Massachusetts House of Representatives
The Massachusetts House of Representatives is the lower house of the Massachusetts General Court, the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. It is composed of 160 members elected from 14 counties each divided into single-member electoral districts across the Commonwealth; the House of Representatives convenes at the Massachusetts State House in Boston. Representatives were apportioned by town. For the first 150 persons, one representative was granted, this ratio increased as the population of the town increased; the largest membership of the House was 749 in 1812. The original distribution was changed to the current regional population system in the 20th century; until 1978, there were 240 members of a number in multi-member districts. Today, each Representative represents about 40,000 residents, their districts are named for the counties they are in and tend to stay within one county, although districts cross county lines. Representatives serve two-year terms. Within the House's debating chamber hangs the Sacred Cod of Massachusetts.
The 5-foot-long pine carving of the cod was offered by Representative John Rowe in 1784 in commemoration of the state's maritime economy and history. Two previous carvings of the cod existed during the legislature's colonial era. Since 1784, the current Sacred Cod has been present at nearly every House session, moved to its current location when the House began convening in the State House in 1798. In 1933, members of the Harvard Lampoon stole the cod carving as part of a prank; the theft sparked a large statewide search by the Massachusetts State Police. Following outrage from Boston newspapers and the General Court itself, the cod was anonymously handed back; the Democrats hold a supermajority in the House. The Speaker of the House presides over the House of Representatives; the Speaker is elected by the majority party caucus followed by confirmation of the full House through the passage of a House Resolution. As well as presiding over the body, the Speaker is the chief leader, controls the flow of legislation.
Other House leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses relative to their party's strength in the House. The current Speaker of the House is Robert DeLeo of the 19th Suffolk District; the most recent election of members was held on November 8, 2016. Representatives serve two-year terms; the current standing committees in the Massachusetts House of Representatives are as follows: The following is a complete list of Members of the House of Representatives in the 191st General Court, by district: 6 Representatives 4 Representatives 14 Representatives 18 Representatives 2 Representatives 12 Representatives 3 Representatives 37 Representatives 15 Representatives 12 Representatives 19 Representatives 18 Representatives List of current Massachusetts House of Representatives committees List of Speakers of the Massachusetts House of Representatives Massachusetts State House Massachusetts Senate Massachusetts General Court Massachusetts Government Representative Districts, accessed April 9, 2006 House Members of the General Court "Public Officers of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: 1945-1946".
1945. "Public Officers of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: 1947-1948". 1947. 1951, 1957, 1961, 1967, 1971, 1977, 1981, 1987, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007 "Massachusetts - State Legislative District Maps". United States Census Bureau
Suffolk University is a private, non-sectarian, non-profit research university located in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. With 7,560 students, it is the eighth largest university in metropolitan Boston, it is categorized as a Doctoral Research University by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. It was founded as a law school in 1906 and named after its location in Suffolk County, Massachusetts; the university's notable alumni include mayors, dozens of U. S. federal and state judges and United States members of Congress. The university, located at the downtown edge of the historic Beacon Hill neighborhood, is coeducational and comprises the Suffolk University Law School, the College of Arts & Sciences, the Sawyer Business School; the Princeton Review ranked the Sawyer Business School as "One of Top 15 in Global Management" and its entrepreneurship program is ranked among the top 25 in the U. S; the Princeton Review currently ranks some of its MBA programs among the top 50 business programs in the nation.
The 2015 edition of U. S. News publication ranked Suffolk Law School 6th in the United States for its Legal Writing, 13th for its Alternative Dispute Resolution program, 20th for legal clinics, it has an international campus in Madrid in addition to the main campus in downtown Boston. Due to its strategic location and well-known law school, many notable scholars, prominent speakers and politicians have visited and given speeches at the university such as John F. Kennedy, Supreme Court Justice William Rehnquist, former U. S. President George H. W. Bush; the university's sports teams, the Suffolk Rams, compete in NCAA Division III as members of the GNAC and the ECAC in 19 varsity sports. Suffolk University was founded as a law school in 1906 by Boston lawyer Gleason Archer, Sr. who named it "Archer's Evening Law School," intending it for law students who worked during the day. The school was renamed Suffolk School of Law in 1907, after Archer moved it from his Roxbury, Massachusetts home into his law offices in downtown Boston.
