Gérald Tremblay is a Canadian former politician and businessman who served as mayor of Montreal from 2002 until his resignation in 2012. He served as president of the Montreal Metropolitan Community. Before becoming mayor he had a long career in management. Tremblay resigned as Mayor on November 5, 2012 following allegations of corruption made at the Charbonneau Commission. Born in Ottawa, Tremblay grew up in Montreal, where his family moved when he was four years old, his parents, Georges Albert Tremblay, a notary, Rollande Forest, had four boys: Michel, Gérald and François. He obtained a Bachelor of Laws from the University of Ottawa in 1969, was admitted to the Bar of Quebec in 1970, he earned a Master of Business Administration from Harvard Business School in 1972. He was a professor and lecturer at HEC Montréal from 1974 to 1977, he served as a senior manager in several companies. He worked at a consulting firm from 1977 to 1981, the Fédération des caisses d'entraide économique du Québec from 1981 to 1982, as well as various businesses in the hospitality and retail industry from 1982 to 1986 and the Société de développement industriel from 1986 to 1989.
He was a member of the board of directors of the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec and Hydro-Québec, as well as the governor of the Quebec MBA Association. He was elected as the Liberal MNA for Outremont in 1989, he first sat in the National Assembly and served as Minister of Industry, Commerce and Technology in the Bourassa Cabinet from October 11, 1989 to January 11, 1994, in the Johnson Jr. Cabinet from January 11, 1994 to September 26, 1994, he was re-elected to the National Assembly in September 1994, was named president of the Commission de l'économie et du travail from December 1, 1994 until his resignation on April 15, 1996. After his second term in the legislature and up until his election as mayor on November 4, 2001, Tremblay returned to the private sector, he taught again at HEC Montréal, worked at Monitor Company and Rolland, sat on the board of directors of various companies. He was a successful entrepreneur, setting up a chain of specialty boutiques called Dans un Jardin which sold perfume, but jam, other small delicacies.
He served as president of World Skills 1999, held in Montreal. Gérald Tremblay and his wife, Suzanne Tailleur, were married on November 24, 1979, four years adopted twins, Marie-Laurence and Georges-Etienne. Tremblay ran for mayor of Montreal after the controversial merging of the 29 municipalities that made up the Montreal Urban Community into one single city spanning the entire island of Montreal, which caused then-mayor Pierre Bourque, associated with orchestrating the merger, to call an election. Tremblay's municipal political party was known as the Montreal Island Citizens Union, his election campaign was based on re-evaluating the merger and decentralizing the city structure. In the 2001 election, shortly after the towns on the island of Montreal had been forcibly merged into a new Island-wide city of Montreal, Tremblay campaigned as the defender of towns and cities, he received a great deal of support from opponents of the amalgamation. He was elected mayor on November 4, 2001 with the support of a diverse coalition, formed of opponents of the merger.
However, in the subsequent referendum on the question of demerger, he was accused of betraying his supporters by coming out in favour of the "no" side, supporting the megacity. On November 6, 2005, Gérald Tremblay won his second term in office winning against long-time rival Pierre Bourque by 74,646 votes; the voter turn-out estimated at 39.13% was the lowest in the history of the Montreal municipal elections.. Since he took office, Tremblay has streamlined the city's operations but generated controversy in some quarters. While his administration improved public consultation mechanisms, it is considered by many to be one of the most secretive administrations in Montreal history, causing some to declare that the democratic deficit has grown during his tenure despite improvements to consultation. In 2006, Tremblay was appointed vice president for North America of United Cities and Local Governments and re-elected vice president of the International Association of Francophone Mayors. Gérald Tremblay was re-elected for a third term on November 2009, with 37.90 % of the vote.
He defeated Richard Bergeron of Projet Montréal. The 2009 campaign focused on ethics and governance in the wake of the scandal of water meters and collusion in the awarding of contracts in infrastructure, his administration decentralized the city by giving more power to the boroughs. He has been criticized by suburban mayors who decry his clear preference for Montreal to receive a much larger share of the island's tax revenues than it would have had the merger not taken place. However, many argue that these boroughs are less responsive to the public than City Hall, since they are not required to offer public consultations on their decisions; the public can force referendums on particular bylaw proposals. Tremblay received criticism for his proposal to change the name of Avenue du Parc to Avenue Robert-Bourassa, in honour of former Quebec premier Robert Bourassa, without public consultation; the proposal was approved by City Council in a vote on November 29, 2006. Much of the criticism of the proposal came from businesses who inhabit Avenue du Parc.
On February 6, 2007, Mayor Tremblay backed away from his position on Avenue du Parc after losing the support of Bourassa's family. In a press conference on
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor