The South Downs are a range of chalk hills that extends for about 260 square miles across the south-eastern coastal counties of England from the Itchen Valley of Hampshire in the west to Beachy Head, in the Eastbourne Downland Estate, East Sussex, in the east. The Downs are bounded on the northern side by a steep escarpment, from whose crest there are extensive views northwards across the Weald; the South Downs National Park forms a much larger area than the chalk range of the South Downs and includes large parts of the Weald. The South Downs are characterised by rolling chalk downland with close-cropped turf and dry valleys, are recognised as one of the most important chalk landscapes in England; the range is one of the four main areas of chalk downland in southern England. The South Downs are less populated compared to South East England as a whole, although there has been large-scale urban encroachment onto the chalk downland by major seaside resorts, including most notably Brighton and Hove.
The South Downs have been inhabited since ancient times and at periods the area has supported a large population during Romano-British times. There is a rich heritage of historical features and archaeological remains, including defensive sites, burial mounds and field boundaries. Within the South Downs Environmentally Sensitive Area there are thirty-seven Sites of Special Scientific Interest, including large areas of chalk grassland; the grazing of sheep on the thin, well-drained chalk soils of the Downs over many centuries and browsing by rabbits resulted in the fine, springy turf, known as old chalk grassland, that has come to epitomise the South Downs today. Until the middle of the 20th century, an agricultural system operated by downland farmers known as'sheep-and-corn farming' underpinned this: the sheep of villagers would be systematically confined to certain corn fields to improve their fertility with their droppings and they would be let out onto the downland to graze. However, starting in 1940 with government measures during World War II to increase domestic food production and continuing into the 1950s, much grassland was ploughed up for arable farming, fundamentally changing the landscape and ecology, with the loss of much biodiversity.
As a result, while old chalk grassland accounted for 40-50% of the eastern Downs before the war, only 3-4% survives. This and development pressures from the surrounding population centres led to the decision to create the South Downs National Park, which came into full operation on 1 April 2011, to protect and restore the Downs; the South Downs have been designated as a National Character Area by Natural England. It is bordered by the Hampshire Downs, the Wealden Greensand, the Low Weald and the Pevensey Levels to the north and the South Hampshire Lowlands and South Coast Plain to the south; the downland is a popular recreational destination for walkers and mountain bikers. A long distance footpath and bridleway, the South Downs Way, follows the entire length of the chalk ridge from Winchester to Eastbourne, complemented by many interconnecting public footpaths and bridleways; the term'downs' is from Old English dūn, meaning'hill'. The word acquired the sense of'elevated rolling grassland' around the fourteenth century.
These hills are prefixed'south' to distinguish them from another chalk escarpment, the North Downs, which runs parallel to them about 30 miles away on the northern edge of the Weald. The South Downs are formed from a thick band of chalk, deposited during the Cretaceous Period around sixty million years ago within a shallow sea which extended across much of northwest Europe; the rock is composed of the microscopic skeletons of plankton which lived in the sea, hence its colour. The chalk has many fossils, bands of flint occur throughout the formation; the Chalk is divided into the Lower and Upper Chalk, a thin band of cream-coloured nodular chalk known as the Melbourn Rock marking the boundary between the Lower and Middle units. The strata of southeast England, including the Chalk, were folded during a phase of the Alpine Orogeny to produce the Weald-Artois Anticline, a dome-like structure with a long east-west axis. Erosion has removed the central part of the dome, leaving the north-facing escarpment of the South Downs along its southern margin with the south-facing chalk escarpment of the North Downs as its counterpart on the northern side, as shown on the diagram.
Between these two escarpments the anticline has been subject to differential erosion so that geologically distinct areas of hills and vales lie in concentric circles towards the centre. The chalk, being porous, allows water to soak through; the South Downs are a long chalk escarpment that stretches for over 110 kilometres, rising from the valley of the River Itchen near Winchester, Hampshire, in the west to Beachy Head near Eastbourne, East Sussex, in the east. Behind the steep north-facing scarp slope, the inclined dip slope of undulating chalk downland extends for a distance of up to 7 miles southwards. Viewed from high points further north in the High Weald and on the North Downs, the scarp of the South Downs presents itself as a steep wall that bounds the horizon, with its grassland heights punctuat
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period. It began in 1660 when the English and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II; this followed the Interregnum called the Protectorate, that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The term Restoration is used to describe both the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, the period of several years afterwards in which a new political settlement was established, it is often used to cover the whole reign of Charles II and the brief reign of his younger brother James II. In certain contexts it may be used to cover the whole period of the Stuart monarchs as far as the death of Queen Anne and the accession of the Hanoverian George I in 1714; the Commonwealth, which preceded the English Restoration, might have continued if Oliver Cromwell's son Richard, made Lord Protector on his father's death, had been capable of carrying on his father's policies. Richard Cromwell's main weakness was. After seven months, an army faction known as the Wallingford House party removed him on 6 May 1659 and reinstalled the Rump Parliament.
