The Apple II is an 8-bit home computer, one of the first successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed by Steve Wozniak. It was introduced in 1977 at the West Coast Computer Faire by Jobs and was the first consumer product sold by Apple Computer, Inc, it is the first model in a series of computers which were produced until Apple IIe production ceased in November 1993. The Apple II marks Apple's first launch of a personal computer aimed at a consumer market – branded towards American households rather than businessmen or computer hobbyists. Byte magazine referred to the Apple II, Commodore PET 2001 and the TRS-80 as the "1977 Trinity." The Apple II had the defining feature of being able to display color graphics, this capability was the reason why the Apple logo was redesigned to have a spectrum of colors. By 1976, Steve Jobs had convinced the product designer Jerry Manock to create the "shell" for the Apple II – a smooth case inspired by kitchen appliances that would conceal the internal mechanics.
The earliest Apple IIs were assembled in Silicon Valley, in Texas. The first computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1.023 MHz, two game paddles, 4 KB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. The video controller displays 24 lines by 40 columns of monochrome, uppercase-only text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator; the original retail price of the computer was $1,298 and $2,638. To reflect the computer's color graphics capability, the Apple logo on the casing has rainbow stripes, which remained a part of Apple's corporate logo until early 1998. Most the Apple II was a catalyst for personal computers across many industries. In the May 1977 issue of Byte, Steve Wozniak published a detailed description of his design; this arrangement eliminated the need for a separate refresh circuit for the DRAM chips, as the video transfer accessed each row of the dynamic memory within the timeout period.
In addition, it did not require separate RAM chips for the video RAM, while the PET and TRS-80 had SRAMs for the video. Rather than use a complex analog-to-digital circuit to read the outputs of the game controller, Wozniak used a simple timer circuit whose period is proportional to the resistance of the game controller, used a software loop to measure the timer. A single 14.31818 MHz master oscillator was divided by various ratios to produce all other required frequencies, including the microprocessor clock signals, the video transfer counters, the color-burst samples. The text and graphics screens have a complex arrangement. For instance, the scanlines were not stored in sequential areas of memory; this complexity was due to Wozniak's realization that the method would allow for the refresh of the dynamic RAM as a side effect. This method had no cost overhead to have software calculate or look up the address of the required scanline and avoided the need for significant extra hardware. In the high-resolution graphics mode, color is determined by pixel position and thus can be implemented in software, saving Wozniak the chips needed to convert bit patterns to colors.
This allowed for subpixel font rendering, since orange and blue pixels appear half a pixel-width farther to the right on the screen than green and purple pixels. The Apple II at first used data cassette storage like most other microcomputers of the time. In 1978, the company introduced an external 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive, the Disk II, attached via a controller card that plugs into one of the computer's expansion slots; the Disk II interface, created by Wozniak, is regarded as an engineering masterpiece for its economy of electronic components. The approach taken in the Disk II controller is typical of Wozniak's designs. With a few small-scale logic chips and a cheap PROM, he created a functional floppy disk interface at a fraction of the component cost of standard circuit configurations. Steve Jobs extensively pushed to give the Apple II a case that looked visually appealing and sellable to people outside of electronics hobbyists, rather than the generic wood and metal boxes typical of early microcomputers.
The result was a futuristic-looking molded white plastic case. Jobs paid close attention to the keyboard design and decided to use dark brown keycaps as it contrasted well with the case; the first production Apple IIs had hand-molded cases. In addition, the initial case design ha
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. Robots can be guided by an external control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots may be constructed on the lines of human form, but most robots are machines designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look. Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous and range from humanoids such as Honda's Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility and TOSY's TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot to industrial robots, medical operating robots, patient assist robots, dog therapy robots, collectively programmed swarm robots, UAV drones such as General Atomics MQ-1 Predator, microscopic nano robots. By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thought of its own. Autonomous things are expected to proliferate in the coming decade, with home robotics and the autonomous car as some of the main drivers; the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, information processing is robotics.
