Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa
Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr and Irpa are divine figures in Norse mythology. They appear together in Jómsvíkinga saga, Njáls saga, Þorleifs þáttr jarlsskálds. Irpa’s name does not appear outside of these four attestations, but Þorgerðr appears in the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Færeyinga saga, Harðar saga ok Hólmverja and is mentioned in Ketils saga hœngs. Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr is associated with Haakon Sigurdsson, and, in Jómsvíkinga saga and Þorleifs þáttr jarlsskálds, Þorgerðr and Irpa are described as sisters. The roles of the Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr and Irpa in these sources and the implications of their names has been the topic of some scholarly discourse and conjecture; the name Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr is Old Norse and means "Þorgerðr, Hǫlgi's bride." According to Skáldskaparmál chapter 42, Hǫlgi is Þorgerðr's father. The first name Þorgerðr is a compound of two names: the god name Þor and gerðr – the latter name meaning "fenced in"; the figure's second name sometimes appears in sources featuring -brúðr replaced with -troll, and, in place of Hǫlg-, the prefixes Hǫrða-, Hǫrga-, Hǫlda- appear.
It has been suggested that name Þorgerðr derives from the name of the jǫtunn Gerðr, as Þorgerðr is described at times as a troll or giantess. Alternatively, Gerðr may be an abbreviated version of the name Þorgerðr. Þorgerðr is referred to as Gerðr in Tindr Hallkelsson’s 10th century drápa on Haakon, quoted in chapter 43 of Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar, found in the Heimskringla. John McKinnell states that the name of Þorgerðr's father is a addition used to explain the origins of the name of Hålogaland, that "Hǫlgabrúðr" means "bride of the Hålogaland" and that Hǫrðabrúðr may mean "bride of the Hörðaland." Hǫrðabrúðr as "bride of the heathen shrines," and hǫldabrúðr as either "bride of the people of Holde" or "bride of noblemen." McKinnell says that the variety of stories and names suggest that the tradition of Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr was wide spread, that she was venerated in more than one area. The name Irpa may derive from the Old Norse term jarpr "dark brown", which has led to a number of theories about the goddess.
Jarpr is thought to derive from the earlier Proto-Germanic word *erpa-. Þorgerðr and/or Irpa are attested in the following works: Irpa appears in chapter 21 of the Jómsvíkinga saga, which focuses on the late 10th century Battle of Hjörungavágr between the fleet of the Jomsvikings under Sigvaldi Strut-Haraldsson and the fleet of Haakon Sigurdsson and Sweyn Haakonsson. Haakon calls a meeting during a lull in the fighting, says that he feels that the tide of the battle is going against his allies and him. Haakon goes to an island called Primsigned, north of Hjórunga Bay. On the island, Haakon falls to his knees, while looking northward, prays to what is described as his patron goddess, Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr. According to the saga, Þorgerðr refuses his offers, but accepts the blót of his 7 year-old son. Haakon's slave, slaughters the boy. Haakon returns to his fleet and presses his men to engage in an attack, commends his men to: Press the attack all the more vigorously, because I have invoked for victory both the sisters and Irpa.
Haakon enters his ship, the fleet rows forward for the attack, battle ensues. The weather becomes thick in the north, the clouds cover the sky, daylight becomes sparse and lightning ring out, it begins to rain; the Jomvikings fleet fights facing the storm and cold, they have trouble standing due to the heavy wind. The Jomsvikings throw weapons and stones at Haakon's fleet but the winds turn their projectiles back at them. Hávard the Hewing, in the fleet of Haakon, first spots Þorgerðr there and many others see her; the wind wanes and the men witness arrows flying from the fingertips of Þorgerðr, each arrow killing a man of the Jomsviking fleet. The Jomsvikings tell Sigvaldi that although they are no longer fighting men alone, they will still do their best; the storm lessens once again Haakon invokes Þorgerðr. The saga describes this attack: And it grew dark again with a squall, this time stronger and worse than before, and right at the beginning of the squall Hávard the Hewing saw that two women were standing on the earl's ship, both were doing the same thing that Thorgerd had done before.
Sigvaldi tells his men to retreat, reasons that this is not what he vowed to fight since there are now two women, whom he refers to as "ogresses" and "trolls." After the Jomvikings fleet has been defeated, Haakon's men weigh the hailstones that had fallen during the storm, to detect "what power" Þorgerðr and Irpa had, they find that the hailstones weigh an ounce each. Þorgerðr and Irpa are again mentioned together in chapter 88 of Njáls saga, set in the 10th and 11th centuries. Here, Hrapp breaks into the temple owned by Haakon and Gudbrand while Haakon is at a feast at Gudbrand's home. Hrapp plunders a seated depiction of Þorgerðr. Next, Hrapp spots Thor's wain, he takes a gold ring from the depiction of Thor too, thirdly, he takes a ring from a depiction of Irpa there. Hrapp takes all of the images from the temple, strips them of their items, burns the temple until leaving at dawn. Þorgerðr is mentioned in the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál. Here, Hålogaland is described as named after king Hǫlgi, that he was Þorgerðr's father.
According to Skáldskaparmál, blót were made to them both that included money, a tumulus was made for Hǫlgi, built with layers of
In Germanic mythology, Týr, Tíw, Ziu is a god. Stemming from the Proto-Germanic deity *Tīwaz and from the Proto-Indo-European deity *Dyeus, little information about the god survives beyond Old Norse sources. Due to the etymology of the god's name and the shadowy presence of the god in the extant Germanic corpus, some scholars propose that Týr may have once held a more central place among the deities of early Germanic mythology. Týr is the namesake of the Tiwaz rune, a letter of the runic alphabet corresponding to the Latin letter T. By way of the process of interpretatio germanica, the deity is the namesake of Tuesday in Germanic languages, including English. Interpretatio romana, in which Romans interpret other gods as forms of their own renders the god as Mars, the ancient Roman war god, it is through that lens that most Latin references to the god occur. For example, the god may be referenced as Mars Thingsus on 3rd century Latin inscription, reflecting a strong association with the Germanic thing, a legislative body among the ancient Germanic peoples still in use among some of its modern descendants.
In Norse mythology, from which most surviving narratives about gods among the Germanic peoples stem, Týr sacrifices his arm to the monstrous wolf Fenrir, who bites off his limb while the gods bind the animal. Týr is foretold to be consumed by the monstrous dog Garmr during the events of Ragnarök. In Old Norse sources, Týr is alternately described as the son of the jötunn Hymir or of the god Odin. Lokasenna makes reference to an unnamed otherwise unknown consort also reflected in the continental Germanic record. Various place names in Scandinavia refer to the god, a variety of objects found in England and Scandinavia may depict the god or invoke him; the Old Norse theonym Týr has cognates including Old English tíw and tíʒ, Old High German Ziu. A cognate form appears in Gothic to represent the T rune. Like Latin Jupiter and Greek Zeus, Proto-Germanic *Tīwaz stems from the Proto-Indo-European theonym *Dyeus. Outside of its application as a theonym, the Old Norse common noun týr means' god'. In turn, the theonym Týr may be understood to mean "the god".
Modern English writers anglicize the god's name by dropping the proper noun's diacritic, rendering Old Norse Týr as Tyr. The modern English weekday name Tuesday means'Tíw's day', referring to the Old English extension of the deity. Tuesday derives from Old English tisdæi, which develops from an earlier tywesdæi, which itself extends from Old English Tīwesdæg; the word has cognates in numerous other Germanic languages, including Old Norse týsdagr, Frisian tīesdi, Old High German zīostag, Middle High German zīestac, Alemannic zīstac. All of these forms derive from a Proto-Germanic weekday name meaning'day of Tīwaz', itself a result of interpretatio germanica of Latin dies Martis; this attests to an early Germanic identification of *Tīwaz with Mars. The god is the namesake of the rune representing /t/ in the runic alphabets, the indigenous alphabets of the ancient Germanic peoples prior to their adaptation of the Latin alphabet; the name of the rune first occurs in the historical record as tyz, a character in the Gothic alphabet.
Germanic weekday names for'Tuesday' that do not transparently extend from the above lineage may ultimately refer to the deity, including modern German Dienstag, Middle Dutch dinxendach and dingsdag. These forms may refer to the god's associate with the thing, a traditional legal assembly common among the ancient Germanic peoples with which the god is associated; this may be either due to another form of the god's name or may be due to the god's strong association with the assembly. A variety of place names in Scandinavia refer to the god. For example, Viby, Denmark was once a stretch of meadow near a stream called Dødeå. Viby contained another theonym and religious practices associated with Odin and Týr may have occurred in these places. A spring dedicated to Holy Niels, a Christianization of prior indigenous pagan practice exists in Viby. Viby may mean "the settlement by the sacred site". Archaeologists have found traces of sacrifices going back 2,500 years in Viby. While Týr's etymological heritage reaches back to the Proto-Indo-European period few direct references to the god survive prior to the Old Norse period.
Like many other non-Roman deities, Týr receives mention in Latin texts by way of the process of interpretatio romana, in which Latin texts refer to the god by way of a perceived counterpart in Roman mythology. Latin inscriptions and texts refer to Týr as Mars; the first example of this occurs on record in Roman senator Tacitus's ethnography Germania: A. R. Birley translation: Among the gods Mercury is the one they principally worship, they regard it as a religious duty to sacrifice to him, on fixed days, human as well as other sacrificial victims. Hercules and Mars they appease by animal offerings of the permitted kind. Part of the Suebi sacrifice to Isis as well; these deities are understood by scholars to refer to *Wōđanaz, *Þunraz, *Tīwaz, respectively. The identity of the "Isis" of the Suebi remains a topics of debate among scholars. In Germania, Tacitus mentions a deity referred to as regnator omnium deus venerated by the Semnone
A farmer is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a laborer on land owned by others, but in advanced economies, a farmer is a farm owner, while employees of the farm are known as farm workers, or farmhands. However, in the not so distant past, a farmer was a person who promotes or improves the growth of by labor and attention, land or crops or raises animals. Farming dates back as far as the Neolithic. By the Bronze Age, the Sumerians had an agriculture specialized labor force by 5000–4000 BCE, depended on irrigation to grow crops, they relied on three-person teams. The Ancient Egypt farmers relied and irrigated their water from the Nile. Animal husbandry, the practice of rearing animals for farming purposes, has existed for thousands of years. Dogs were domesticated in East Asia about 15,000 years ago.
Goats and sheep were domesticated around 8000 BCE in Asia. Swine or pigs were domesticated by 7000 BCE in China; the earliest evidence of horse domestication dates to around 4000 BCE. In the U. S. of the 1930s, one farmer could only produce enough food to feed three other consumers. A modern-day farmer produces enough food to feed well over a hundred people. However, some authors consider this estimate to be flawed, as it does not take into account that farming requires energy and many other resources which have to be provided by additional workers, so that the ratio of people fed to farmers is smaller than 100 to 1. More distinct terms are used to denote farmers who raise specific domesticated animals. For example, those who raise grazing livestock, such as cattle, sheep and horses, are known as ranchers, graziers, or stockmen. Sheep and cattle farmers might be referred to as shepherds and cowherds; the term dairy farmer is applied to those engaged in milk production, whether from cattle, sheep, or other milk producing animals.
A poultry farmer is one who concentrates on raising chickens, ducks, or geese, for either meat, egg, or feather production, or all three. A person who raises a variety of vegetables for market may be called a truck farmer or market gardener. Dirt farmer is one who farms his own land. In developed nations, a farmer is defined as someone with an ownership interest in crops or livestock, who provides land or management in their production; those who provide only labor are most called farmhands. Alternatively, growers who manage farmland for an absentee landowner, sharing the harvest are known as sharecroppers or sharefarmers. In the context of agribusiness, a farmer is defined broadly, thus many individuals not engaged in full-time farming can nonetheless qualify under agricultural policy for various subsidies and tax deductions. In the context of developing nations or other pre-industrial cultures, most farmers practice a meager subsistence agriculture—a simple organic farming system employing crop rotation, seed saving and burn, or other techniques to maximize efficiency while meeting the needs of the household or community.
One subsisting in this way may have been known as a peasant. In developed nations, however, a person using such techniques on small patches of land might be called a gardener and be considered a hobbyist. Alternatively, one might be driven into such practices by poverty or, ironically—against the background of large-scale agribusiness—might become an organic farmer growing for discerning consumers in the local food market. Farmers are members of local, regional, or national farmers' unions or agricultural producers' organizations and can exert significant political influence; the Grange movement in the United States was effective in advancing farmers' agendas against railroad and agribusiness interests early in the 20th century. The FNSEA is politically active in France pertaining to genetically modified food. Agricultural producers, both small and large, are represented globally by the International Federation of Agricultural Producers, representing over 600 million farmers through 120 national farmers' unions in 79 countries.
Farmed products might be sold either directly from a farm. In a subsistence economy, farm products might to some extent be either consumed by the farmer's family or pooled by the community. There are several occupational hazards for those in agriculture. Farmers can encounter and be stung or bitten by dangerous insects and other arthropods, including scorpions, fire ants, bees and hornets. Farmers work around heavy machinery which can kill or injure them. Farmers can establish muscle and joints pains from repeated work. Notes Bibliography Media related to Farmers at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of farmer at Wiktionary
Hjúki and Bil
In Norse mythology, Hjúki and Bil are a brother and sister pair of children who follow the personified moon, Máni, across the heavens. Both Hjúki and Bil are attested in the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. Scholarly theories that surround the two concern their nature, their role as potential personifications of the craters on the moon or its phases, their relation to folklore in Germanic Europe. Bil has been identified with the Bilwis, an agriculture-associated figure, attested in the folklore of German-speaking areas of Europe. In chapter 11 of the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, the enthroned figure of High states that two children by the names of Hjúki and Bil were fathered by Viðfinnr. Once while the two were walking from the well Byrgir — both of them carrying on their shoulders the pole Simul that held the pail Sæg between them — Máni took them from the earth, they now follow Máni in the heavens, "as can be seen from the earth". Hjúki is otherwise unmentioned.
In chapter 35 of Gylfaginning, at the end of a listing of numerous other goddesses in Norse mythology, both Sól and Bil are listed together as goddesses "whose nature has been described". Bil appears twice more in the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál. In chapter 75, Bil appears within another list of goddesses, her name appears in chapter 47 in a kenning for "woman"; as the two are otherwise unattested outside of Snorri's Prose Edda, suggestions have been made that Hjúki and Bil may have been of minor mythic significance, or that they were made up outright by Snorri, while Anne Holtsmark posits that Snorri may have known or had access to a now lost verse source wherein Hjúki and Bil personified the waxing and waning moon. Holtsmark further theorizes. Scholars have theorized that Hjúki and Bil may represent lunar activity, including that they may represent the phases of the moon or may represent the craters of the moon. 19th century scholar Jacob Grimm rejects the suggestion that Hjúki and Bil represent the phases of the moon, states that Hjúki and Bil rather represent the craters on the moon seen from the earth.
Grimm says. No change of the moon could suggest the image of two children with a pail slung over their shoulders. Moreover, to this day the Swedish people see in the spots of the moon two persons carrying a big bucket on a pole." Grimm adds that: What is most important for us, out of the heathen fancy of a kidnapping man of the moon, apart from Scandinavia, was doubtless in vogue all over Teutondom, if not farther, there has evolved itself since a Christian adaptation. They say the man in the moon is a wood-stealer, who during church time on the holy sabbath committed a trespass in the wood, was transported to the moon as a punishment. Plainly enough the water-pole of the heathen story has been transformed into the axe's shaft, the carried pail into the thornbrush. Grimm gives further examples from Germanic folklore until the time of his writing and notes a potential connection between the German word wadel and the dialectal employment of the word for "brushwood, twigs tied up in a bundle, esp fir-twigs, wadeln to tie up brushwood", the practice of cutting wood out in the full moon.
Benjamin Thorpe agrees with the theory of Bil as the personified shapes of moon craters. Rudolf Simek states that the obscurity of the names of the objects in the tale of Hjúki and Bil may indicate that Snorri derived them from a folktale, that the form of the tale of the Man in the Moon is found in modern folklore in Scandinavia and Northern Germany. In both the story Hjúki and Bil found in the Icelandic Prose Edda and the English nursery rhyme "Jack and Jill", two children, one male and one female, fetch a pail of water, the pairs have names that have been perceived as phonetically similar; these elements have resulted in theories connecting the two, the notion has had some influence, appearing in school books for children from the 19th century and into the 20th century. A traditional form of the rhyme reads: Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water Jack fell down and broke his crown and Jill came tumbling after. Up Jack got and home did trot as fast, he went to bed to mind his head with brown paper.
