Clay is a fine-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to water content and become hard, brittle. Depending on the content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red. Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, some overlap in size and other physical properties. The distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline and soil scientists usually consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 µm, sedimentologists often use 4–5 μm, and colloid chemists use 1 μm.
Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils Atterberg limits, ISO14688 grades clay particles as being smaller than 2 μm and silt particles as being larger. These solvents, usually acidic, migrate through the rock after leaching through upper weathered layers. In addition to the process, some clay minerals are formed through hydrothermal activity. There are two types of deposits and secondary. Primary clays form as residual deposits in soil and remain at the site of formation, secondary clays are clays that have been transported from their original location by water erosion and deposited in a new sedimentary deposit. Clay deposits are associated with very low energy depositional environments such as large lakes. Depending on the source, there are three or four main groups of clays, montmorillonite-smectite and chlorite. Chlorites are not always considered to be a clay, sometimes being classified as a group within the phyllosilicates.
There are approximately 30 different types of clays in these categories. Varve is clay with visible annual layers, which are formed by deposition of those layers and are marked by differences in erosion. This type of deposit is common in glacial lakes
Colusa is the county seat of Colusa County, California. The population was 5,971 at the 2010 census, up from 5,402 at the 2000 census, colusi originates from the local Coru Indian tribe, who in the 1840s lived on the opposite side of the Sacramento River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 1.8 square miles. According to the United States Geological Survey, the location is at 39°12′52″N 122°00′34″W. Colusa is on the Sacramento River, which has a high levee so that the river is not clearly apparent from the city. Colusa features a historic Chinatown, Carnegie Library building constructed in 1905, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Colusa has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated Csa on climate maps
This article is for the volcanic arc. For the namesake mountain range see Cascade Range, the arc has formed due to subduction along the Cascadia subduction zone. Some of the cities along the length of the arc include Portland and Vancouver. All could be affected by volcanic activity and great subduction-zone earthquakes along the arc. Many large, long-runout landslides originating on Cascade volcanoes have inundated valleys tens of kilometers from their sources, the Cascade Volcanoes are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes and associated mountains around the Pacific Ocean. The Cascade Volcanoes have erupted several times in recorded history, two most recent were Lassen Peak in 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980. It is the site of Canadas most recent major eruption about 2,350 years ago at the Mount Meager volcanic complex. Volcanism in the arc began about 37 million years ago, most of the present-day Cascade volcanoes are less than 2,000,000 years old, and the highest peaks are less than 100,000 years old.
Twelve volcanoes in the arc are over 10,000 feet in elevation, by volume, the two largest Cascade volcanoes are the broad shields of Medicine Lake Volcano and Newberry Volcano, which are about 145 cubic miles and 108 cubic miles respectively. Mount Garibaldi and Glacier Peak are the only two Cascade volcanoes that are exclusively of dacite. Over the last 37 million years, the Cascade Arc has been erupting a chain of volcanoes along the Pacific Northwest, several of the volcanoes in the arc are frequently active. The volcanoes of the Cascade Arc share some characteristics, but each has its own unique geological traits. The Cascade Volcanic Arc appears to be segmented, the portion of the arc is the most active. The greatest mass of exposed Cascade Arc plumbing is the Chilliwack batholith, individual plutons range in age from about 35 million years old to 2.5 million years old. The older rocks invaded by all this magma were affected by the heat, around the plutons of the batholith, the older rocks recrystallized.
This contact metamorphism produced a fine mesh of interlocking crystals in the old rocks, generally strengthening them, where the recrystallization was intense, the rocks took on a new appearance dark and hard. Many rugged peaks in the North Cascades owe their prominence to this baking, the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is the northern extension of the Cascade Arc. Volcanoes within the belt are mostly stratovolcanoes along with the rest of the arc, but include calderas, cinder cones
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world, in some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, as either small game or large game. Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food, the term game arises in medieval hunting terminology by the late 13th century and is particular to English, from the generic meaning of Old English gamen joy, sport, merriment. Small game includes animals, such as rabbits, pheasants. Large game includes animals like deer and bear, big game is a term sometimes used interchangeably with large game although in other contexts it refers to large, typically African, mammals which are hunted mainly for trophies in safaris. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world and this is influenced by climate, animal diversity, local taste and locally accepted views about what can or cannot be legitimately hunted.
