An electronic book known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops and smartphones. In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With print books, readers are browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online. With e-books, users can browse through titles online, when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book.
At the start of 2012 in the U. S. more e-books were published online. The main reasons for people buying e-books online are lower prices, increased comfort and a larger selection of titles. With e-books, "lectronic bookmarks make referencing easier, e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages." "Although fiction and non-fiction books come in e-book formats, technical material is suited for e-book delivery because it can be searched" for keywords. In addition, for programming books, code examples can be copied; the amount of e-book reading is increasing in the U. S.. This is increasing, because by 2014 50% of American adults had an e-reader or a tablet, compared to 30% owning such devices in 2013. E-books are referred to as "ebooks", "eBooks", "Ebooks", "e-Books", "e-journals", "e-editions" or as "digital books"; the devices that are designed for reading e-books are called "e-readers", "ebook device" or "eReaders". Some trace the idea of an e-reader that would enable a reader to view books on a screen to a 1930 manifesto by Bob Brown, written after watching his first "talkie".
He titled it The Readies, playing off the idea of the "talkie". In his book, Brown says movies have outmaneuvered the book by creating the "talkies" and, as a result, reading should find a new medium: “A simple reading machine which I can carry or move around, attach to any old electric light plug and read hundred-thousand-word novels in 10 minutes if I want to, I want to.” Brown's notion, was much more focused on reforming orthography and vocabulary, than on medium: introducing huge numbers of portmanteau symbols to replace normal words, punctuation to simulate action or movement. E-readers never followed a model at all like Brown's. Brown predicted the miniaturization and portability of e-readers. In an article, Jennifer Schuessler writes, "The machine, Brown argued, would allow readers to adjust the type size, avoid paper cuts and save trees, all while hastening the day when words could be'recorded directly on the palpitating ether.'" He felt the e-reader should bring a new life to reading.
Schuessler relates it to a DJ spinning bits of old songs to create a beat or an new song as opposed to just a remix of a familiar song. The inventor of the first e-book is not agreed upon; some notable candidates include the following: In 1949, Ángela Ruiz Robles, a teacher from Ferrol, patented the Enciclopedia Mecánica, or the Mechanical Encyclopedia, a mechanical device which operated on compressed air where text and graphics were contained on spools that users would load onto rotating spindles. Her idea was to create a device which would decrease the number of books that her pupils carried to school; the final device would include audio recordings, a magnifying glass, a calculator and an electric light for night reading. Her device was never put into production but one of her prototypes is kept in the National Museum of Science and Technology in La Coruna, Spain; the first e-book may be the Index Thomisticus, a annotated electronic index to the works of Thomas Aquinas, prepared by Roberto Busa, S.
J. beginning in 1949 and completed in the 1970s. Although stored on a single computer, a distributable CD-ROM version appeared in 1989. However, this work is sometimes omitted. In 2005, the Index was published online. Alternatively, some historians consider electronic books to have started in the early 1960s, with the NLS project headed by Doug Engelbart at Stanford Research Institute, the Hypertext Editing System and FRESS projects headed by Andries van Dam at Brown University. FRESS documents were structure-oriented rather than line-oriented. All these systems provided extensive hyperlinking and other capabilities. Van Dam is thought to have coined the term "electronic book", it was established enough to use in an article title by 1985. FRESS was used for reading extensive primary texts on
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans and society, the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole; the primary purposes of basic research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary both within and between humanities and sciences.
There are several forms of research: scientific, artistic, social, marketing, practitioner research, technological, etc. The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning'search'; the earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577. Research has been defined in a number of different ways, while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition, embraced by all who engage in it. One definition of research is used by the OECD, "Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man and society, the use of this knowledge to devise new applications."Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that "research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue".
It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, present an answer to the question. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "studious inquiry or examination; this material is of a primary source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline. In experimental work, it involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject, e.g. in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and established by means of peer review. Graduate students are required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a systematic way of harnessing curiosity; this research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics.
Humanities scholars do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, context can be social, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without looking for reasons or motivations to explain these; these studies may be qualitative or quantitative, can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory. Artistic research seen as'practice-based research', can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself, it is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative t
Umbria is a region of central Italy. It includes Lake Trasimeno and Marmore Falls, is crossed by the River Tiber; the regional capital is Perugia. Umbria is known for its landscapes, history, culinary delights, artistic legacy, influence on culture; the region is characterized by hills, mountains and historical towns such as the university centre of Perugia, Assisi, a World Heritage Site associated with St. Francis of Assisi, the Basilica of San Francesco and other Franciscan sites, works by Giotto and Cimabue, Terni; the hometown of Santa Rita, the hometown of St. Valentine, the hometown of St. Benedict, Città di Castello, main center of the early Renaissance situated in the Tiber High Valley, the hometown of St. Ubaldo, Orvieto, Castiglione del Lago, Narni and other small cities. Umbria is bordered by Tuscany to Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. Hilly and mountainous, flat and fertile owing to the valley of the Tiber, its topography includes part of the central Apennines, with the highest point in the region at Monte Vettore on the border of the Marche, at 2,476 metres.