Charles Fleetwood was appointed a member of the Committee of Safety and of the Council of State, one of the seven commissioners for the army. On 9 June 1659, he was nominated lord-general of the army. However, his leadership was undermined in Parliament, which chose to disregard the army's authority in a similar fashion to the post-First Civil War Parliament. A royalist uprising was planned for 1 August 1659. However, Sir George Booth gained control of Cheshire. Booth held Cheshire until the end of August; the Commons, on 12 October 1659, cashiered General John Lambert and other officers, installed Fleetwood as chief of a military council under the authority of the Speaker. The next day Lambert ordered that the doors of the House be shut and the members kept out. On 26 October a "Committee of Safety" was appointed, of which Lambert were members. Lambert was appointed major-general of all the forces in England and Scotland, Fleetwood being general; the Committee of Safety sent Lambert with a large force to meet George Monck, in command of the English forces in Scotland, either negotiate with him or force him to come to terms.
It was into this atmosphere that Monck, the governor of Scotland under the Cromwells, marched south with his army from Scotland. Lambert's army began to desert him, he returned to London alone. Monck marched to London unopposed; the Presbyterian members, excluded in Pride's Purge of 1648, were recalled, on 24 December the army restored the Long Parliament. Fleetwood was deprived of his command and ordered to appear before Parliament to answer for his conduct. On 3 March 1660, Lambert was sent to the Tower of London, he tried to rekindle the civil war in favour of the Commonwealth by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the "Good Old Cause" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill, but he was recaptured by Colonel Richard Ingoldsby, a participant in the regicide of Charles I who hoped to win a pardon by handing Lambert over to the new regime. Lambert was incarcerated and died in custody on Guernsey in 1694. On 4 April 1660, Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda, in which he made several promises in relation to the reclamation of the crown of England.
Monck organised the Convention Parliament. On 8 May it proclaimed that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649. "Constitutionally, it was as if the last nineteen years had never happened." Charles returned from exile, landing at Dover on 25 May. He entered London on his 30th birthday. To celebrate His Majesty's Return to his Parliament, 29 May was made a public holiday, popularly known as Oak Apple Day, he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. Some contemporaries described the Restoration as "a divinely ordained miracle"; the sudden and unexpected deliverance from usurpation and tyranny was interpreted as a restoration of the natural and divine order. The Cavalier Parliament convened for the first time on 8 May 1661, it would endure for over 17 years being dissolved on 24 January 1679. Like its predecessor, it was overwhelmingly Royalist, it is known as the Pensionary Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King.
The leading political figure at the beginning of the Restoration was Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. It was the "skill and wisdom of Clarendon" which had "made the Restoration unconditional". Many Royalist exiles were rewarded. Prince Rupert of the Rhine returned to the service of England, became a member of the privy council, was provided with an annuity. George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich, returned to be the Captain of the King's guard and received a pension. Marmaduke Langdale returned and was made "Baron Langdale". William Cavendish, Marquess of Newcastle and was able to regain the greater part of his estates, he was invested in 1666 with the Order of the Garter, was advanced to a dukedom on 16 March 1665. The Indemnity and Oblivion Act, which became law on 29 August 1660, pardoned all past treason against the crown, but excluded those involved in the trial and execution of Charles I. Thirty-one of the 59 commissioners (
The Hambledon Club was a social club, famous for its organisation of 18th century cricket matches. By the late 1770s it was the foremost cricket club in England; the origin of the club, based near Hambledon in rural Hampshire, is unclear but it had been founded by 1768. Its basis was a local parish cricket team, in existence before 1750 and achieved prominence in 1756 when it played a series of three matches versus Dartford, which had itself been a major club for at least 30 years. At this time, the parish team was sometimes referred to as "Squire Land's Club", after Squire Thomas Land, the main organiser of cricket teams in the village before the foundation of the club proper. Thomas Land seems to have withdrawn from the scene in about 1764, it is believed. Land was interested in hunting and maintained a pack of hounds that earned him recognition as "one of the most celebrated fox-hunters in Great-Britain". Land is mentioned in the Hambledon Club Song written by Reverend Reynell Cotton in about 1771.
