The Northern line is a London Underground line, coloured black on the Tube map. The section between Stockwell and Borough opened in 1890, and is the oldest section of deep-level tube line on the network, for most of its length it is a deep-level tube line. There were about 252,310,000 passenger journeys in 2011/12 on the Northern line, making it the second-busiest line on the Underground. Despite its name, it does not serve the northernmost stations on the network, though it does serve the southernmost station, there are 50 stations on the line, of which 36 have platforms below ground. An extension in the 1920s used a route planned by a fourth company. Abandoned plans from the 1920s to extend the line further southwards, from the 1930s to the 1970s, the tracks of a seventh company were managed as a branch of the Northern line. The C&SLR, Londons first deep-level tube railway, was built under the supervision of James Henry Greathead and it was the first of the Undergrounds lines to be constructed by boring deep below the surface and the first to be operated by electric traction.
The railway opened in November 1890 from Stockwell to a station at King William Street. This was inconveniently placed and unable to cope with the traffic so, in 1900. By 1907 the C&SLR had been extended at both ends to run from Clapham Common to Euston. The CCE&HR was opened in 1907 and ran from Charing Cross via Euston and Camden Town to Golders Green and it was extended south by one stop to Embankment in 1914 to form an interchange with the Bakerloo and District lines. In 1913 the Underground Electric Railways Company of London, owner of the CCE&HR, took over the C&SLR, during the early 1920s, a series of works was carried out to connect the C&SLR and CCE&HR tunnels to enable an integrated service to be operated. The first of new tunnels, between the C&SLRs Euston station and the CCE&HRs station at Camden Town, had originally been planned in 1912 but had been delayed by World War I. The second connection linked the CCE&HRs Embankment and C&SLRs Kennington stations and provided a new station at Waterloo to connect to the main line station there.
The smaller-diameter tunnels of the C&SLR were expanded to match the diameter of the CCE&HR. In conjunction with the works to integrate the two lines, two extensions were undertaken, northwards to Edgware in Middlesex and southwards to Morden in Surrey. The Edgware extension used plans dating back to 1901 for the Edgware and it extended the CCE&HR line from its terminus at Golders Green to Edgware in two stages, to Hendon Central in 1923 and to Edgware in 1924. The line crossed open countryside and ran on the surface, apart from a tunnel north of Hendon Central
Gatwick Airport is a major international airport in south-east England,29.5 miles south of Central London and 2.7 nautical miles north of Crawley. It is the second-busiest airport by passenger traffic in the United Kingdom. Gatwick is the eighth-busiest airport in Europe, Gatwick opened as an aerodrome in the late 1920s, and has been in use for commercial flights since 1933. The airport has two terminals, the North Terminal and the South Terminal, which areas of 98,000 m2 and 160,000 m2 respectively. It operates as a airport, using a main runway with a length of 3,316 m. A secondary runway is available but, due to its proximity to the main runway, in 2016,43.1 million passengers passed through the airport, a 7. 1% increase compared with 2015. The land on which Gatwick Airport stands was first developed as an aerodrome in the late 1920s, the Air Ministry approved commercial flights from the site in 1933, and the first terminal, The Beehive, was built in 1935. Scheduled air services from the new terminal began the following year, major development work at the airport took place during the 1950s.
The airport buildings were designed by Yorke Rosenberg Mardall between 1955 and 1988, further rapid growth of charter flights at Gatwick was encouraged by the Ministry of Aviation, which instructed airlines to move regular charter flights from Heathrow. Following the takeover of BUA by Caledonian Airways at the beginning of the following decade, while continuing to dominate scheduled operations at Gatwick for most of the 1980s, BCal was one of the airports major charter airlines until the end of the 1970s. Following the demise of Air Europe and Dan-Air in the early 1990s and these moves resulted in BA becoming Gatwicks dominant airline by the turn of the millennium. BAs subsequent decision to de-hub Gatwick provided the space for EasyJet to establish its biggest base at the airport, BAA Limited and its predecessors, BAA plc and the British Airports Authority and operated Gatwick from 1 April 1966 to 2 December 2009. From 1978 to 2008, many flights to and from the United States used Gatwick because of restrictions on the use of Heathrow implemented in the Bermuda II agreement between the UK and the US.