It is the only Italian region having a common border with other countries. The comune of Città di Castello has an exclave named Monte Ruperto within Marche. Contained within Umbria is the hamlet of Cospaia, a tiny republic from 1440 to 1826, created by accident. Umbria is crossed by two valleys: the Umbrian valley, stretching from Perugia to Spoleto, the Tiber Valley and west of the first one, from Città di Castello to the border with Lazio; the Tiber River forms the approximate border with Lazio, although its source is just over the Tuscan border. The Tiber's three principal tributaries flow southward through Umbria; the Chiascio basin is uninhabited as far as Bastia Umbra. About 10 kilometres farther on, it joins the Tiber at Torgiano; the Topino, cleaving the Apennines with passes that the Via Flaminia and successor roads follow, makes a sharp turn at Foligno to flow NW for a few kilometres before joining the Chiascio below Bettona. The third river is the Nera, flowing into the Tiber further south, at Terni.
The upper Nera cuts ravines in the mountains. In antiquity, the plain was covered by a pair of shallow, interlocking lakes, the Lacus Clitorius and the Lacus Umber, they were drained by the Romans over several hundred years. An earthquake in the 4th century and the political collapse of the Roman Empire resulted in the refilling of the basin, it was drained a second time a thousand years during a 500-year period: Benedictine monks started the process in the 13th century, the draining was completed by an engineer from Foligno in the 18th century. The eastern part of the region, being crossed by many faults, has been hit by earthquakes: the last ones have been that of 1997 and those of 2016. In literature, Umbria is referred to The green heart of Italy; the phrase is taken from a poem by Giosuè Carducci, the subject of, the source of the Clitunno River in Umbria. The region is named for the Umbri people, an Italic people, absorbed by the expansion of the Romans; the Umbri's capital city was Gubbio, where today is housed the longest and most important document of any of the Osco-Umbrian group of languages, the Iguvine Tablets.
Pliny the Elder recounted a fanciful derivation for the tribal name from the Greek ὄμβρος "a shower", which had led to the confused idea that they had survived the Deluge familiar from Greek mythology, giving them the claim to be the most ancient race in Italy. In fact, they belonged to a broader family of neighbouring peoples with similar roots, their language was one of the Italic languages, related to Latin and Oscan. The northern part of the region was occupied by Gallic tribes; the Umbri sprang, like neighboring peoples, from the creators of the Terramara, Proto-Villanovan culture in northern and central Italy, who entered north-eastern Italy at the beginning of the Bronze Age. The Etruscans were the chief enemies of the Umbri; the Etruscan invasion went from the western seaboard towards the north and east from about 700 to 500 BC driving the Umbrians towards the Apennine uplands and capturing 300 Umbrian towns. The Umbrian population does not seem to have been eradicated in the conquered districts.
The border between Etruria and Umbria was the Tiber river: the ancient name of Todi, remembers that. After the downfall of the Etruscans, Umbrians aided the Samnites in their struggle against Rome. Communications with Samnium were impeded by the Roman fortress of Narnia. Romans defeated their Gallic allies in the battle of Sentinum. Allied Umbrians and Etruscans had to return to their territories to defend against simultaneous Roman attacks, so were unable to help the Samnites in the battle of Sentinum; the Roman victory at Sentinum started a period of integration under the Roman rulers, who established some colonies and built the via Flaminia. The via Flaminia became a principal vector for Roman development in Umbria. During Hannibal's invasion in the second Punic war, the battle of Lake Trasimene was fought in Umbria, but the local people did not aid the invader. During the Roman civil war between Mark Antony and Octavian, the city of Perugia supported Antony
Giuliana Berlinguer was an Italian director and novelist. Born in Mantua, Berlinguer studied at the Silvio d’Amico Academy of Dramatic Arts, where she graduated in stage direction, she focused on television, directing several RAI TV-movies and series, notably a successful 1969 Nero Wolfe miniseries starring Tino Buazzelli in the title role. In 1983 she directed the war-drama film Il disertore, screened at the Venice Film Festival, she was the wife of the brother of Enrico Berlinguer. Giuliana Berlinguer on IMDb
Corriere della Sera
The Corriere della Sera is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015. First published on 5 March 1876, Corriere della Sera is one of Italy's oldest newspapers and is Italy's most read newspaper, its masthead has remained unchanged since its first edition in 1876. It reached a circulation of over 1 million under editor and co-owner Luigi Albertini, 1900-1925, he was a strong opponent of Socialism, of clericalism, of Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti, willing to compromise with those forces. Albertini's opposition to the Fascist regime forced the other co-owners to oust him 1925. Today its main competitors are Turin's La Stampa. Corriere della Sera was first published on Sunday 5 March 1876 by Eugenio Torelli Viollier. In 1899 the paper began to offer Domenica del Corriere. In the 1910s and 1920s, under the direction of Luigi Albertini, Corriere della Sera became the most read newspaper in Italy, maintaining its importance and influence into the present century.