Cotton was not too concerned about Land having left the club: Then why should we fear either Sackville or Mann, Or repine at the loss of both Bayton and Land? From the mid-1760s, Hambledon's stature grew till by the late 1770s it was the foremost cricket club in England. In spite of its relative remoteness, it had developed into a private club of noblemen and country gentry, for whom one of cricket's attractions was the opportunity it offered for betting. Although some of these played in matches, professional players were employed; the club produced several famous players including John Small, Thomas Brett, Richard Nyren, David Harris, Tom Taylor, Billy Beldham and Tom Walker. It was the inspiration for the first significant cricket book: The Cricketers of My Time by John Nyren, the son of Richard Nyren; the Hambledon Club was social and, as it was multi-functional, not a cricket club as such. Rather it is seen as an organiser of matches. Arguments have taken place among historians about whether its teams should be termed Hampshire or Hambledon.
A study of the sources indicates that the nomenclature changed and both terms were applicable. The subject is complicated by a reference to the Kent versus Hampshire & Sussex match at Guildford Bason on 26 and 28 August 1772. According to the source, "Hampshire & Sussex" was synonymous with "Hambledon Club". Sussex cricket was not prominent during the Hambledon period and this could have been because Hambledon operated a team representing two counties. There were Sussex connections at Hambledon such as John Bayton, Richard Nyren, William Barber and Noah Mann. In 1782 the club moved from its original ground at Broadhalfpenny Down to Windmill Down, about half a mile away towards the village of Hambledon; the Bat and Ball Inn had been requisitioned as a munitions dump by the military, Windmill Down provided as an alternative. However, after a couple of seasons playing on the steep sloping and exposed new ground the club agitated for a move to a more suitable location and Ridge Meadow was purchased as a permanent replacement.
Ridge Meadow is still the home of Hambledon C. C. today. Hambledon's great days ended in the 1780s with a shift in focus from the rural counties of Kent and Hampshire to metropolitan London where Lord's was established as the home of the new Marylebone Cricket Club in 1787; however for the decade up to 1793, Hambledon remained a meeting place for like-minded Royal Navy Officers such as Captains Erasmus Gower, Robert Calder, Charles Powell Hamilton, Mark Robinson, Sir Hyde Parker and Robert Linzee. In May 1791 Lord Hugh Seymour became president of the Club but soon afterwards these officers all returned to sea. Membership declined during the 1790s. On 29 August 1796, fifteen people attended a meeting and amongst them, according to the official minutes, was "Mr Thos Pain, Authour of the rights of Man"! It was a joke for Thomas Paine was under sentence of death for treason and exiled in revolutionary Paris; the last meeting was held on 21 September 1796 where the minutes read only that "No Gentlemen were present".
The club had a famous round of six toasts: 6. The Queen's mother 5, her Majesty the Queen 4. The Hambledon Club 3. Cricket 2; the Immortal Memory of Madge 1. The President; the enigmatic "Madge" is a "what", not a "who". Indeed, it is believed to be a common, but crude, contemporary reference to the vagina. A description of the revival and, the whole history of the Hambledon Club can be read in The Glory Days of Cricket by Ashley Mote; the original ground is at Broadhalfpenny Down, opposite the Bat and Ball Inn, in Hyden Farm Lane, near Clanfield, where now the Broadhalfpenny Brigands Cricket Club play. The current Hambledon Cricket Club ground is nearer Hambledon village at Ridge Meadow, just off the road to Broadhalfpenny Down, about half a mile from the village. On Saturday 8 September 2007 the clubhouse was burnt to the ground. Mote, Ashley; the Glory Days of Cricket. Robson. Nyren, John. Ashley Mote, ed; the Cricketers of my Time. Robson
Kent county cricket teams
Kent county cricket teams have been traced back to the 17th century but the county's involvement in cricket goes back much further than that. Kent, jointly with Sussex, is accepted as the birthplace of the sport, it is believed that cricket was first played by children living on the Weald in Saxon or Norman times. The world's earliest known organised match was held in Kent c.1611 and the county has always been at the forefront of cricket's development through the growth of village cricket in the 17th century to representative matches in the 18th. A Kent team took part in the earliest known inter-county match, played on Dartford Brent in 1709. Several famous players and patrons were involved in Kent cricket from until the creation of the first county club in 1842. Among them were William Bedle, Robert Colchin and the 3rd Duke of Dorset. Kent were regarded as the strongest county team in the first half of the 18th century and were always one of the main challengers to the dominance of Hambledon in the second half.