Sometimes a distinction is made between varieties and species of a particular animal, such as wild turkey and domestic turkey. Fish caught for sport are referred to as game fish, the flesh of the animal, when butchered for consumption is often described as having a gamey flavour. This difference in taste can be attributed to the diet of the animal. In some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, a single small game licence may cover all small game species and be subject to yearly bag limits. Large game are often subject to individual licensing where a licence is required for each individual animal taken. In some parts of Africa, wild animals hunted for their meat are called bushmeat, see article for more detailed information on how this operates within the economy. In Africa, animals hunted for their pelts or ivory are sometimes referred to as the big game, see the legal definition of game in Swaziland. South Africa has 62 species of gamebirds, including guineafowl, partridge, sandgrouse, geese, bustard, of the remaining 41 species,24 have shown an increase in numbers and distribution range in the last 25 years or so.
The status of 14 species appears unchanged, with insufficient information being available for the three species. S. and Canada, deer are the most commonly hunted big game. Other game species include, In the PRC there is a special category called ye wei. In the UK game is defined in law by the Game Act 1831 and it is illegal to shoot game on Sundays or at night. Other that are hunted for food in the UK are specified under the Wildlife, the ban is generally considered voluntary on private lands, and few birds live away from RSPB or Forestry Commission land allegedly
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses, however sedge and rush families can be found. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica, grasslands are found in most ecoregions of the Earth. For example, there are five terrestrial ecoregion classifications of the grasslands and shrublands biome. Grassland vegetation can vary in height from short, as in chalk grassland, to quite tall, as in the case of North American tallgrass prairie, South American grasslands. Woody plants, shrubs or trees, may occur on some grasslands – forming savannas, scrubby grassland or semi-wooded grassland, as flowering plants and trees, grasses grow in great concentrations in climates where annual rainfall ranges between 500 and 900 mm. The root systems of perennial grasses and forbs form complex mats that hold the soil in place, graminoids are among the most versatile life forms. Existing forest biomes declined, and grasslands became much more widespread, following the Pleistocene ice ages, grasslands expanded in range in the hotter, drier climates, and began to become the dominant land feature worldwide.
Grasslands often occur in areas with annual precipitation between 600 mm and 1,500 mm and average annual temperatures ranges from −5 and 20 °C. However, some occur in colder and hotter climatic conditions. Grassland can exist in habitats that are disturbed by grazing or fire. Grasslands dominated by unsown wild-plant communities can be called natural or semi-natural habitats. The majority of grasslands in temperate climates are semi-natural and these grasslands contain many species of wild plants – grasses, sedges and herbs –25 or more species per square metre is not unusual. Chalk downlands in England can support over 40 species per square metre, in many parts of the world, few examples have escaped agricultural improvement. For example, original North American prairie grasslands or lowland wildflower meadows in the UK are now rare and their associated wild flora equally threatened. Some of the worlds largest expanses of grassland are found in African savanna, grasslands may occur naturally or as the result of human activity.
Grasslands created and maintained by human activity are called anthropogenic grasslands, hunting peoples around the world often set regular fires to maintain and extend grasslands, and prevent fire-intolerant trees and shrubs from taking hold. The tallgrass prairies in the U. S. Midwest may have been extended eastward into Illinois, much grassland in northwest Europe developed after the Neolithic Period, when people gradually cleared the forest to create areas for raising their livestock. Grassland types by Schimper, meadow steppe savannah Grassland types by Ellenberg & Mueller-Dombois, terrestrial herbaceous communities A. Savannas and related grasslands B
Northern California, often abbreviated NorCal, is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. The 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, and from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. The arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries, in 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a geographic designation. Californias north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco, though, Northern California usually refers to the states northernmost 48 counties. This definition coincides with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ north latitude, the term is applied to the area north of Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains.
Because of Californias large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well, the state is often considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast while the region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the economic, scientific. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is Home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, Northern Californias largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto.
The 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any area in California. The states larger cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts. The first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish Crown, in 1542, beginning in 1565, the Spanish Manila galleons crossed the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Spanish Philippines, with silver and gemstones from Mexico. The Manila galleons returned across the northern Pacific, and reached North America usually off the coast of northern California, in 1579, northern California was visited by the English explorer Sir Francis Drake who landed north of todays San Francisco and claimed the area for England. In 1602, the Spaniard Sebastián Vizcaíno explored Californias coast as far north as Monterey Bay, other Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of northern California for the next 150 years, but no settlements were established.