US Airways, Gatwicks last remaining US carrier, ended service from Gatwick on 30 March 2013 and this leaves Gatwick without a scheduled US airline for the first time in nearly 40 years. On 17 September 2008, BAA announced it would sell Gatwick after the Competition Commission published a report about BAAs market dominance in London, the sale was completed on 3 December. The sales were part of GIPs strategy to syndicate the equity portion of the acquisition by issuing bonds to refinance bank debt. Although this entails bringing additional investors into the airport, GIP aims to retain management control, the Californian state pension fund CalPERS acquired a 12. 7% stake in Gatwick Airport for about $155 million in June 2010. This transaction completed GIPs syndication process for the airport, reducing its stake to 42%, the airport is owned and operated by Gatwick Airport Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Ivy Holdco Limited
Leatherhead is a town in Surrey, England on the right bank of the River Mole, and at the edge of the contiguous built-up area of London. Its local district is Mole Valley, records exist of the place from Anglo Saxon England. It has a theatre and cinema, which is at the centre of the re-modelling following late 20th century pedestrianisation. The bypass streets to the centre close and feature annually in the London-Surrey cycle classic which is ranked by the worlds cycling federation. Just north-east of the midpoint of Surrey and at a junction of ancient north–south and east–west roads, a main early spur to this was the construction of the bridge over the seasonally navigable River Mole in the early medieval period. Later the Swan Hotel provided 300 years of service to horse-drawn coaches, in the late 20th century the M25 motorway was built nearby. The origins of the town of Leatherhead are Anglo-Saxon, ashtead lay within the Copthorne hundred by the formation of the Kingdom of England. The Leatherhead Museum has traced the history of the town from its beginnings in about AD880 when it was known as Leodridan meaning place where people ride in the Anglo-Saxon, in the Domesday Book of 1086 it was called Leret.
Later forms recorded are Lereda, Leddrede, the early settlement appears to have grown up on the east side of the River Mole, although Hawks Hill, on the west side of the river, is said to be the site of an old Saxon burial ground. A view from the University of Sussex has been put forward that the Anglo-Saxon form was distorted from a Celtic form whose Welsh equivalent is Llwyd-rhyd = grey ford, to the east of the town is the line of Stane Street, an old Roman road. Most of it is now built over or is used as wooded, the road leads from London to Chichester, passing through the strategic Mole Gap. Here it veered more true west and continued in another line to Merrow Church crossing the River Wey near Guildford Bridge. The road existed by late Saxon times and all the medieval churches between Leatherhead and Guildford lie within a few yards of this route, work on the parish church was started some time in the 11th century. Many parts were added over the years, with a major restoration taking place in the Victorian era, Leatherhead appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Leret.
It was held by Osbern de Ow and its Domesday assets were,1 church, belonging to Ewell, with 40 acres. Pachesham within Leatherhead appears in Domesday Book as Pachesham and it was held by Hugo from the Bishop of Lisieux. Its domesday assets were,3 virgates and it had part of 2 mills worth 12 shillings,4 ploughs,5 acres of meadow, woodland worth 3 hogs. It rendered a relatively low £3 10s 0d per year to its feudal system overlords, a market serving the developing agricultural economy developed at the crossroads and in 1248, Henry III granted to Leatherhead a weekly market and annual fair
Bognor Regis railway station
Bognor Regis railway station is in the town of Bognor Regis, in the English county of West Sussex. It is approximately 54 miles southwest of London Victoria, the station and the trains serving it are operated by Southern railway company. The station is a terminus at the end of a branch off the West Coastway Line. The first station to serve Bognor was situated on the line at Woodgate Crossing. It was opened on 8 June 1846 by the Brighton and Chichester Railway and this station was renamed several times during its short life becoming Woodgate for Bognor, Woodgate and Woodgate before closing in 1864. The station suffered two disasters in the 1890s, when it was blown down in a gale in 1897, the present station buildings date from 1902. The line was doubled between 1902 and 1911, and electrified in the 1930s, the station was renamed Bognor Regis by the Southern Railway in 1930 as the town was renamed as such having been the place of the Kings recuperation from serious illness. The station has a Ticket Office, Car Park,4 platforms in use, the station has a small cafe and newspaper shop.
Monday to Saturday at off-peak times, there are four services per hour from Bognor Regis, of these, 2tph continue to London Victoria via Gatwick Airport 1tph continues to Littlehampton 1tph terminates at Barnham. On Sundays, there are two services per hour from Bognor Regis, of these, 1tph continues to London Victoria 1tph continues to Littlehampton. Train times and station information for Bognor Regis railway station from National Rail
London Borough of Sutton
The London Borough of Sutton is a London borough in South West London and forms part of Outer London. It covers an area of 43 km2 and is the 80th largest local authority in England by population and it is one of the southernmost boroughs of London. It is south of the London Borough of Merton, west of the London Borough of Croydon, the local authority is Sutton London Borough Council. Its principal town is the eponymous Sutton, the Borough has some of the schools with the best results in the country. A Trust for London and New Policy Institute report noted that Sutton had the highest rate in London of pupils achieving 5 A* – C GCSEs, in December 2014 Sutton was described by a senior Government official as the most normal place in Britain. In connection with this, the leader of Sutton Council described the borough as quietly brilliant, low levels of recorded crime are a feature of the borough, being among the lowest in London. An Ipsos MORI poll in 2014 found that 97% of residents felt safe in the borough during the day, and 71% felt safe at night, a higher figure than in 2011.
The 2014 Family Hotspots Report, on the best places in England and Wales for families to live, the areas were identified as postcodes SM1, SM2 and SM3. A Rightmove study in 2015 found that Sutton was the fourth happiest borough in which to live out of 33 in London and it achieved the same placing in the 2016 survey. In 2014, a survey by eMoov found Sutton to be the easiest place in the country in which to sell a property, the London Borough of Sutton was one of the four vanguard areas selected in 2010 for the Big Society initiative. The borough includes the areas, The London Borough of Sutton was once made up of rural villages, the village feel persists, and places in the borough such as Carshalton and Belmont continue to be referred to as villages. The historic development of the borough is reflected in the number of areas designated as conservation areas and as areas of special local character. Descriptions of a selection of the cultural institutions and attractions are set out below. There were frequent productions at The Charles Cryer Studio Theatre, which is situated on the High Street in Carshalton Village and it was opened by His Royal Highness Prince Edward in 1991.
As well as drama and musicals, productions included comedy and dance, with material ranging from Shakespeare to Chekov to panto and childrens favourites, the theatres aim was to balance popularity with quality. The theatre served as a venue for local bands. The theatre is named after the man who led the campaign to open the Secombe Theatre, Sutton, in August 2016 Sutton Theatres Trust, which owned the theatre, went into administration and it closed permanently. The Secombe Theatre is in Cheam Road, adjacent to the Holiday Inn Hotel, the theatre was opened by Sir Harry, who lived in Sutton for over 30 years of his life
Morden tube station
Morden is a London Underground station in Morden in the London Borough of Merton. The station is the terminus for the Northern line and is the most southerly station on the Underground network. The next station north is South Wimbledon, the station is located on London Road, and is in Travelcard Zone 4. Nearby are Morden Hall Park, the Baitul Futuh Mosque and Morden Park, the station was one of the first modernist designs produced for the London Underground by Charles Holden. Its opening in 1926 contributed to the development of new suburbs in what was a rural part of Surrey with the population of the parish increasing nine-fold in the decade 1921–1931. One of the projects that had been postponed was the Wimbledon and Sutton Railway, the C&SLR would connect to the W&SR route south of Morden station and run trains to Sutton and the District Railway would run trains between Wimbledon and Sutton. Under these proposals, the station on the C&SLR extension would have been named North Morden, the proposals included a depot at Morden for use by both District Railway and C&SLR trains.