A year the first of Archer's students had passed the bar, leading to a boost in registration. The school's original goal was to "serve ambitious young men who are obliged to work for a living while studying law."By 1930, Archer developed Suffolk into one of the largest law schools in the country, decided to create "a great evening university" that working people could afford. The school became a university in the 1930s when the Suffolk College of Arts and Sciences was founded in 1934 and the Sawyer Business School—then known as the College of Business Administration—in 1937; that same year, the three academic units were incorporated as Suffolk University. During the 1990s Suffolk constructed its first residence halls, began satellite programs with other colleges in Massachusetts, opened its international campuses. From 1990 to 2005, its endowment increased over 400%, to $72 million, enrollment climbed. Gleason Archer, Sr. Walter Burse Robert Munce Dennis C. Haley John E. Fenton Thomas Fulham Daniel Perlman David Sargent Barry Brown James McCarthy Norman R. Smith Margaret McKenna Marisa Kelly The main campus in downtown Boston is situated on well-known, adjacent to the Massachusetts State House and the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
Up until 1995, Suffolk was a commuter-only school. Today, there are four coed residence halls, housing over 65% of freshman, a total of 24% of the entire undergraduate population; the Residence Halls are: 150 Tremont Miller Hall 10 West Modern Theatre The residence hall at 150 Tremont Street was the first built by the university and houses students in singles, doubles and suites, with communal bathrooms. Nathan R. Miller Residence Hall was opened in 2005 and houses 15 floors of freshman, 2 floors of sophomores in singles and quads, with bathrooms shared between every two rooms or one bathroom per quad; the 10 West Residence Hall, opened in 2008, has housing for freshman and sophomores in singles and doubles. Suites accommodate a variety of apartment-style suites house 2 to 8 students. Both Miller Hall and 150 Tremont have cafeterias. Students living at 10 West/Modern Theater can eat at 150 Tremont. Suffolk University leases additional properties. If leased, those locations house freshman students.
In 2015, due to a long housing waitlist, Suffolk housed additional freshman at the Massachusetts College of Art and Design and MCPHS University. The Modern Theatre Residence Hall opened in the fall of 2010 and is considered an extension to the 10 West Resident Hall; the two residence halls share one entrance at 10 West Street. The Modern Theater Residence Hall is built over the restored Modern Theatre. In addition to its main campus in Boston, there are satellite campuses in Madrid and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Suffolk University has many different buildings that are spread through downtown Boston and Beacon Hill. Nathan R. Miller Hall: Residence Building One Beacon Street: Few floors for academics Somerset: Academic Building Frank Sawyer Building: Academic Building Rosalie K. Stahl Center: Academic, Library Building David J. Sargent Hall: Law, Graduate Building Modern Theatre: Theatre, Residence Hall 10 West Residence Hall
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Charles Duane Baker Jr. is an American businessman and politician serving as the 72nd Governor of Massachusetts since January 8, 2015. A Republican, he was a cabinet official under two Governors of Massachusetts and served ten years as chief executive officer of Harvard Pilgrim Health Care. Raised in Needham, Baker graduated from Harvard and obtained an MBA from Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Management. In 1991, he became Massachusetts Undersecretary of Health and Human Services under Governor Bill Weld. In 1992, he was appointed Secretary of Human Services of Massachusetts, he served as Secretary of Administration and Finance under Weld and his successor, Paul Cellucci. After working in government for eight years, Baker left to become CEO of Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, a non-profit health benefits company. During this time he served three years as a selectman of Swampscott and considered a run for Massachusetts Governor in 2006, he stepped down in July 2009 to run for Governor of Massachusetts on a platform of fiscal conservatism and cultural liberalism.