These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics; these robots have created a newer branch of robotics: soft robotics. From the time of ancient civilization there have been many accounts of user-configurable automated devices and automata resembling animals and humans, designed as entertainment; as mechanical techniques developed through the Industrial age, there appeared more practical applications such as automated machines, remote-control and wireless remote-control. The term comes from a Czech word, meaning "forced labor". U. R. by the Czech writer, Karel Čapek but it was Karel's brother Josef Čapek, the word's true inventor. Electronics evolved into the driving force of development with the advent of the first electronic autonomous robots created by William Grey Walter in Bristol, England in 1948, as well as Computer Numerical Control machine tools in the late 1940s by John T. Parsons and Frank L. Stulen.
The first commercial and programmable robot was built by George Devol in 1954 and was named the Unimate. It was sold to General Motors in 1961 where it was used to lift pieces of hot metal from die casting machines at the Inland Fisher Guide Plant in the West Trenton section of Ewing Township, New Jersey. Robots have replaced humans in performing repetitive and dangerous tasks which humans prefer not to do, or are unable to do because of size limitations, or which take place in extreme environments such as outer space or the bottom of the sea. There are concerns about the increasing use of their role in society. Robots are blamed for rising technological unemployment as they replace workers in increasing numbers of functions; the use of robots in military combat raises ethical concerns. The possibilities of robot autonomy and potential repercussions have been addressed in fiction and may be a realistic concern in the future; the word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are referred to as bots.
There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots but there is general agreement among experts, the public, that robots tend to possess some or all of the following abilities and functions: accept electronic programming, process data or physical perceptions electronically, operate autonomously to some degree, move around, operate physical parts of itself or physical processes and manipulate their environment, exhibit intelligent behavior behavior which mimics humans or other animals. Related to the concept of a robot is the field of Synthetic Biology, which studies entities whose nature is more comparable to beings than to machines; the idea of automata originates in the mythologies of many cultures around the world. Engineers and inventors from ancient civilizations, including Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Ptolemaic Egypt, attempted to build self-operating machines, some resembling animals and humans. Early descriptions of automata include the artificial doves of Archytas, the artificial birds of Mozi and Lu Ban, a "speaking" automaton by Hero of Alexandria, a washstand automaton by Philo of Byzantium, a human automaton described in the Lie Zi.
Many ancient mythologies, most modern religions include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus, the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, Galatea, the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life. Since circa 400 BC, myths of Crete include Talos, a man of bronze who guarded the island from pirates. In ancient Greece, the Greek engineer Ctesibius "applied a knowledge of pneumatics and hydraulics to produce the first organ and water clocks with moving figures." In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The Pigeon". Hero of Alexandria, a Greek mathematician and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, described machines powered by air pressure and water; the 11th century Lokapannatti tells of how the Buddha's relics were protected by mechanical robots, from the kingdom of Roma visaya. In ancient China, the
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Texas Instruments TI-99/4A
The Texas Instruments TI-99/4A is a home computer, released June 1981 in the United States at a price of $525. It is an enhanced version of the less successful TI-99/4 model, released in late 1979 at a price of $1,150. Both models include support for sprites and multi-channel sound, some of the first home computers to include such custom hardware, alongside the Atari 8-bit family introduced in 1979; the TI-99/4 has a calculator-style chiclet keyboard and a character set that lacked lowercase text. The TI-99/4A added an additional graphics mode, "lowercase" characters consisting of small capitals, a full-travel keyboard. Both use 16-bit processors, making the TI-99/4 series the first 16-bit home computers; the TI-99/4A's CPU, ROM cartridge slot are built into the keyboard. The power regulator board is housed below and in front of the cartridge slot under the sloped area to the right of the keyboard; this area gets hot so users refer to it as the "coffee cup warmer". The external power supply, different according to the country of sale, is a step-down transformer.
