Lafayette County, Florida
Lafayette County is a county located in the state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,870, making it the second-least populous county in Florida; the county seat is Mayo. Lafayette County is a prohibition or dry county, allowing retail sales of beer. Lafayette County was created on December 1856 from part of Madison County. At the time it comprised all the area of present-day Dixie counties; the County was named in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette, the French general who rendered assistance to the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. The famed Suwannee River forms the entire eastern boundary; the county courts first met at the home of Ariel Jones near Fayetteville. The county seat was New Troy until the court house burned down on New Year's Eve, 1892, it was moved to Mayo in 1893, Mayo is Lafayette's only incorporated town. The moving of the courthouse was the end for New Troy; the Gainesville Sun states that houses were dismantled for their timber and bricks, hardwoods replaced the fields, steamboat traffic ended in 1899, the ferry closed in 1917.
In 1921 the lower part of the county was removed to create Dixie County. Historic sites in Lafayette County include: The Hal W. Adams Bridge built in 1947 across the Suwannee River 3 mi north of Mayo, it was Florida's first suspension bridge. The Old Lafayette County Courthouse, built in 1893-1894, now an inn; the current Lafayette County Courthouse built in 1908. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 548 square miles, of which 543 square miles is land and 4.5 square miles is water. Suwannee County - east Gilchrist County - southeast Dixie County - south Taylor County - west Madison County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 7,022 people, 2,142 households and 1,591 families residing in the county; the population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 2,660 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 79.27% White, 14.37% Black or African American, 0.71% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 4.30% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races.
9.14% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In terms of ancestry, 41.1% were English, 8.0% were Irish, 7.1% were American, 5.3% were German. There were 2,142 households out of which 34.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.70% were non-families. 22.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.70% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 34.00% from 25 to 44, 21.30% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 148.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 157.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,651, the median income for a family was $35,020. Males had a median income of $25,030 versus $22,007 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $13,087. About 12.90% of families and 17.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.70% of those under age 18 and 17.30% of those age 65 or over. Parks in the county include Lafayette Blue Springs State Park and Troy Springs State Park, both accessible to the Suwannee River; the Lafayette County Public Library is part of the Three Rivers Regional Library System, which serves Gilchrist and Taylor counties. Mayo Day Airline Alton Buckville Cooks Hammock Hatchbend Midway Dry counties Lafayette County Board of County Commissioners Lafayette County Supervisor of Elections Lafayette County Property Appraiser Lafayette County Sheriff's Office Lafayette County Tax Collector Lafayette County Schools Suwannee River Water Management District Lafayette County Clerk of Courts Public Defender, 3rd Judicial Circuit of Florida serving Columbia, Hamilton, Madison and Taylor Counties Office of the State Attorney, 3rd Judicial Circuit of Florida Circuit and County Court for the 3rd Judicial Circuit of Florida
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Hamilton County, Florida
Hamilton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,799, its county seat is Jasper. Hamilton County was created in 1827 from portions of Jefferson County, it was named for first United States Secretary of the Treasury. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 519 square miles, of which 514 square miles is land and 5.3 square miles is water. It is the only county in Florida north of Interstate 10. Echols County, Georgia - north Columbia County - east Suwannee County - south Madison County - west Lowndes County, Georgia - northwest Interstate 75 U. S. Route 41 U. S. Route 129 State Road 6 State Road 100 State Road 136 State Road 143 As of the census of 2000, there were 13,327 people, 4,161 households, 2,995 families residing in the county; the population density was 26 people per square mile. There were 4,966 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 58.79% White, 37.72% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.69% from other races, 1.17% from two or more races.
6.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,161 households out of which 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.30% were married couples living together, 16.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.00% were non-families. 24.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 10.80% from 18 to 24, 31.80% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 11.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 135.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 145.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $25,638, the median income for a family was $30,677. Males had a median income of $26,999 versus $20,552 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,562.