He was unopposed in the Republican primary but lost in the 2010 general election to the Democratic incumbent, Deval Patrick. Running for the office again, on November 4, 2014, he won the general election against Democrat Martha Coakley by a narrow margin. In 2018, Baker was re-elected handily over Democratic challenger Jay Gonzalez with 67% of the vote, the largest vote share in a Massachusetts gubernatorial election since 1994; as of January 10, 2019, Baker had a job approval rating of 72%. Baker was born on November 1956, in Elmira, New York. Of English ancestry, his family has been in what is now the northeastern United States since the Colonial era, he is the fourth generation in the family to bear the forename Charles. His great-grandfather, Charles D. Baker, was an assistant United States attorney in New York, who served several years in the New York State Assembly, his grandfather, Charles D. Baker Jr. was a prominent politician in Massachusetts. His father, Charles Duane Baker, a Harvard graduate, was a buyer for the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, while his mother, Alice Elizabeth "Betty", remained at home.
Baker grew up with two younger brothers and Alex, in Needham, before moving to Rockport. He grew up playing football and baseball. Baker's father was a conservative Republican, his mother a liberal Democrat, the family was drawn into political arguments at the dinner table, his father became vice president of Harbridge House, a Boston management consulting firm, in 1965. In 1969, the family moved to Washington, D. C. where the elder Baker was named deputy undersecretary of the U. S. Department of Transportation in the Nixon Administration, the following year becoming the department's assistant secretary for policy and international affairs, in both capacities serving under former Massachusetts Governor John Volpe, his father served as undersecretary of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services in the Reagan Administration under former Massachusetts Congresswoman Margaret Heckler; the family returned to Needham in 1971. He served on the student council, played basketball, joined DeMolay International, a youth fraternity organization.
In a Bay State Conference championship basketball game, a ball he inbounded with 2 seconds left on the clock, was tipped away by a player from Dedham High School, causing Needham to lose by a single point. Baker graduated in 1979 with a BA in English, he stated that he went to Harvard "because of the brand", wrote, "With a few exceptions... those four years are ones I would rather forget." While at Harvard, Baker played on the JV basketball team. He attended Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Management, where he received an MBA in management. After graduating, Baker served as corporate communications director for the Massachusetts High Technology Council. In the late 1980s, Baker was hired as codirector of the newly founded Pioneer Institute, a Boston-based libertarian think tank. Lovett C. "Pete" Peters, the institute's founder recommended him to Bill Weld, the incoming Republican Governor of Massachusetts. Weld hired him as Undersecretary of Health and Human Services. In cutting back state programs and social services, Baker caused controversy from early on.
However, some government officials called him an "innovator" and "one of the big stars among the secretariats and the agencies". Baker was promoted to Secretary of Health and Human Services in November 1992, was made Secretary of Administration and Finance, a position he continued to hold after Weld resigned in 1997 and Paul Cellucci took over as acting governor. In mid-1998, Cellucci offered him the lieutenant governor spot on the ticket; as Secretary of Administration and Finance, Baker was a main architect of the Big Dig financing plan. In 1997 the federal government was planning to cut funding for the Big Dig by $300 million per year; the state sold Grant Anticipation Notes to investors. The notes were secured by promising future federal highway funds; as federal highway dollars are awarded to Massachusetts, the money is used to pay off the GANs. According to a 2007 blue-ribbon panel, the cost overruns of the Big Dig, combined with Baker's plan for financing them left the state transpo
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
The Massachusetts Institute for a New Commonwealth, or "MassINC," is registered as a non-profit 501 organization that functions as a nonpartisan, evidence-based think tank. Its mission is to develop a public agenda for Massachusetts that promotes the growth and vitality of the middle class, its governing philosophy is rooted in the ideals embodied in the American Dream: equality of opportunity, personal responsibility, a strong commonwealth. Their mission is to promote a public agenda for the middle class and to help all citizens achieve the American dream. MassINC was founded in 1996 by Tripp Jones and Michael Gritton who, together with a small group of leaders from the civic and policy-making fields, believed that the policy process in Massachusetts was missing accurate and unbiased information and research about the challenges facing the middle class; the organization was built around the conviction that better outcomes would be achieved if policy makers and opinion leaders were armed with credible data and analysis about key issues surrounding quality of life in Massachusetts.