A figure by the name of Bilwis is attested in various parts of German-speaking Europe starting in the 13th century. Scholar Leander Petzoldt writes that the figure seems to stem from the goddess and over time saw many changes developing "an elfin, dwarfish aspect and the ability to cripple people or cattle with the shot of an arrow". Petzoldt further surveys the development of the figure: During the course of the thirteenth century, the Bilwis is less and less treated as the personification of a supernatural power but becomes identified as a malevolent human being, a witch. Still with the rise of the witch persecution at the end of the Middle Ages, the Bilwis was demonized.
In early Germanic paganism, *Wulþuz appears to have been an important concept personified as a god, or an epithet of an important god. The term wolþu- "glory" in reference to the god, is attested on the 3rd century Thorsberg chape, there are many placenames in Ullr and a related name, but medieval Icelandic sources have only sparse material on the god Ullr; the medieval Norse word was Latinized as Ollerus. The Icelandic form is Ullur. In the mainland North Germanic languages, the modern form is Ull; the Old English cognate wuldor means "glory" but is not used as a proper name, although it figures in kennings for the Christian God such as wuldres cyning "king of glory", wuldorfæder "glory-father" or wuldor alwealda "glorious all-ruler". The Thorsberg chape bears an Elder Futhark inscription, one of the earliest known altogether, dating to AD 200. Owlþuþewaz / niwajmariz The first element owlþu, for wolþu-, means "glory", "glorious one", Old Norse Ullr, Old English wuldor; the second element, -þewaz, means "slave, servant".
The whole compound is a personal name or title, "servant of the glorious one", "servant/priest of Ullr". Niwajmariz means "well-honored". In Saxo Grammaticus' 12th century work Gesta Danorum, where gods appear euhemerized, Ollerus is described as a cunning wizard with magical means of transportation: When Odin was exiled, Ollerus was chosen to take his place. Ollerus ruled under the name Odin for ten years. Ullr is mentioned in the poem Grímnismál; the English versions shown here are by Thorpe. The name Ýdalir, meaning "yew dales", is not otherwise attested; the yew was an important material in the making of bows, the word ýr, "yew", is used metonymically to refer to bows. It seems that the name Ýdalir is connected with the idea of Ullr as a bow-god. Another strophe in Grímnismál mentions Ullr; the strophe may refer to some sort of religious ceremony. It seems to indicate Ullr as an important god; the last reference to Ullr in the Poetic Edda is found in Atlakviða: Both Atlakviða and Grímnismál are considered to be among the oldest extant Eddic poems.
It may not be a coincidence. Again we seem to find Ullr associated with some sort of ceremony, this time that of swearing an oath by a ring, a practice associated with Thor in sources. In chapter 31 of Gylfaginning in the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, Ullr is referred to as a son of Sif and as a stepson of Sif's husband. Snorri informs his readers that Ullr can be called bow-god, hunting-god and shield-god. In turn a shield can be called Ullr's ship. Despite these tantalising tidbits Snorri relates no myths about Ullr, it seems that he didn't know any, the god having faded from memory. Snorri's note that a shield can be called Ullr's ship is borne out by surviving skaldic poetry with kennings such as askr Ullar, far Ullar and kjóll Ullar all meaning Ullr's ship and referring to shields. While the origin of this kenning is unknown it could be connected with the identity of Ullr as a ski-god. Early skis, or sleds, might have been reminiscent of shields. A late Icelandic composition, Laufás-Edda, offers the prosaic explanation that Ullr's ship was called Skjöldr, "Shield".