About 21.70% of families and 26.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.70% of those under age 18 and 16.10% of those age 65 or over. Hamilton County School District operates public schools in the county; the sole high school is Hamilton County High School. Hamilton County is served by the Suwannee River Regional Library System, which contains eight branches and serves Madison and Suwannee counties. Libraries in Hamilton County include: Jasper Jennings White Springs Jasper White Springs Jennings National Register of Historic Places listings in Hamilton County, Florida Hamilton County Board of County Commissioners Hamilton County Supervisor of Elections Hamilton County Property Appraiser Hamilton County Sheriff's Office Hamilton County Tax Collector Hamilton County Schools - dead link Suwannee River Water Management District Hamilton County Clerk of Courts Public Defender, 3rd Judicial Circuit of Florida serving Columbia, Hamilton, Madison and Taylor Counties Office of the State Attorney, 3rd Judicial Circuit of Florida Circuit and County Court for the 3rd Judicial Circuit of Florida Hamilton County Tourism Development Council Suwannee Online
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Zora Neale Hurston
Zora Neale Hurston was an influential author of African-American literature and an anthropologist, who portrayed racial struggles in the early-20th-century American South, published research on Haitian voodoo. The most popular of her four novels is Their Eyes Were Watching God, published in 1937, she wrote more than 50 short stories and essays. Hurston was born in Notasulga and moved with her family to Eatonville, Florida, in 1894, she used Eatonville as the setting for many of her stories. It is now the site of the Zora! Festival, held each year in her honor. In her early career, Hurston conducted anthropological and ethnographic research while a student at Barnard College, she had an interest in African-American and Caribbean folklore, how these contributed to the community's identity. She wrote fictional treatment about contemporary issues in the black community and became a central figure of the Harlem Renaissance, her short satires, drawing from the African-American experience and racial division, were published in anthologies such as The New Negro and Fire!!
After moving back to Florida, Hurston wrote and published her literary anthropology on African-American folklore in North Florida and Men, her first three novels: Jonah's Gourd Vine. Published during this time was Tell My Horse: Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Jamaica, documenting her research on rituals in Jamaica and Haiti. Hurston's works related both to the African-American experience and her struggles as an African-American woman, her novels went unrecognized by the literary world for decades. Interest was revived in 1975 after author Alice Walker published an article, "In Search of Zora Neale Hurston", in the March issue of Ms. magazine that year. Hurston's manuscript Every Tongue Got to Confess, a collection of folktales gathered in the 1920s, was published posthumously in 2001 after being discovered in the Smithsonian archives, her nonfiction book Barracoon: The Story of the Last "Black Cargo", about the life of Cudjoe Lewis, was published posthumously in 2018. Hurston was the sixth of eight children of Lucy Ann Hurston.
All of her four grandparents had been born into slavery. Her father was a Baptist preacher and sharecropper, who became a carpenter, her mother was a school teacher, she was born in Notasulga, Alabama, on January 7, 1891, where her father grew up and her paternal grandfather was the preacher of a Baptist church. When she was three, her family moved to Florida. In 1887 it was one of the first all-black towns incorporated in the United States. Hurston said. Sometimes she claimed it as her birthplace. A few years her father was elected as mayor of the town in 1897. In 1902 he was called as minister of Macedonia Missionary Baptist; as an adult, Hurston used Eatonville as a setting in her stories. It was a place, independent of white society. In 1901, some northern schoolteachers visited Eatonville and gave Hurston a number of books that opened her mind to literature, she described it as a kind of "birth". Hurston lived for the rest of her childhood in Eatonville, described the experience of growing up there in her 1928 essay, "How It Feels To Be Colored Me".
In 1904, Hurston's mother died. Her father remarried to Mattie Moge; this was considered scandalous, as it was rumored that he had had relations with Moge before his first wife's death. Hurston's father and stepmother sent her to a Baptist boarding school in Florida, they stopped paying her tuition and she was dismissed. Hurston started work as a maid to the lead singer in a traveling Gilbert & Sullivan theatrical company. In 1917, she resumed her formal education, attending Morgan College, the high school division of Morgan State University, a black college in Baltimore, Maryland. At this time to qualify for a free high-school education, the 26-year-old Hurston began claiming 1901 as her year of birth, she graduated from the high school of Morgan State University in 1918. In 1918, Hurston began her studies at Howard University, a black college in Washington, DC, she was one of the earliest initiates of Zeta Phi Beta sorority, founded by and for black women, co-founded The Hilltop, the university's student newspaper.
She took courses in Spanish, English and public speaking and earned an associate degree in 1920. In 1921, she wrote a short story, "John Redding Goes to Sea", which qualified her to become a member of Alaine Locke's literary club, The Stylus. Hurston left Howard in 1924, in 1925 was offered a scholarship by Barnard trustee Annie Nathan Meyer to Barnard College of Columbia University, a women's college, where she was the sole black student. While she was at Barnard, she conducted ethnographic research with noted anthropologist Franz Boas of Columbia University, studied with him as a graduate student, she worked with Ruth Benedict and fellow anthropology student Margaret Mead. Hurston received her B. A. in anthropology in 1928, when she was 37. Hurston had met Charlotte Osgood Mason, a philanthropist and literary patron, who became interested in her work and career. Mason supported Hurston's travel to the South for research from 1927 to 1932. After graduating from Barnard, Hurston studied for two years as a graduate student in anthropology at Columbia University, working further with Boas.