The first European inhabitants were Spanish missionaries, who built missions along the California coast, the mission at Monterey was first established in 1770, and at San Francisco in 1776
In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic, for example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA, all species are given a two-part name, a binomial. The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs, the second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the Boa genus, Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time, Charles Darwins 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal transfer, and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons. In his biology, Aristotle used the term γένος to mean a kind, such as a bird or fish, a kind was distinguished by its attributes, for instance, a bird has feathers, a beak, wings, a hard-shelled egg, and warm blood. A form was distinguished by being shared by all its members, Aristotle believed all kinds and forms to be distinct and unchanging. His approach remained influential until the Renaissance, when observers in the Early Modern period began to develop systems of organization for living things, they placed each kind of animal or plant into a context. Many of these early delineation schemes would now be considered whimsical, animals likewise that differ specifically preserve their distinct species permanently, one species never springs from the seed of another nor vice versa. In the 18th century, the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus classified organisms according to shared physical characteristics and he established the idea of a taxonomic hierarchy of classification based upon observable characteristics and intended to reflect natural relationships.
At the time, however, it was widely believed that there was no organic connection between species, no matter how similar they appeared. However, whether or not it was supposed to be fixed, by the 19th century, naturalists understood that species could change form over time, and that the history of the planet provided enough time for major changes. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in his 1809 Zoological Philosophy, described the transmutation of species, proposing that a species could change over time, in 1859, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace provided a compelling account of evolution and the formation of new species. Darwin argued that it was populations that evolved, not individuals and this required a new definition of species. Darwin concluded that species are what appear to be, ideas
A wildflower is a flower that grows in the wild, meaning it was not intentionally seeded or planted. Yet wildflower meadows of a few mixed species are sold in seed packets, the term can refer to the flowering plant as a whole, even when not in bloom, and not just the flower. Wildflower is not an exact term, terms like native species, exotic or, introduced species, of which some are labelled invasive species and naturalized are much more accurate. The aim was to spread awareness of the heritage of native species and about the need for conservation, for example, Somerset has adopted the Cheddar Pink, London the Rosebay Willowherb and Denbighshire/Sir Ddinbych in Wales the rare Limestone Woundwort. Formerly published by the North American Native Plant Society Plantlife, UK organisation Wildflower in Cyprus Information on 1250 native plant species to North Cyprus
James Dwight Dana
James Dwight Dana FRS FRSE was an American geologist, mineralogist and zoologist. He made pioneering studies of mountain-building, volcanic activity, and the origin and structure of continents, Dana was born February 12,1813 in Utica, New York. His father was merchant James Dana, and mother was Harriet Dwight, through his mother he was related to the Dwight New England family of missionaries and educators including uncle Harrison Gray Otis Dwight and first cousin Henry Otis Dwight. Graduating in 1833, for the two years he was teacher of mathematics to midshipmen in the Navy, and sailed to the Mediterranean while engaged in his duties. His labors in preparing the reports of his explorations occupied parts of thirteen years after his return to America in 1842 and his notebooks from the four years of travel contained fifty sketches and diagrams, including views of both Mount Shasta and Castle Crags. Danas sketch of Mount Shasta was engraved in 1849 for publication in the American Journal of Science and Arts, in the article he described in scientific terms the rocks and geology of the Shasta region.
As far as is known, his sketch of Mount Shasta became the view of the mountain ever published. In 1844 he again became a resident of New Haven, and married Professor Sillimans daughter, in 1850, he was appointed as Sillimans successor, as Silliman Professor of Natural History and Geology in Yale College, a position which he held until 1892. The 1849 publication of his geology of Mount Shasta was undoubtedly a response to the California gold rush publicity. Dana was the pre-eminent U. S. geologist of his time and he had previously written that there was likelihood that gold was to be found all along the route between the Umpqua River in Oregon and the Sacramento Valley. He was probably deluged with inquiries about the Shasta region, and was forced to publish in more detail some advice to the gold miners. Dana was responsible for developing much of the knowledge on Hawaiian volcanism. In 1880 and 1881 he led the first geological study of the volcanics of Hawaii island, Dana theorized that the volcanic chain consisted of two volcanic strands, dubbed the Loa and Kea trends.