Available peripherals included a 5¼" floppy disk drive and controller, an RS-232 card comprising two serial ports and one parallel port, a P-code card for Pascal support, a thermal printer, an acoustic coupler, a tape drive using standard audio cassettes as media, a 32 KB memory expansion card. The TI-99/4 was sold with both the computer and a monitor as Texas Instruments could not get its RF modulator approved by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission in time; the TI-99/4A did ship with an RF modulator. In the early 1980s, TI was known as a pioneer in speech synthesis, a popular plug-in speech synthesizer module was available for the TI-99/4 and 4A. Speech synthesizers were offered free with the purchase of a number of cartridges and were used by many TI-written video games; the synthesizer has a small in-built vocabulary. The original intent was to release small cartridges that plugged directly into the synthesizer unit, which would increase the device's built in vocabulary. However, the success of software text-to-speech in the Terminal Emulator II cartridge cancelled that plan.
In many games, the speech synthesizer has realistic voices. For example, Alpiner's speech includes male and female voices and can be quite sarcastic when the player made a bad move; the TI-99/4's original expansion concept was that peripherals would be connected serially to the console and each other, in a "daisy-chain" fashion. The "sidecar" expansion units can be connected together in a continuing chain, but can occupy an entire desktop and cause crashes and lockups due to the large numbers of connectors on the system bus; this original idea was soon replaced by a system based on expansion cards. Encased in silver plastic, but made from sheet steel, these plug into the bulky "Peripheral Expansion System", an eight slot chassis, containing its own linear power supply and a full-height 5¼" floppy bay; each card has its own "access light", an LED that would blink or flicker when the card was being used by software. As on the earlier S-100 bus, the section of the power supply that powers the card slots is unregulated.
Each card has on-board regulators for its own requirements, thus reducing power consumption on a loaded PEB and allowing for future expansion cards that might have unusual voltage requirements. The PEB carries an analog sound input on the expansion bus; this allows the TI Speech Synthesizer's audio to be carried through the console to the monitor. The audio is carried through the ribbon cable to the Peripheral Expansion System, both allowing the relocation of the Speech Synthesizer to the Expansion box and allowing for the possibility of audio cards offering more features than the console's built-in sound. No "official" cards from Texas Instruments made use of this line. Early models includes a built-in equation calculator, but in the 99/4A this feature was discontinued. All consoles include TI BASIC, a strict ANSI-compliant BASIC programming language interpreter, incompatible with the more popular, imitated, Microsoft BASIC. Consoles, identified by "1983 TEXAS INSTRUMENTS V2.2" on the title page remove the ability for the system to execute unlicensed ROM-based cartridges, locking out third-party manufacturers such as Atarisoft.
The system has a joystick port that supports two digital joysticks, which TI referred to as "wired remote controllers". The two joysticks are connected through a single nine pin DE-9 port, identical with those used for Atari 2600 joysticks but with incompatible pins. Aftermarket adapters were available; the computer supports saving to, loading from, two cassette drives through a dedicated port. Composite video and audio are output through another port on NTSC-based machines, combine through an external RF modulator for use with a television. PAL-based machines output a more complex YUV signal, modulated to UHF externally; the TI-99/4 series is a 16-bit personal computer. The TI-99/4A has a 16-bit TMS9900 CPU running at 3.0 MHz. The TMS9900 is based on TI's range of TI-990 mini computers. Only the program counter, status register, workspace point
The Commodore Plus/4 is a home computer released by Commodore International in 1984. The "Plus/4" name refers to the four-application ROM resident office suite. Internally, the Plus/4 shared the same basic architecture as the lower-end Commodore 16 and 116 models, was able to use software and peripherals designed for them; the Plus/4 was incompatible with some of its hardware. Although the Commodore 64 was more established than the Plus/4 it was aimed at the more business orientated part of the personal computer market. While the Plus/4 had some success in Europe, it was a failure in the United States, where it was derided as the "Minus/60". In the early 1980s, Commodore found. Companies like Texas Instruments and Timex Corporation were releasing computers that undercut the price of Commodore's PET line. Commodore's MOS Technology division had designed a video chip but could not find any third-party buyers; the VIC-20 resulted from the confluence of these events and it was introduced in 1980 at a list price of $299.95.