It was Corriere della Sera which introduced comics in Italy in 1908 through a supplement for children, namely Corriere dei Piccoli. The newspaper's headquarters has been in the same buildings since the beginning of the 20th century, therefore it is popularly known as "the Via Solferino newspaper" after the street where it is still located; as the name indicates, it was an evening paper. During the fascist regime in Italy Corriere della Sera funded the Mussolini Prize, awarded to the writers Ada Negri and Emilio Cecchi among the others. Mario Borsa, a militant anti-fascist, was appointed the editor-in-chief of Corriere della Sera in May 1945, he was fired because of his political leanings in August 1946 and was replaced by Guglielmo Emanuel, a right-wing journalist. Emanuel served in the post until 1952. In the 1950s Corriere della Sera was the organ of the conservative establishment in Italy and was anti-communist and pro-NATO; the paper was functional in shaping the views of the Italian upper and middle classes during this period.
The owners of the Corriere della Sera, the Crespi family, sold a share to RCS Media in the 1960s and was listed in the Italian stock exchange. Its main shareholders were Mediobanca, the Fiat group and some of the biggest industrial and financial groups in Italy. In 1974 the RCS Media moved on to control the majority of the paper. Alberto Cavallari was the editor-in-chief of the paper during the early 1980s. In 1981 the newspaper was laterally involved in the P2 scandal when it was discovered that the secret Freemason lodge had the newspaper's editor Franco Di Bella and the former owner Angelo Rizzoli on its member lists. In September 1987 the paper launched a weekly magazine supplement, the first in its category in Italy. From 1987 to 1992 the editor-in-chief of Corriere della Sera was Ugo Stille; the 1988 circulation of Corriere della Sera was 715,000 copies, making it the second most read newspaper in Italy. The paper started its Saturday supplement, IO Donna, in 1996. In 1997 Corriere della Sera was the best-selling Italian newspaper with a circulation of 687,000 copies.
Corriere della Sera had a circulation of 715,000 copies in 2001. In 2002 it fell to 681,000 copies. In 2003, its editor Ferruccio de Bortoli resigned from the post; the journalists and opposition politicians claimed the resignation was due to the paper's criticism of Silvio Berlusconi. In 2004, Corriere della Sera launched an online English section focusing on Italian current affairs and culture; the same year it was the best-selling newspaper in Italy with a circulation of 677,542 copies. Its circulation in December 2007 was 662,253 copies, it is one of the most visited Italian-language news websites, attracting over 1.6 million readers every day. The online version of the paper was the thirteenth most visited website in the country. On 24 September 2014 Corriere della Sera changed its broadsheet format to the Berliner format; the "Third Page" used to feature a main article named Elzeviro, which over the years has published contributions from all the editors as well as major novelists and journalists.
On Monday, Corriere is published along with a weekly finance and business magazine. On Thursday, it is published with a current events magazine. On Sunday, it is published along with a weekly literary supplement; the Italian novelist Dino Buzzati was a journalist at the Corriere della Sera. Other notable contributors include Eugenio Montale, Curzio Malaparte, Gabriele D'Annunzio, Enzo Bettiza, Italo Calvino, Alberto Moravia, Amos Oz, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Guido Piovene, Giovanni Spadolini, Oriana Fallaci, Alessandra Farkas, Lando Ferretti, Brunella Gasperini, Enzo Biagi, Indro Montanelli, Giovanni Sartori, Paolo Brera, Francesco Alberoni, Tracy Chevalier, Goffredo Parise, Sergio Romano, Sandro Paternostro, Alan Friedman, Tommaso Landolfi, Alberto Ronchey and Paolo Mieli. Editors Columnist & Journalists Corriere dei Piccoli a children's supplement of the Corriere della Sera. List of non-English newspapers with English language subsections Media of Italy Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers.