The name of Ullr is common in warrior kennings, where it is used as other god names are. Ullr brands – Ullr of sword – warrior rand-Ullr – shield-Ullr – warrior Ullr almsíma – Ullr of bowstring – warriorThree skaldic poems, Þórsdrápa, Haustlöng and a fragment by Eysteinn Valdason, refer to Thor as Ullr's stepfather, confirming Snorri's information. Ullr's name appears in several important Swedish place names; this indicates that Ullr had at some point a religious importance in Scandinavia, greater than what is apparent from the scant surviving textual references. It is probably significant that the placenames referring to this god are found close to placenames referring to another deity: Njörðr in Sweden and Freyr in Norway; some of the Norwegian placenames have Ullinn. It has been suggested that this is the remnant of a pair of divine twins and further that there may have been a female Ullin, on the model of divine pairs such as Fjörgyn and Fjörgynn. Ullarhváll - name of an old farm in Oslo and of Ullevaal Stadion Ullestad - name of old farm in Voss.
Ullarnes - name of an old farm in Rennesøy. Ullerøy - name of four old farms in Skjeberg, Spind, Sør-Odal and Vestre Moland. Ullern - name of old farms in Hole, Ullensaker, Sør-Odal and Øvre Eiker. Ullinsakr - name of two old farms in Hemsedal and Torpa. Ullinshof - name of three old farms in Nes, Nes and Ullensaker. Ullensvang - name of an old farm in Ullensvang. Ullinsvin - name of an old farm in Vågå. Ullsfjorden - fjord in Troms county. Believed to be named after Ullr, although there is some uncertainty. Ulvik - village and fjord in Hordaland county.(For a possible nickname *Ringir for Ullr see under the na
In Germanic mythology, Frija and Frige is a goddess. In nearly all sources, she is described as the wife of the god Odin. In Old High German and Old Norse sources, she is connected with the goddess Fulla; the English weekday name Friday bears her name. Frigg is described as a goddess associated with foresight and wisdom in Norse mythology, the northernmost branch of Germanic mythology and most extensively attested. Frigg is the wife of the major god Odin and dwells in the wetland halls of Fensalir, is famous for her foreknowledge, is associated with the goddesses Fulla, Lofn, Hlín, Gná, is ambiguously associated with the Earth, otherwise personified as an separate entity Jörð; the children of Frigg and Odin include the gleaming god Baldr. Due to the significant thematic overlap, scholars have proposed a particular connection to the goddess Freyja. After Christianization, the mention of Frigg continued to occur in Scandinavian folklore. During modern times, Frigg has appeared in popular culture, has been the subject of art and receives veneration in Germanic Neopaganism.
The theonyms Frigg and Frija are cognate forms—linguistic siblings of the same origin—that descend from a substantivized feminine of Proto-Germanic *frijaz. *frijaz descends from the same source as the feminine Sanskrit noun priyā and the feminine Avestan noun fryā. In the modern period, an -a suffix is sometimes applied to denote femininity, resulting in the form Frigga; this spelling serves the purpose of distancing the goddess from the English word frig. The connection with and possible earlier identification of the goddess Freyja with Frigg in the Proto-Germanic period is a matter of scholarly debate. Like the name of the group of gods to which Freyja belongs, the Vanir, the name Freyja is not attested outside of Scandinavia; this is in contrast to the name of the goddess Frigg, attested as a goddess common among the Germanic peoples, whose name is reconstructed as Proto-Germanic *Frijjō. Evidence does not exist for the existence of a common Germanic goddess from which Old Norse Freyja descends, but scholars have commented that this may be due to the scarcity of surviving sources.
Regarding a Freyja–Frigg common origin hypothesis, scholar Stephan Grundy comments that "the problem of whether Frigg or Freyja may have been a single goddess is a difficult one, made more so by the scantiness of pre-Viking Age references to Germanic goddesses, the diverse quality of the sources. The best that can be done is to survey the arguments for and against their identity, to see how well each can be supported."The English weekday name Friday comes from Old English Frīġedæġ, meaning'day of Frig'. It is cognate with Old High German frîatac. Several place names refer to Frigg in what are now Norway and Sweden, although her name is altogether absent in recorded place names in Denmark; the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum, Paul the Deacon's 8th-century Historia Langobardorum derived from it, recount a founding myth of the Langobards, a Germanic people who ruled a region of what is now Italy. According to this legend, a "small people" known as the Winnili were ruled by a woman named Gambara who had two sons and Agio.