Spurred by the competition, Commodore was able to reduce the VIC's street price to $99, it became the first computer to sell over 1 million units. The Commodore 64, the first 64-KB computer to sell for under US$600 in the USA, was another salvo in the price war but it was far more expensive to make than the VIC-20 because it used discrete chips for video, I/O. Still, the C64 went on to become a best-seller and was selling for $199 at the time of the Plus/4's introduction. While C64 sales were rising, Commodore president Jack Tramiel wanted a new computer line that would use fewer chips and at the same time address some of the user complaints about the VIC and C64. Rumors spread in late 1983 of a new computer in 1984 called the "Commodore 444" or "Ted", with built-in word processing and spreadsheet software, that it would be one of four new computers that would replace the VIC-20 and 64, which the company would discontinue; the company's third salvo – which, as it turned out, was fired just as most of Commodore's competition was leaving the home computer market – was the C116, C16, 264, which became the Plus/4.
There were prototypes of a 232 a 32 KB version of the Plus/4 without the software ROMs, a V364 which had a numeric keypad and built-in voice synthesis. The latter two models never made it to production. All these computers used a 6502 compatible MOS 7501 or 8501, clocked 75% faster than the CPUs used in the VIC-20 and C64, a MOS Technology TED all-in-one video, I/O chip; the Plus/4's design is thus philosophically closer to that of the VIC-20 than that of the C64. The Plus/4 was the flagship computer of the line; the Plus/4 had 64 KB of memory while the C16 and 116 had 16 KB. The Plus/4 had built-in software; the Plus/4 and C16 had full-travel keyboards. The C116 was only sold in Europe. All of the machines were distinguished by light gray keys; this was a reversal of the color scheme on the 64 and VIC, which used lighter cases and darker-colored keys. The Plus/4 was introduced in June 1984 and priced at US$299, it was discontinued in 1985. Commodore's intent with the Plus/4 was not to replace the C64, but to expand the home computer market and sell the Plus/4 to users who were more interested in serious applications than in gaming.
By 1984, however, in the USA, most of these customers were beginning to switch to the new, low-cost IBM PC compatibles such as the Leading Edge Model D and Tandy 1000 series. Although, like the Commodore B128, Plus/4 systems remained available from liquidators for years after its discontinuation, the Plus/4 disappeared from Commodore's major markets by 1988; the Plus/4 was used in Denmark, as part of a bundled product from the then-national telecompany to help hearing-impaired people communicate over telephone lines. Outgoing calls were made from the Plus/4 via modem to a call center where a service assistant would read the written input from the user, call the other party and read the text aloud. Vice versa, incoming calls could be made from other users to the call center, who would dial the Plus/4 modem. A strobe light connected to the Plus/4 would notify the hearing impaired about the incoming call; the Plus/4 enjoyed lasting popularity in Hungary due to CBM's decision to saturate the Central European market with the failed product at a reduced price.
A number of unofficial ports of C64 games were produced by Hungarian users. The TED offered 121-color video, a palette matched only by Atari's 8-bit computer line at the time, 320×200 video resolution, similar to many computers intended to be capable of connecting to a television; the Plus/4's memory map, which used bank switching far more extensively than the C64, gave it a 56% larger amount of user-accessible memory than the C64 for programming in BASIC, its BASIC programming language was vastly improved, adding sound and graphics commands as well as looping commands that improved program structure. Commodore released a high-speed floppy disk drive for the Plus/4, the Commodore 1551, which offered much better performance than the C64/1541 combination because it used a parallel interface rather than a serial bus; the 1551 plugged into the cartridge port. The TED chip had identical resolutions and video modes to the VIC-II (bitmap or character graphics which could be hi
Computer Gaming World
Computer Gaming World was an American computer game magazine published between 1981 and 2006. In 1979 Russell Sipe left the Southern Baptist Convention ministry. A fan of computer games, he realized in spring 1981 there was no magazine dedicated to computer games. Although Sipe had no publishing experience, he formed Golden Empire Publications in June and found investors, he chose the name of Computer Gaming World instead of alternatives such as Computer Games or Kilobaud Warrior because he hoped that the magazine would both review games and serve as a trade publication for the industry. The first issue appeared at about the same as rivals Electronic Games and Softline; the first issues of Computer Gaming World were published from Anaheim and sold for $2.75 individually or $11 for a year's subscription of six issues. These early bi-monthly issues were 40-50 pages in length, written in a newsletter style, including submissions by game designers such as Joel Billings, Dan Bunten, Chris Crawford.
