figure and his name was chosen for the hero of the book because of his reputation as a wise seer in Hebrew tradition; the structure of the chapter can be described as follows: I. Introduction: date and place. Vision report: ram, angelic conversation. Epiphany of interpreter: circumstances and desire for interpretation, epiphany. Interpretation: circumstances, interpretation of images, concluding statement by the angel. Concluding statement of visionary's reaction, v.27. The Book of Daniel is an apocalypse, a literary genre in which a heavenly reality is revealed to a human recipient.
Apocalypses were common from 300 BCE to 100 CE, not only among Jews and Christians, but Greeks, Romans and Egyptians. Daniel, the book's hero, is a representative apocalyptic seer, the recipient of the divine revelation: has learned the wisdom of the Babylonian magicians and surpassed them, because his God is the true source of knowledge; the book is an eschatology, meaning a divine revelation concerning the end of the present age, a moment in which God will intervene in history to usher in the final kingdom. Daniel 8 conforms to the type of the "symbolic dream vision" and the "regnal" or "dynastic" prophecy, analogous to a work called the "Babylonian Dynastic Prophecy"–a more extensive example appears in Daniel 11. For its sources it draws on Daniel 7, which supplies the symbolism of the "little horn" and the "holy ones", as well as on the Book of Ezekiel, which provides the location by a river and the epiphany of the angel, on the Book of Habakkuk with its concern with the "end of time."
The "little horn" which casts some of the stars to the ground recalls Isaiah 14:12 and Lucifer, which in turn presupposes the Ugaritic myth of Attar's attempt to take the throne of Baal. Chapter 8 is about the actions of the world-powers at the "end-time"; the course of history is pre-determined, Antiochus is playing a role in the unwinding of God's plan. Daniel 8 is thus a reinterpretation and expansion of Daniel 7: where chapter 7 spoke only cryptically of the change-over from the Medo-Persian empire to the age of the Greek kings, chapter 8 makes this explicit. Daniel 8 is an interpretation of the author's own time, 167-164 BCE, with a claim that God will bring to an end the oppression of the Jewish people, it begins with the Greek conquest of the Persian empire, touches on the rise of the four Greek successor-kingdoms, focuses on the career of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who took the throne of Seleucid Syria in 175 BCE. While the details which led to Antiochus' conflict with the Jews are obscure, it appears that there was a revolt in Jerusalem, he sent troops to suppress it, as a result the daily Jewish sacrifice was stopped and the Temple polluted.
The date for this is given as 167 BCE. The attempt to wipe out traditional religion and culture provoked a reaction, the Jews, led by Judas Maccabee and his brothers, won sufficient military victories over the Seleucids to take back and purify the temple three years later; the symbols of the ram and he-goat, explained in the text of Daniel 8 as representing the kings of Persia and Greece, are drawn from the constellations that preside over Persia and Syria in Hellenistic astrology. Scholars are agreed that the goat's first horn is Alexander the Great, the four horns which arise are the four generals who divided his empire. Th