The Kea trend included Kīlauea, Mauna Kea, Haleakala, the Loa trend includes Lōʻihi, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Kahoʻolawe, Lānaʻi, and West Molokaʻi. Following another expedition by fellow geologist C. E. Dana died on April 14,1895, Dana was married to Henrietta Silliman in 1844. Their son, Edward Salisbury Dana, was a distinguished mineralogist, Danas best known books were his System of Mineralogy Manual of Mineralogy, and his Manual of Geology. A bibliographical list of his writings shows 214 titles of books and papers and his reports on Zoophytes, on the Geology of the Pacific Area, and on Crustacea, summarizing his work on the Wilkes Expedition, appeared from 1846 onwards. Other works included Manual of Mineralogy, afterwards entitled Manual of Mineralogy and Lithology, in 1887, Dana revisited the Hawaiian Islands, and the results of his further investigations were published in a quarto volume entitled Characteristics of Volcanoes
Yuba City, California
Yuba City is a city in Northern California and the county seat of Sutter County, United States. The population was 64,925 at the 2010 census, Yuba City is the principal city of the Yuba City Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Sutter County and Yuba County. The metro areas population is 164,138 and it is the 21st largest metropolitan area in California ranked behind Redding and Chico. Its metropolitan statistical area is part of the Greater Sacramento CSA, the unemployment rate in the Yuba City MSA was 14.9 percent in September 2012, down from a revised 15.8 percent in August 2012, and below the year-ago estimate of 16.4 percent. This compares with an unemployment rate of 9.7 percent for California and 7.6 percent for the nation during the same period. The unemployment rate was 14.0 percent in Sutter County, the Maidu people were settled in the region when they were first encountered by Spanish and Mexican scouting expeditions in the early 18th century. One version of the origin of the name Yuba is that one of these expeditions, wild grapes were seen growing by a river, and so it was named Uba.
At the same time, another town was developing on the bank of the Feather River. By 1852, Yuba City, was a landing, had one hotel, a grocery store. Yuba City was chosen as county seat for Sutter County, CA in 1854, the same year, voters decided that Nicolaus would be a better location, and the county seat was moved there. County voters returned to their first choice of Yuba City two years later, in 1856, and it has remained the county seat since, Yuba City saw its first major influx of population after World War II, pushing residential areas west and south from the citys original center. Orchards were turned into areas as new homes were built for people migrating to the city. In December 1955, a series of storms dropped torrential rain throughout northern California, the deluge caused all the rivers in the region to overflow their banks and to break through levees. The Christmas Eve levee break at Yuba City was particularly disastrous, with 38 people losing their lives, according to Dick Brandt, manager of the Yuba County airport in 1955, between 550 and 600 Sutter County residents were rescued from the floodwater by helicopter.
On March 14,1961, a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress carrying nuclear weapons, flying near Yuba City encountered a pressurization problem, as such, more fuel than expected was used, and the aircraft ran out of fuel. It crashed before meeting with a tanker aircraft, the pilot gave the bailout command, and the crew egressed at 10,000 ft, except for the pilot, who ejected at 4,000 ft, while avoiding a populated area. The weapons, two Mark 39 thermonuclear bombs were destroyed on impact though no explosion took place, and there was no release of material as a result. Twenty-seven students and one adult chaperone died and twenty-three students were seriously injured, Yuba City has been home to a significant Muslim population, including Pakistani Americans descended from c.1902 immigrants
In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano. The geochemistry of lava domes can vary from basalt to rhyolite although most preserved domes tend to have high silica content, the characteristic dome shape is attributed to high viscosity that prevents the lava from flowing very far. This high viscosity can be obtained in two ways, by high levels of silica in the magma, or by degassing of fluid magma. Since viscous basaltic and andesitic domes weather fast and easily break apart by further input of fluid lava, most of the domes have high silica content. Existence of lava domes has been suggested for some domed structures on the Martian surface in the part of Arcadia Planitia. Lava domes evolve unpredictably, due to non-linear dynamics caused by crystallization, domes undergo various processes such as growth, collapse and erosion. Lava domes grow by endogenic dome growth or exogenic dome growth, the former implies dome interior expansion to accommodate new lava and the latter refers to superficial piling up of lava.
It is the viscosity of the lava that prevents it from flowing far from the vent from which it extrudes. Domes may reach heights of several hundred meters, and can grow slowly and steadily for months, the sides of these structures are composed of unstable rock debris. Due to the intermittent buildup of gas pressure, erupting domes can often experience episodes of explosive eruption over time, if part of a lava dome collapses while it is still molten, it can produce pyroclastic flows, one of the most lethal forms of volcanic event. Other hazards associated with domes are the destruction of property, forest fires. Lava domes are one of the structural features of many stratovolcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are prone to unusually dangerous explosions since they contain rhyolitic silica-rich lava, characteristics of lava dome eruptions include shallow, long-period and hybrid seismicity, which is attributed to excess fluid pressures in the contributing vent chamber. Other characteristics of lava domes include their hemispherical shape, cycles of dome growth over long periods.
The average rate of growth may be used as a rough indicator of magma supply. A cryptodome is a structure created by accumulation of viscous magma at a shallow depth. Coulées are lava domes that have experienced some flow away from their original position, the worlds largest known dacite flow is the Chao dacite dome complex, a huge coulée flow-dome between two volcanoes in northern Chile. This flow is over 14 kilometres long, has obvious flow features like pressure ridges, there is another prominent coulée flow on the flank of Llullaillaco volcano, in Argentina, and other examples in the Andes