The Southern Railway objected to this encroachment into its area of operation, the UERL and SR reached an agreement in July 1923 that enabled the C&SLR to extend as far as Morden in exchange for the UERL giving up its rights over the W&SR route. Once the station was opened, the UERL established Morden, the southernmost on the system, as the hub for bus routes heading further into suburban south London. These routes had a significant impact on the Southern Railways main line operations in the area, the UERL though was able to demonstrate that its passenger numbers on its buses to Sutton station were actually more than double those for Morden. Across the road from the station, the UERL opened its own petrol station, the opening of the C&SLR and the Wimbledon to Sutton line led to rapid construction of suburban housing throughout the area. The population of the parish of Morden, previously the most rural of the areas through which the lines passed, increased from 1,355 in 1921 to 12,618 in 1931 and 35,417 in 1951.
Construction of the C&SLR extension was carried out and Morden station was opened on 13 September 1926. The stations on the Morden extension were Holdens first major project for the Underground and he was selected by Frank Pick, general manager of the UERL, to design the stations after he was dissatisfied with designs produced by the UERLs own architect, Stanley Heaps. We are going to discard entirely all ornament and we are going to build in reinforced concrete. The station will be simply a hole in the wall, everything being sacrificed to the doorway and we are going to represent the DIA gone mad, and in order that I may go mad in good company I have got Holden to see that we do it properly. The central panel of the screen contains a version of the roundel. The ticket hall beyond is octagonal with a roof light of the same shape
Sutton is the principal town of the London Borough of Sutton in South London, England. It lies on the slopes of the North Downs, and has the administrative headquarters of the borough. It is located 10.4 miles south-south west of Charing Cross, an ancient parish, originally in the county of Surrey, Sutton is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as having two churches and two acres of meadow at that time. Suttons location on the London to Brighton turnpike from 1755 led to the establishment of coaching inns, when it was connected to central London by rail in 1847, the village began to grow into a town, and there was significant Victorian-era expansion. Suttons expansion and increase in population accelerated in the 20th century as part of the growth of London. It became a borough with neighbouring Cheam in 1934, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. Sutton has the largest library in the borough, several works of art, four conservation areas. It is home to a number of international companies and the sixth most important shopping area in London.
Sutton mainline railway station is the largest in the borough, with frequent services to central London, along with Wimbledon Studios, Sutton is a hub for filming in south-west London. Sutton is home to the Royal Marsden Hospital and the Institute of Cancer Research, the town has among the lowest levels of crime in Greater London. Sutton is home to a significant number of the boroughs schools, in 2011 Sutton was the top performing borough for GCSE results in England. The placename Sutton is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Sudtone and it is formed from Old English sūth and tūn, meaning the south farm. It was probably in relation to Mitcham and Morden that it was considered southerly, the name was applied to Sutton Common and the Sutton New Town development in the 19th century. Archaeological finds in the date back over ten thousand years. An implement from the age was discovered close to the junction of Sutton High Street. The Roman road of Stane Street forms part of the boundary of the parish of Sutton.
The course of Stane Street through the area is now followed by the modern roads Stonecot Hill and London Road, some sources state the early name as Suthtone or Sudtana instead. Other place names appear in this charter are Bedintone, Cegeham
City and South London Railway
The City and South London Railway was the first deep-level underground tube railway in the world, and the first major railway to use electric traction. When opened in 1890, the line had six stations and ran for 3.2 miles in a pair of tunnels between the City of London and Stockwell, passing under the River Thames. The diameter of the tunnels restricted the size of the trains, the railway was extended several times north and south, eventually serving 22 stations over a distance of 13.5 miles from Camden Town in north London to Morden in Surrey. Although the C&SLR was well used, low prices and the construction cost of the extensions placed a strain on the companys finances. In 1933, the C&SLR and the rest of the Underground Group was taken into public ownership, its tunnels and stations form the Bank Branch of the Northern line from Camden Town to Kennington and the southern leg of the line from Kennington to Morden. In November 1883, notice was given that a bill was to be presented to Parliament for the construction of the City of London & Southwark Subway.
The railway was to run from Elephant and Castle, in Southwark, south London, the tracks were to be in twin tunnels 10 ft 2 in in diameter, running for a distance of 1.25 miles. The bill received assent as the City of London and Southwark Subway Act,1884 on 28 July 1884. Section 5 of the Act stated, The works authorised by this Act are as follows, with Newington Butts and terminating at King William Street. The subway shall consist of two tubes for separate up and down traffic and shall be approached by means of staircases, in 1886, a further bill was submitted to Parliament to extend the tunnels south from Elephant and Castle to Kennington and Stockwell. The tunnels on this section were of a larger diameter –10 ft 6 in. Before the railway opened, a further bill received assent, granting permission to continue the line south to Clapham Common, the act was published on 25 July 1890 as the City and South London Railway Act,1890, effecting a change of the companys name. Like Greatheads earlier Tower Subway, the CL&SS was intended to be operated by cable haulage with an engine pulling the cable through the tunnels at a steady speed.