Living in Harlem in the 1920s, Hurston befriended poets Langston Hughes and Countee Cullen, among s
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
The Suwannee River is a major river that runs through South Georgia southward into Florida in the southern United States. It is a wild blackwater river, about 246 miles long; the Suwannee River is the site of the prehistoric Suwanee Straits which separated peninsular Florida from the panhandle. The headwaters of the Suwanee River are in the Okefenokee Swamp in the town of Georgia; the river runs southwestward into the Florida Panhandle drops in elevation through limestone layers into a rare Florida whitewater rapid. Past the rapid, the Suwanee turns west near the town of White Springs, Florida connects to the confluences of the Alapaha River and Withlacoochee River. Starting at the confluences of those three rivers, that confluence forms the southern borderline of Hamilton County, Florida; the Suwanee bends southward near the town of Ellaville, followed by Luraville, Florida joins together with the Santa Fe River from the east, south of the town of Branford, Florida. The river drains into the Gulf of Mexico on the outskirts of Suwannee, Florida.
The Spanish recorded the native Timucua name of Guacara for the river that would become known as the Suwannee. Different etymologies have been suggested for the modern name. San Juan: D. G. Brinton first suggested in his 1889 Notes on the Floridian Peninsula that Suwannee was a corruption of the Spanish San Juan; this theory is supported by Jerald Milanich, who states that "Suwannee" developed through "San Juan-ee" from the 17th-century Spanish mission of San Juan de Guacara, located on the Suwannee River. Shawnee: The migrations of the Shawnee throughout the South have been connected to the name Suwannee; as early as 1820, the Indian agent John Johnson said "the'Suwaney' river was doubtless named after the Shawanoese, Suwaney being a corruption of Shawanoese." However, the primary southern Shawnee settlements were along the Savannah River, with only the village of Ephippeck on the Apalachicola River being securely identified in Florida, casting doubt on this etymology. "Echo": In 1884, Albert S. Gatschet claimed that Suwannee derives from the Creek word sawani, meaning "echo", rejecting the earlier Shawnee theory.
Stephen Boyd's 1885 Indian Local Names with Their Interpretation and Henry Gannett's 1905 work The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States repeat this interpretation, calling sawani an "Indian word" for "echo river". Gatschet's etymology survives in more recent publications mistaking the language of translation. For example, a University of South Florida website states that the "Timucuan Indian word Suwani means Echo River... River of Reeds, Deep Water, or Crooked Black Water". In 2004, William Bright repeats it again, now attributing the name "Suwanee" to a Cherokee village of Sawani, unlikely as the Cherokee never lived in Florida or South Georgia; this etymology is now considered doubtful: 2004's A Dictionary of Creek Muscogee does not include the river as a place-name derived from Muscogee, lacks entries for "echo" and for words such as svwane, sawane, or svwvne, which would correspond to the anglicization "Suwannee". The Suwannee River area has been inhabited by humans for thousands of years.
During the first millennium CE, it was inhabited by the people of the Weedon Island archaeological culture, around 900 CE, a derivative local culture, known as the Suwanee River Valley culture, developed. By the 16th century, the river was inhabited by two related Timucua language-speaking peoples: the Yustaga, who lived on the west side of the river. By 1633, the Spanish had established the missions of San Juan de Guacara, San Francisco de Chuaquin, San Augustin de Urihica along the Suwannee to convert these western Timucua peoples. In the 18th century, Seminoles lived by the river; the steamboat Madison operated on the river before the Civil War, the sulphur springs at White Springs became popular as a health resort, with 14 hotels in operation in the late 19th century. This river is the subject of the Stephen Foster song "Old Folks at Home", in which he calls it the Swanee Ribber. Foster had named the Pedee River of South Carolina in his first lyrics, it has been called Swanee River because Foster had used an alternative contemporary spelling of the name.
Foster never saw the river he made world-famous. George Gershwin's song, with lyrics by Irving Caesar, made popular by Al Jolson, is spelled "Swanee" and boasts that "the folks up North will see me no more when I get to that Swanee shore". Both of these songs feature banjo-strumming and reminiscences of a plantation life more typical of 19th-century South Carolina than of among the swamps and small farms in the coastal plain of south Georgia and north Florida. Don Ameche starred as Foster in the fictional biographical film Swanee River; when approaching the Suwannee River via several major highways, motorists are greeted with a sign which announces they are crossing the Historic Suwannee River, complete with the first line of sheet music from "Old Folks at Home". This is Florida's state song, designated as such in 1935. In 2008, its original lyrics were replaced with a politically correct version. There is a Foster museum and carillon tower at Stephen Foster Folk Culture Center State Park in White Springs.
The spring itself is called White Sulphur Springs because of its high sulphur content. Since there was a belief in the healing qualities of its waters, the Springs were long popular as a health resort; the idiom "up the Swannee" or "down the swanny" means something is going badly wrong, analogous to "up the creek without a paddle". A unique aspect of the Suwannee River is the Suwannee River Wilder