Credible, fact-based analysis have thus been cornerstones of the MassINC strategy and have made it an organization of record for policy analysis and civic engagement. The Massachusetts Cape Wind Project took on national prominence as a symbol of the United States' efforts to embrace renewable energy, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, combat climate change, but locally, the project's above-market cost became a hot-button issue, prompting a debate about green industry in general and the best way for Massachusetts to achieve its environmental and energy goals without putting businesses at a competitive disadvantage. In 2010, Greg Torres, President of MassINC and publisher of CommonWealth magazine, Bruce Mohl, editor of CommonWealth and WBUR health and science reporter Sacha Pfeiffer moderated a debate between gubernatorial candidates Charlie Baker and Deval Patrick; the Massachusetts Criminal Justice Reform Coalition is a group of civic leaders who believe there is an urgent need for comprehensive corrections reform.
The Coalition supports law enforcement, county sheriffs, the judiciary, agency officials, legislative leaders working to advance comprehensive change across the criminal justice system. MassINC provides staffing and organizational support for the Coalition. In 2013, The Massachusetts Criminal Justice Reform Coalition released its first report, Crime and Consequences: Is It Time to Get Smart on Crime? The 40-page report outlines the costs of the state's incarceration system and presents reforms to both curb those costs and improve public safety. Among the recommendations are: Placing a moratorium on state and county prison expansion. Since 2014, MassINC has collaborated with Community Resources for Justice and the Massachusetts Bar Association to host panels and forums on the matter of criminal justice reform. In 2014, the group hosted a presentation and panel discussion entitled "Reform, Re-entry and Results: Change and Progress in the Massachusetts Criminal Justice System." The event featured remarks from Gov. Deval L. Patrick, who announced a program that aims to reduce recidivism by prison inmates by 50 percent during the next five years.
The governor called for the reinstatement of the Sentencing Commission, the limited use of restraints on mentally ill inmates in state prisons to only those that pose "serious and immediate" danger, the abolishment of the use of restraints on pregnant inmates during labor. He highlighted the importance of re-entry programs, stating that 97 percent of those incarcerated will return to Massachusetts communities after serving time in prison, he introduced a "step down" program in which state prison inmates would be transferred back into society through county correctional facilities before their release. Patrick stressed the prevention and treatment of substance abuse as a health problem; the second annual event in 2015 highlighted the state's judicial branch with a focus on state and federal sentencing practices and reforms. In a keynote address, Supreme Judicial Court Chief Justice Ralph D. Gants called for an end to mandatory minimum sentences in drug cases, noting that mandatory minimum sentences for drug offenses are unfair to minority groups, fail to address the drug epidemic and are a poor investment of public funds.
The program included a presentation of new research from Bruce Western, Guggenheim Professor of Criminal Justice Policy at Harvard University, two panel discussions: "High-Performing Sentencing Commissions" and "Justice for Special Populations." The summit wrapped up with closing remarks from Attorney General Maura Healey. The theme of the third annual event was the role of cross-agency partnerships within the criminal justice community, focusing on serving individuals with behavioral health conditions, integrating information systems to enable data-driven decision-making and facilitating successful reentry; the keynote speakers were Hampden County Sheriff Michael Ashe and Essex County Sheriff Frank Cousins. Two of the longest serving sheriffs in Massachusetts and Cousins each provided their perspectives on effective cross-agency partnerships; the MassINC Polling Group is a full-service opinion research company serving public and social sector organizations. The MassINC Polling Group started in Boston with a local and state-level focus and now serves a national client base.
Although it has expanded its reach, the group still conducts and releases more public opinion research on Massachusetts than any other polling organization. The pr