Section 5 of the 1884 Act specified that, The traffic of the subway shall be worked by, the system of the Patent Cable Tramway Corporation Limited or by such means other than steam locomotives as the Board of Trade may from time to time approve. However, the length of tunnel permitted by the supplementary acts challenged the practicality of the cable system. It is reported that this problem with the CL&SS contributed to the bankruptcy of the company in 1888. However, electric traction had been considered all along. So, CL&SS chairman Charles Grey Mott decided to switch to electric traction, other cable-operated systems using the Hallidie patents continued to be designed, such as the Glasgow Subway which opened in 1896
The Metropolitan District Railway was a passenger railway that served London from 1868 to 1933. Established in 1864 to complete the circle, an underground railway in London. The Metropolitan Railway operated all services until the District introduced its own trains in 1871, the railway was soon extended westwards through Earls Court to Fulham, Richmond and Hounslow. After completing the circle and reaching Whitechapel in 1884, it was extended to Upminster in Essex in 1902. To finance electrification at the beginning of the 20th century, American financier Charles Yerkes took it over, Electric propulsion was introduced in 1905, and by the end of the year electric multiple units operated all of the services. On 1 July 1933, the District Railway and the other UERL railways were merged with the Metropolitan Railway, former District Railway tracks and stations are used by the London Undergrounds District and Circle lines. In 1863, the Metropolitan Railway opened the worlds first underground railway, the line was built from Paddington beneath the New Road, connecting the main line railway termini at Paddington and Kings Cross.
Then it followed Farringdon Road to a station at Farringdon Street in Smithfield, the Mets early success prompted a flurry of applications to parliament in 1863 for new railways in London, many competing for similar routes. The House of Lords established a committee that recommended an inner circuit of railway that should abut, if not actually join. Proposals to extend west and south from Paddington to South Kensington, the District and the Met were closely associated and it was intended that they would soon merge. The District was established as a company to enable funds to be raised independently of the Met. The District had permission to extend westward from Brompton station and, on 12 April 1869. There were no stations and this service initially operated as a shuttle. By summer 1869 additional tracks had been laid between South Kensington to Brompton and from Kensington to a junction with the line to West Brompton, during the night of 5 July 1870 the District secretly built the disputed Cromwell curve connecting Brompton and Kensington.
East of Westminster, the section ran in the newly constructed Victoria Embankment built by the Metropolitan Board of Works along the north bank of the River Thames. The line was opened from Westminster to Blackfriars on 30 May 1870 with stations at Charing Cross, The Temple, the Met initially operated all services, receiving 55 per cent of the gross receipts for a fixed level of service. The District were charged for any extra trains and the Districts share of the income dropped to about 40 per cent, the Districts level of debt meant that merger was no longer attractive to the Met and its directors resigned from the Districts board. To improve its finances, the District gave the Met notice to terminate the operating agreement, on Saturday 1 July 1871, an opening banquet was attended by the Prime Minister William Gladstone, who was a shareholder
Wimbledon had a population of 68,187 in 2011 which includes the electoral wards of Abbey, Hillside, Village, Raynes Park and Wimbledon Park. It is home to the Wimbledon Tennis Championships and New Wimbledon Theatre, Wimbledon has been inhabited since at least the Iron Age when the hill fort on Wimbledon Common is thought to have been constructed. In 1087 when the Domesday Book was compiled, Wimbledon was part of the manor of Mortlake, the village developed with a stable rural population coexisting alongside nobility and wealthy merchants from the city. The location of the station shifted the focus of the subsequent growth away from the original village centre. Since 2005, the north and west of the Borough has been represented in Westminster by Stephen Hammond, the eastern and southern of the Borough are represented by Siobhain McDonagh, a Labour MP. It has established minority groups, among the most prominent are British Asians, British Ghanaians, Wimbledon has been inhabited since at least the Iron Age when the hill fort on Wimbledon Common, the second-largest in London, is thought to have been constructed.