County cricket ceased through the Napoleonic War and was resurrected in 1826 when Kent played Sussex. By the 1830s, Kent remained so until mid-century. Cricket is believed to have developed out of other bat-and-ball games and was first played in early medieval times to the south and south-east of London in the geographical areas of the North Downs, the South Downs and the Weald; the world's earliest known organised match took place in c. 1611, at Chevening. A court case described it as a "cricketing of the Weald and the Upland versus the Chalk Hill". Cricket became established in Kent and its neighbouring counties through the 17th century with the development of village cricket and it is possible that the earliest county teams were formed in the aftermath of the Restoration in 1660. In 1705, a newspaper recorded an 11-a-side match between West of Kent and Chatham at a place called "Maulden", which does not exist. Historians have surmised that the venue must have been either Malling. Four years the earliest known inter-county match took place when a Kent side and one from Surrey played against each other on Dartford Brent.
It is believed, as asserted by G. B. Buckley, that "inter-county matches" till about 1730 were inter-parish matches involving two villages on either side of a county boundary. Dartford was an important club in the first half of the 18th century and its team at this time featured William Bedle, acknowledged to have been cricket's first great player; the 1709 match is the earliest known mention of Dartford Brent as a venue. The Association of Cricket Statisticians and Historians considers Kent to be one of cricket's "major counties" throughout its entire history and rates all Kent county matches in the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as many played by teams called East Kent or West Kent, as first-class; the ACS have explained that any match between a strong Kent eleven and another top-class team justifies the classification but caution is needed with nomenclature because of the different committees and sponsors who organised the games and would sometimes use team names other than "Kent". Dartford came under the patronage of Edwin Stead through the 1720s and its team became representative of Kent as a county playing against teams from Sussex.
Stead developed a keen rivalry with the Sussex patrons Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, Sir William Gage. Their teams would name themselves either by their counties or as the patron's XI. There were three Kent v Sussex matches in 1728 and Stead's team won them all. After the third win, a newspaper reported the outcome as "the third time this summer that the Kent men have been too expert for those of Sussex"; the 1728 proclamation of Kent's superiority is the first time that the concept of a "Champion County" can be seen in the sources and it is augmented by a "turned the scales" comment made by a reporter after Sussex defeated Kent in 1729. The 1729 report added that the "scale of victory had been on the Kentish side for some years past". In 1730, a newspaper referred to the "Kentish champions". In his cricket history, Harry Altham titled his third chapter, about cricket in the second quarter of the 18th century, as "Kent, The First Champions". Strong teams played under the name of Kent throughout the 18th century with several famous patrons including Stead, Robert Colchin, Lord John Sackville, his son John Frederick Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset and Sir Horatio Mann organising teams.
In July 1739, the strength of Kent as a county team was recognised by the formation of a non-international England team, loosely termed "All-England" or, more the Rest of England, to play against them. Kent at this time were led by Lord John Sackville and his team won the first All-England match on Bromley Common. In 1744, the year in which the Laws of Cricket were first published as a code, Kent met All-England four times; the most famous encounter was the one on Monday, 18 June at the Artillery Ground, commemorated in a poem by James Love and is the subject of the world's second oldest scorecard. It is the opening match in Scores and Biographies. Kent, whose team included both Colchin and Sackville, won the match by one wicket. Under the Duke of Dorset and Sir Horatio Mann, Kent continued to field a strong team through the last quarter of the 18th century and were, along with Surrey, the main challengers to Hampshire whose team was organised by the Hambledon Club. Dartford had played against a Hambledo
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
The Regency in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a period when King George III was deemed unfit to rule due to his illness and his son ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent. On the death of George III in 1820, the Prince Regent became George IV; the term Regency can refer to various stretches of time. The period from 1795 to 1837, which includes the latter part of the reign of George III and the reigns of his sons George IV and William IV, is sometimes regarded as the Regency era, characterised by distinctive trends in British architecture, fashions and culture, it ended in 1837 when Queen Victoria succeeded William IV. The Regency is noted for its elegance and achievements in the fine arts and architecture; this era encompassed a time of great social and economic change. War was waged with Napoleon and on other fronts, affecting commerce both at home and internationally, as well as politics. Despite the bloodshed and warfare, the Regency was a period of great refinement and cultural achievement and altering the societal structure of Britain as a whole.