As well, early covers were not always directly related to the magazine's contents, but rather featured work by artist Tim Finkas. In January/February 1986 CGW increased its publication cycle to nine times a year, the editorial staff included popular writers such as Scorpia, Charles Ardai, M. Evan Brooks. CGW survived the video game crash of 1983. In autumn 1987 CGW introduced a quarterly newsletter called Computer Game Forum, published during the off-months of CGW; the newsletter never became popular. Some of CGF's content became part of CGW; the magazine went through significant expansion starting in 1991, with growing page counts reaching 196 pages by its 100th issue, in November 1992. During that same year, Johnny Wilson, became editor-in-chief, although Sipe remained as Publisher. In 1993, Sipe sold the magazine to Ziff Davis—by the magazine was so thick that a reader reported that the December issue's bulk slowed a thief who had stolen a shopping bag containing it—but continued on as Publisher until 1995.
The magazine kept growing through the 1990s, with the December 1997 issue weighing in at 500 pages. In January 1999, Wilson left the magazine and George Jones became editor-in-chief, at a time when print magazines were struggling with the growing popularity of the Internet. Jones had been the editor-in-chief of CNET Gamecenter, had before that been a staffer at Computer Gaming World between 1994 and 1996, he was replaced by Jeff Green in 2002. On August 2, 2006, Ziff Davis and Microsoft jointly announced that Computer Gaming World would be replaced with Games for Windows: The Official Magazine; the final CGW-labeled issue was November 2006, for a total of 268 published editions. With the release of the final CGW issue, Ziff Davis announced the availability of the CGW Archive; the Archive features complete copies of the first 100 issues of CGW, as well as the 2 CGF issues, for a total of 7438 pages covering 11 years of gaming. The Archive was created by Stephane Racle, of the Computer Gaming World Museum, is available in PDF format.
Every issue was processed through Optical Character Recognition, which enabled the creation of a 3+ million word master index. Although Ziff Davis has taken its CGW Archive site offline, the magazines can be downloaded from the Computer Gaming World Museum. On April 8, 2008, 1UP Network announced the print edition of Games for Windows: The Official Magazine had ceased, that all content would be moved online. CGW featured reviews, news, letters and columns dealing with computer games. While console games are touched on, these are the territory of CGW's sister magazine Electronic Gaming Monthly. In 2006, two of the most popular features were "Greenspeak", a final-page column written by Editor-In-Chief Jeff Green, "Tom vs. Bruce" a unique "duelling-diaries" piece in which writers Tom Chick and Bruce Geryk logged their gameplay experience as each tried to best the other at a given game. "Tom vs. Bruce" sometimes featured a guest appearance by Erik Wolpaw of Old Man Murray. For many years, CGW never assigned scores to reviews, preferring to let readers rate their favorite games through a monthly poll.
Scores were introduced in 1994. However, beginning in April 2006, Computer Gaming World stopped assigning quantifiable scores to its reviews. In May of the same year, CGW changed the name of its review section to Viewpoint, began evaluating games on a more diverse combination of factors than a game's content. Elements considered include the communities' reaction to a game, developers' continued support through patches and whether a game's online component continues to grow; the reviews were based on a simple five-star structure, with five stars marking a outstanding game, one star signalling virtual worthlessness. Three games, Postal² by Robert Coffey, Mistmare by Jeff Green, Dungeon Lords by Denice Cook "...form an unholy trinity of the only games in CGW history to receive zero-star reviews." According to MDS Computer Gaming World had a circulation of above 300,000 as of 2006. In this regard, it was behind industry arch-rival PC Gamer. Bruce F. Webster reviewed the first issue of Computer Gaming World in The Space Gamer No.
48. Webster commented that "I recommend this magazine to computer gamers, just one reason alone will
Electronic Games was the first dedicated video game magazine published in the United States and ran from October 15, 1981 to 1997 under different titles. It was co-founded by Bill Kunkel, Joyce Worley, Arnie Katz, is not to be confused with Electronic Gaming Monthly; the history of Electronic Games originates in Video. Video games were covered sporadic in Deeny Kaplan's regular "VideoTest Reports" column. In the summer of 1979, Video decided to launch a new column to focus on video games. Arcade Alley would represent a journalistic first. Written by Bill Kunkel, Arnie Katz, Joyce Worley, the three writers became close friends and in 1981 they founded Electronic Games magazine; the magazine was active from Winter 1981, during the golden age of arcade video games and the second generation of consoles, up until 1985, following the North American video game industry crash. The magazine was revived during the 16-bit era in the early 1990s, but ended in 1995, at which point it was renamed to Fusion.
The release of the first issue was scheduled for October 15, 1981. However, the release was postponed to October 29, 1981 and featured a different cover than advertised; the magazine is notable for hosting the Arcade Awards, or Arkie Awards, the first "Game of the Year" award ceremony running in Video's "Arcade Alley" column. The following games are the winners of the magazine's annual Arcade Awards; the awards for each year took place in the January of the following year. No single game was allowed to win more than one award in the same year. According to the Winter 1981 issue of Electronic Games, the 1980 Arcade Awards were announced in February 1980 and covered all hardware and software produced prior to January 1, 1980; the 1981 edition of the awards reflects accomplishments during the 12 months of the preceding year. The third annual Arcade Awards were sponsored jointly by Video and Electronic Games and honored outstanding achievements in the field of video games of the year 1981; the 1982 Arcade Awards were published in the March 1982 issue of Electronic Games.
The 4th "Arkies" cover games published between October 1, 1981 and October 1, 1982 and were published in the January 1983 issue of Electronic Games. The 5th "Arkies" were published in the January 1984 issue of Electronic Games; the 6th "Arkies" were printed in the January 1985 issue of Electronic Games. Following the magazine's revival in 1992, it published the Electronic Gaming Awards in January 1993, where editors nominated several games for each category and the readers would vote which games win; the following games were nominated for 1992. The following games were nominated by editors for the EG Awards of 1993. From May 1982 onwards, the magazine carried out a reader poll in each issue to see which are the most popular games of the month among its readers, up until the January 1985 issue; the top-ranking games in these polls are listed below. MayConsole: Asteroids Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Pac-Man AugustConsole: Pac-Man Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Pac-Man SeptemberConsole: Pac-Man Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Pac-Man October & NovemberConsole: Defender Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Tempest The games that were top-ranked the most in these 1982 polls were: Console: Pac-Man Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Pac-Man JanuaryConsole: Pitfall!
Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Donkey Kong MayConsole: Pitfall! Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Donkey KongJuneConsole: Donkey Kong Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Donkey Kong JulyConsole: Pitfall! Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Donkey Kong AugustConsole: Donkey Kong Computer: Pac-Man Arcade: Zaxxon SeptemberConsole: Donkey Kong Jr. Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Pole Position OctoberConsole: Donkey Kong Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Pole Position NovemberConsole: Donkey Kong Jr. Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Pole Position DecemberConsole: Donkey Kong Jr. Computer: Miner 2049er Arcade: Pole Position The games that were top-ranked the most in these 1983 polls were: Console: Donkey Kong / Donkey Kong Jr. Computer: Star Raiders Arcade: Pole Position JanuaryConsole: Donkey Kong Jr. Computer: Miner 2049er Arcade: Dragon's Lair NovemberConsole: Pitfall II Computer: Zork I Arcade: Dragon's Lair DecemberComputer: Zork I Arcade: Spy Hunter The games that were top-ranked the most in these 1984 polls were: Console: Donkey Kong Jr. / Pitfall II Computer: Zork I Arcade: Dragon's Lair JanuaryConsole: Pitfall II Computer: Miner 2049er (Runner-Up: Donk