The Vandals, ruled by Ambri and Assi, came to the Winnili with their army and demanded that they pay them tribute or prepare for war. Ybor and their mother Gambara rejected their demands for tribute. Ambra and Assi asked the god Godan for victory over the Winnili, to which Godan responded: "Whom I shall first see when at sunrise, to them will I give the victory."Meanwhile and Agio called upon Frea, Godan's wife. Frea counseled them that "at sunrise the Winnil should come, that their women, with their hair let down around the face in the likeness of a beard should come with their husbands". At sunrise, Frea woke him. Godan saw the Winnili, including their whiskered women, asked "who are those Long-beards?" Frea responded to Godan, "As you have given them a name, give them the victory". Godan did so, "so that they should defend themselves according to his counsel and obtain the victory". Thenceforth the Winnili were known as the Langobards. A 10th-century manuscript found in what is now Merseburg, features an invocation known as the Second Merseburg Incantation.
The incantation calls upon various continental Germanic gods, including Old High German Frija and a goddess associated with her—Volla, to assist in healing a horse: In the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional material, Frigg is mentioned in the poems Völuspá, Vafþrúðnismál, the prose of Grímnismál, Oddrúnargrátr. Frigg receives three mentions in the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá. In the first mention, the poem recounts. In the poem, when the future death of Odin is foretold, Odin himself is referred to as the "beloved of Frigg" and his future death is referred to as the "second grief of Frigg". Like the reference to Frigg weeping in Fensalir earlier in the poem, the implied "first grief" is a reference to the grief she felt upon the death of her son, Baldr. In the prose introduction to the poem Grímnismál, Frigg plays a prominent role; the prose introduction recounts that two sons of king Hrauðungr and Geirröðr, once sailed out with a trailing line to catch small fish.
However, wind drove them out into the ocean and, d
In Norse mythology, a jötunn is a type of entity contrasted with gods and other figures, such as dwarfs and elves. The entities are themselves ambiguously defined, variously referred to by several other terms, including risi and troll. Although the term giant is sometimes used to gloss the word jötunn and its apparent synonyms in some translations and academic texts, jötnar are not notably large and may be described as exceedingly beautiful or as alarmingly grotesque; some deities, such as Skaði and Gerðr, are themselves described as jötnar, various well-attested deities, such as Odin, are descendants of the jötnar. Norse myth traces the origin of the jötnar to the proto-being Ymir, a result of growth of asexual reproduction from the entity's body. Ymir is killed, his body dismembered to create the world, the jötnar survive this event by way of sailing through a flood of Ymir's blood; the jötnar dwell in Jötunheimr. In Scandinavian folklore, the ambiguity surrounding the entities gives way to negative portrayals.
Old Norse jötunn and Old English eóten developed from the Proto-Germanic masculine noun *etunaz. Philologist Vladimir Orel says that semantic connections between *etunaz with Proto-Germanic *etanan makes a relation between the two nouns likely. Proto-Germanic *etanan is reconstructed from Old Norse etall'consuming', Old English etol'voracious, gluttonous', Old High German filu-ezzal'greedy'. Old Norse risi and Old High German riso derive from the Proto-Germanic masculine noun *wrisjon. Orel observes that the Old Saxon adjective wrisi-līke'enormous' is also connected. Old Norse þurs, Old English ðyrs, Old High German duris'devil, evil spirit' derive from the Proto-Germanic masculine noun *þursaz, itself derived form Proto-Germanic *þurēnan, etymologically connected to Sanskrit turá-'strong, rich'. For discussion regarding Old Norse troll and its development, see troll. Several terms are used to refer to female entities that fall into this category, including íviðja and gýgr; the jötnar are attested throughout the Old Norse record.
For example, in a stanza of Völuspá hin skamma, a variety of origins are provided: völvas are descended from Viðòlfr, all seers from Vilmeiðr, all charm-workers from Svarthöfði, all jötnar descend from Ymir. List of jötnar in Norse mythology Trollhunter Jeramy; the Poetic Edda. Coach House Books. ISBN 978 1 55245 2967. Bellows, Henry Adams; the Poetic Edda. Princeton University Press. New York: The American-Scandinavian Foundation. Orel, Vladimir. A Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Brill. ISBN 9004128751 Thorpe, Benjamin. Edda Sæmundar Hinns Frôða: The Edda of Sæmund the Learned. Part I. London: Trübner & Co