One of the greatest patrons of the arts and architecture was the Prince Regent himself. Upper-class society flourished in a sort of mini-Renaissance of refinement; as one of the greatest patrons of the arts, the Prince Regent ordered the costly building and refurbishing of the beautiful and exotic Brighton Pavilion, the ornate Carlton House, as well as many other public works and architecture. This required dipping into the treasury and the Regent, the King's exuberance outstripped his pocket, at the people's expense. Society was considerably stratified. In many ways, there was a dark side to the fashion in England at this time. In the dingier, less affluent areas of London, womanising, the existence of rookeries, constant drinking ran rampant; the population boom—the population increased from just under a million in 1801 to one and a quarter million by 1820—created a wild, roiling and vibrant scene. According to Robert Southey, the difference between the strata of society was vast indeed: The squalor that existed beneath the glamour and gloss of Regency society provided sharp contrast to the Prince Regent's social circle.
Poverty was addressed only marginally. The formation of the Regency after the retirement of George III saw the end of a more pious and reserved society, gave birth of a more frivolous, ostentatious one; this change was influenced by the Regent himself, kept removed from the machinations of politics and military exploits. This did nothing to channel his energies in a more positive direction, thereby leaving him with the pursuit of pleasure as his only outlet, as well as his sole form of rebellion against what he saw as disapproval and censure in the form of his father. Driving these changes was not only money and rebellious pampered youth, but significant technological advancements. In 1814, The Times adopted steam printing. By this method it could now print 1,100 sheets every hour, not 200 as before—a fivefold increase in production capability and demand; this development brought about the rise of the wildly popular fashionable novels in which publishers spread the stories and flaunting of the rich and aristocratic, not so secretly hinting at the specific identity of these individuals.
The gap in the hierarchy of society was so great that those of the upper classes could be viewed by those below as wondrous and fantastical fiction, something out of reach yet tangibly there. 1811 George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales, began his nine-year tenure as regent and became known as The Prince Regent. This sub-period of the Georgian era began the formal Regency; the Duke of Wellington held off the French at Fuentes Albuhera in the Peninsular War. The Prince Regent held a fete at 9:00 p.m. June 19, 1811, at Carlton House in celebration of his assumption of the Regency. Luddite uprisings. Glasgow weavers riot. 1812 Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was assassinated in the House of Commons. Final shipment of the Elgin Marbles arrived in England. Sarah Siddons retired from the stage. Shipping and territory disputes started the War of 1812 between the United Kingdom and the United States; the British were victorious over French armies at the Battle of Salamanca. Gas company founded. Charles Dickens, English writer and social critic of the Victorian era, was born on 7 February 1812.
1813 Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen was published. William Hedley's Puffing Billy, an early steam locomotive, ran on smooth rails. Quaker prison reformer Elizabeth Fry started her ministry at Newgate Prison. Robert Southey became Poet Laureate. 1814 Invasion of France by allies led to the Treaty of Paris, ended one of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon was exiled to Elba; the Duke of Wellington was honoured at Burlington House in London. British soldiers burn the White House. Last River Thames Frost Fair was held, the last time the river froze. Gas lighting introduced in London streets. 1815 Napoleon I of France defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena; the English Corn Laws restricted corn imports. Sir Humphry Davy patented the miners' safety lamp. John Loudon Macadam's road construction method adopted. 1816 Income tax abolished. A "year without a summer" followed a volcanic eruption in Indonesia. Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein. William Cobbett published his newspaper as a pamphlet.
The British returned Indonesia to the Dutch. Regent's Canal, phase one of c
Sussex County Cricket Club
Sussex County Cricket Club is the oldest of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Sussex, its limited overs team is called the Sussex Sharks. The club was founded in 1839 as a successor to the various Sussex county cricket teams, including the old Brighton Cricket Club, representative of the county of Sussex as a whole since the 1720s; the club has always held first-class status. Sussex have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England; the club colours are traditionally blue and white and the shirt sponsors are Aerotron for the Specsavers County Championship, Parafix for Royal London One-Day Cup matches and Boundless for NatWest Blast T20 matches. Its home ground is Hove. Sussex play matches around the county at Arundel and Eastbourne. Sussex won its first official County Championship title in 2003 and subsequently became the dominant team of the decade, repeating the success in 2006 and 2007.