The original nucleus of Wimbledon was at the top of the close to the common – the area now known locally as the village. The village is referred to as Wimbedounyng in a signed by King Edgar the Peaceful in 967. The name Wimbledon means Wynnmans hill, with the element of the name being the Old English dun. At the time the Domesday Book was compiled, Wimbledon was part of the manor of Mortlake, the ownership of the manor of Wimbledon changed hands many times during its history. The manor was held by the church until 1398 when Thomas Arundel, the manor was confiscated and became crown property. The manor remained crown property until the reign of Henry VIII when it was granted briefly to Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, until Cromwell was executed in 1540 and the land was again confiscated. The manor was held by Henry VIIIs last wife and widow Catherine Parr until her death in 1548 when it again reverted to the monarch. In the 1550s, Henrys daughter, Mary I, granted the manor to Cardinal Reginald Pole who held it until his death in 1558 when it again become royal property.
Marys sister, Elizabeth I held the property until 1574 when she gave the house to Christopher Hatton who sold it in the same year to Sir Thomas Cecil. The lands of the manor were given to the Cecil family in 1588, the Cecil family retained the manor for fifty years before it was bought by Charles I in 1638 for his Queen, Henrietta Maria. On his death in 1677 the manor was sold on again to the Lord High Treasurer, Thomas Osborne, the Osborne family sold the manor to Sir Theodore Janssen in 1712. Janssen, a director of the South Sea Company, began a new house to replace the Cecil-built manor house but, due to the collapse of the company
The District line is a London Underground service that crosses Greater London from east to west. From Upminster, the terminus, the line runs through Central London to Earls Court before dividing into three western branches, to Ealing Broadway and Richmond. There is a branch that goes from Earls Court to Kensington. A branch runs north from Earls Court to Edgware Road via Paddington, the track and stations between Barking and Aldgate East are shared with the Hammersmith & City line, and between Tower Hill and Gloucester Road and on the Edgware Road branch with the Circle line. Some of the stations are shared with the Piccadilly line, unlike Londons deep-level tube railways, the railway tunnels are just below the surface, and the trains are of a similar size to those on British main lines. The District line is the busiest of the lines as well the fifth busiest line overall on the London Underground with over 208 million passengers in the year 2011/12. The original Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an inner circle connecting Londons main-line termini.
Services were operated at first using wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives, electrification was financed by the American Charles Yerkes, and electric services began in 1905. In 1933 the railway was absorbed by the London Passenger Transport Board, in the first half of the 1930s the Piccadilly line took over the Uxbridge and Hounslow branches, although a peak-hour District line service ran on the Hounslow branch until 1964. Kensington has been served by the District line since 1946, the trains carried guards until one-person operation was introduced in 1985. The signalling system is being upgraded, and the current D Stock trains are to be replaced by new 7-car S Stock trains by spring 2017, the Metropolitan District Railway was formed to build and operate part an underground inner circle connecting Londons railway termini. The first line opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster, by 1871 when the District began operating its own trains, the railway had extended to West Brompton and a terminus at Mansion House.
Hammersmith was reached from Earls Court, services were extended to Richmond over the tracks of the London and South Western Railway and branches reached Ealing Broadway, Hounslow, as part of the project that completed the Circle line in October 1884, the District began to serve Whitechapel. Services began running to Upminster in 1902, after a link to the London, electric multiple-units were introduced on other services in 1905, and East Ham became the eastern terminus. Hounslow and Uxbridge were served by 2 or 3-car shuttles from Mill Hill Park, some served South Acton. Services were extended again to Barking in 1908 and Upminster in 1932, in 1933 Piccadilly trains reached to Hounslow West, the District continuing to run services with an off-peak shuttle from South Acton to Hounslow. Most of the cars on the District line were the 1904–05 B Stock type with wooden bodies. The off-peak District line services on the Hounslow branch were withdrawn on 29 April 1935, following bombing of the West London Line in 1940 the LMS and the Metropolitan line services over the West London Line were both suspended