Pp. 104–110. Corriere Canadese - the defunct Canadian newspaper where the infamous Vincent C. Torrieri worked. Wwwenglishtraining.it Official website
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has completed a particular course of study. The word diploma refers to an academic award, given after the completion of study in different courses such as diploma in higher education, diploma in graduation or diploma in post graduation etc, it can refer to a charter or official document, thus diplomatic and diplomacy via the Codex Juris Gentium Diplomaticus. The diploma may be called a testamur, Latin for "we testify" or "certify", so called from the word with which the certificate begins. Alternatively, this document can be referred to as a degree certificate or graduation certificate, or as a parchment; the certificate that a Nobel laureate receives is called a diploma. The term diploma is used in some historical contexts, to refer to documents signed by a King affirming a grant or tenure of specified land and its conditions. In Australia, there are three varieties of Diploma recognized by the Australian Qualifications Framework: a "Diploma", a qualification granted by vocational education and training sector or university.
It is completed with 12 to 18 months of full-time study. When accepted for credit as part of a bachelor's degree, it is deemed to be equivalent to the first year of the degree. An "Advanced Diploma", equivalent to an Australian "Associate Degree". A "Graduate Diploma", undertaken after completing a bachelor's degree; this can be in a field other than that covered by said degree. It can be a coursework-only qualification undertaken as additional study in a specialisation within one's degree area; the "Vocational Graduate Diploma" was a short lived AQF qualification equivalent to the "Graduate Diploma", intended to be delivered in the VET sector. On January 1, 2015, all such qualifications being offered lost the word "Vocational" from their title. In Ontario, diplomas are awarded by colleges of applied arts and technology whereas bachelor degrees are awarded by universities. In Canada, depending on the provincial legislation, there may be a difference between a college and a university. In Germany, Serbia, Croatia and other countries that adopted the German academic education system, diploma is the standard academic degree, needing at least 3.5 years to complete it, being comparable with a Bachelor's and Master's degree in one.
In Greece, diplomas can be awarded by educational institutes as a proof of a certain educational level. The diploma in engineering is a degree provided by Greek technical universities and universities after the successful completion of a five-year integrated study program and it is equivalent to the Master of Engineering degree, awarded by the European universities. In Greece there are the Vocational Training Diploma provided by the National Qualifications and Vocational Guidance Organization to the Vocational Training Institutes IEK, following certification exams carried out by the E. O. P. P. E. P. In Hong Kong, Diploma or Advanced Diploma/Certificate, Professional Diploma/Certificate, Higher Diploma, Associate Degree are below the level of the Bachelor Degree. Certificate Qualifications Frameworks Level 3 or below. Postgraduate Certificates and Postgraduate Diplomas are granted after the Bachelor Degree. It's more vocational oriented than a Master's Degree. In India, a diploma is a specific academic award earned in professional/vocational courses, e.g. Diploma in Engineering, Diploma in Nursing, Diploma in Pharmacy etc.
Engineering diploma is concentrated for the area of study, e.g. diploma in Electronics Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Civil Engineering etc. Postgraduate Diploma or PGD are ranked higher than the Bachelor's degree as they are completed after graduation; these are a year's worth of coursework after a university degree. There are two types of diplomas/certificate issuance which are issued in formal education sector & non formal education sector. Formal education sector diploma/certificates are issued by govt. approved/recognized institution and universities etc. and non formal education sector diploma/certificates are issued by NGOs, companies and societies etc. outside formal education sector. In the Republic of Ireland, a National Diploma was awarded before 2004, it was at the same level as the ordinary bachelor's degree and below the honours Bachelor's degree, whilst the Higher Diploma is taken after the bachelor's degree. There is BTEC Extended Diploma after which one gets progression to a Degree.
In Mexico and other Latin American countries, a diploma may be awarded for short courses of vocational training. The university-issued diplomas finalizing higher education are most called título or certificado. A "Diplomado" can be a short, specialized executive education program for experienced professionals. In Pakistan, a diploma is a specific academic award earned in professional/vocational courses e.g. Diploma in Engineering, Diploma in
A magazine is a publication a periodical publication, printed or electronically published. Magazines are published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content, they are financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles; this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 3⁄8 in × 10 7⁄8 in. However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume, thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which starts each volume with the winter issue and continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal.
Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy. Academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are professional magazines; that a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense. Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations; the subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics; this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, not who reads them.
This is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one; this allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, in finance, Waters Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International; the earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, launched in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse.
Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734. Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists, he disseminated the weekly news of music and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique. The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris.
They were not quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat was the most prominent editor, his L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature and stories, they served religious and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major