In 2006 Sussex achieved "the double", beating Lancashire to clinch the C&G Trophy, before winning the County Championship following an emphatic victory against Nottinghamshire at Trent Bridge, in which Sussex defeated their hosts by an innings and 245 runs. Sussex won the title for the third time in five years in 2007, when in a nail-biting finale on the last day of the season, Sussex defeated Worcestershire early in the day and had to wait until past five o'clock as title rivals Lancashire narrowly failed to beat Surrey – prompting relieved celebrations at the County Cricket Ground, Hove. Sussex enjoyed further limited overs success with consecutive Pro40 wins in 2008 and 2009 as well as beating Somerset at Edgbaston to lift the 2009 Twenty20 Cup; the south coast county ended the decade having won ten trophies in ten years. On 1 November 2015, Sussex County Cricket Club merged with the Sussex Cricket Board to form a single governing body for cricket in Sussex, called Sussex Cricket Limited.
County Championship – 2003, 2006, 2007 Division Two – 2001, 2010 Friends Provident Trophy – 1963, 1964, 1978, 1986, 2006 Pro40 National League – 1982, 2008, 2009 Division Two – 1999, 2005Twenty20 Cup – 2009 Second XI Championship – 1978, 1990, 2007 Second XI Trophy – 2005 Sussex, along with Kent, is believed to be the birthplace of cricket. It is believed that cricket was invented by children living on the Weald in Anglo-Saxon or Norman times. See: History of cricket to 1725 The first definite mention of cricket in Sussex relates to ecclesiastical court records in 1611 which state that two parishioners of Sidlesham in West Sussex failed to attend church on Easter Sunday because they were playing cricket, they were made to do penance. Cricket became established in Sussex during the 17th century and the earliest village matches took place before the English Civil War, it is believed that the earliest county teams were formed in the aftermath of the Restoration in 1660. In 1697, the earliest "great match" recorded was for 50 guineas apiece between two elevens at a venue in Sussex.
It was an inter-county match and has been classified as the earliest known top-class match in cricket history. Matches involving the two great Sussex patrons Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond and Sir William Gage, 7th Baronet were first recorded in 1725; the earliest known use of Sussex in a match title occurred in 1729. From 1741, Richmond patronised the famous Slindon Cricket Club, whose team was representative of the county. After the death of Richmond in 1751, Sussex cricket declined until the emergence of the Brighton club at its Prince of Wales Ground in 1790; this club sustained cricket in Sussex through the Napoleonic Wars and, as a result, the county team was strong in the 1820s when it included the great bowlers Jem Broadbridge and William Lillywhite. For information about Sussex county teams before the formation of Sussex CCC, see: Sussex county cricket teams On 17 June 1836, the Sussex Cricket Fund was set up to support county matches, after a meeting in Brighton; this led directly to the formation on 1 March 1839 of Sussex County Cricket Club, England's oldest county club.
Sussex CCC played its initial first-class match versus Marylebone Cricket Club at Lord's on 10 & 11 June 1839. The Sussex crest depicts a mythological, footless bird called the Martlet, is similar to Coat of arms of Sussex. Capped players have six martlets on their sweaters, the crest with gold trimming on their caps. In total, Sussex CCC have played at 17 grounds, 4 of which have been in Hove; the first County match was played at Eaton Road on 6 June 1872 against Gloucestershire. The main venue for the Club's First and Second XI is The County Ground in Hove, although matches are played at the grounds at Arundel and Horsham. Other grounds for first class matches have included Sheffield Park, Worthing and Hastings. No. Denotes the player's squad number, as worn on the back of their shirt. Denotes players with international caps. * denotes a player, awarded a county cap. Director of Cricket: Keith Greenfield Head coach: Jason Gillespie Academy Director: Carl Hopkinson Asst. Coach: Jon Lewis Batting coach: Michael Yardy Bowling coach: Jon Lewis Spin Bowling Coach: n/a Fielding coach: n/a Mental conditioning coach: n/a Fitness trainer: n/a Head Physiotherapist: n/a Masseur: n/a This list includes those Sussex players who have played in Test cricket since 1877, One Day International cricket since 1971, or