1.
Traditional Chinese characters
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Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong. Currently, a number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both sets. In contrast, simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China, Singapore, the debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of Mainland China, Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China primarily in handwriting and also used for inscriptions and religious text. They are often retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear, nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. Taiwan has never adopted Simplified Chinese characters since it is ruled by the Republic of China, the use of simplified characters in official documents is even prohibited by the government in Taiwan. Simplified characters are not well understood in general, although some stroke simplifications that have incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, similarly, in Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, because of the influx of mainland Chinese tourists, today, even government websites use simplified Chinese, as they answer to the Beijing government. This has led to concerns by residents to protect their local heritage. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification, while major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, and United Daily News still use traditional characters, on the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores. In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub that is used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan and this is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters, overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the half of the 19th century. Therefore, the majority of Chinese language signage in the United States, including street signs, Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world
Traditional Chinese characters
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Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters
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Job announcement in a Filipino Chinese daily newspaper written in Traditional Chinese characters.
Traditional Chinese characters
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A Series of Reading workbook in Traditional Chinese used in some Elementary schools in the Philippines.
2.
Simplified Chinese characters
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Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, it is one of the two character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the Peoples Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy and they are officially used in the Peoples Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong, Macau. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters, Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially. Strictly, the latter refers to simplifications of character structure or body, character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, Simplified character forms were created by decreasing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of traditional Chinese characters. Some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms, some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character. Finally, many characters were left untouched by simplification, and are identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies. Some simplified characters are very dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters and this often leads opponents not well-versed in the method of simplification to conclude that the overall process of character simplification is also arbitrary. In reality, the methods and rules of simplification are few, on the other hand, proponents of simplification often flaunt a few choice simplified characters as ingenious inventions, when in fact these have existed for hundreds of years as ancient variants. However, the Chinese government never officially dropped its goal of further simplification in the future, in August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters. The new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was promulgated by the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China on June 5,2013, cursive written text almost always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print have always existed, they date back to as early as the Qin dynasty, One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lubi Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China, Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or completely abolished. Fu Sinian, a leader of the May Fourth Movement, called Chinese characters the writing of ox-demons, lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, If Chinese characters are not destroyed, then China will die. Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the problems in China during that time
Simplified Chinese characters
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Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters
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The slogan 战无不胜的毛泽东思想万岁 (Zhàn wúbù shèng de Máo Zédōng sīxiǎng wànsuì; Long live the invincible
Mao Zedong Thought) on
Xinhua Gate in Beijing.
Simplified Chinese characters
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The first batch of Simplified Characters introduced in 1935 consisted of 324 characters.
3.
Standard Chinese
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Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a language with topic-prominent organization. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants, Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan, aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters. There are many characters that are identical between the two systems, in English, the governments of China and Hong Kong use Putonghua, Putonghua Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, and Mandarin, while those of Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia, use Mandarin. The name Putonghua also has a long, albeit unofficial, history and it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or common tongue/speech, was different from the Guoyu. The former was a prestige variety, while the latter was the legal standard. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different, Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, which is close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called the speech of the modern man. The use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai, prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the term for Standard Chinese. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca, Huayu, or language of the Chinese nation, originally simply meant Chinese language, and was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name Huayu to refer to Mandarin and it also incorporates the notion that Mandarin is usually not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. The term Mandarin is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire, in English, Mandarin may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name Modern Standard Mandarin is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the language from other northern. Chinese has long had considerable variation, hence prestige dialects have always existed. Confucius, for example, used yǎyán rather than colloquial regional dialects, rime books, which were written since the Northern and Southern dynasties, may also have reflected one or more systems of standard pronunciation during those times
Standard Chinese
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A poster outside of high school in
Yangzhou urges people to speak Putonghua
Standard Chinese
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Zhongguo Guanhua (中国官话/中國官話), or Medii Regni Communis Loquela ("Middle Kingdom's Common Speech"), used on the frontispiece of an early Chinese grammar published by
Étienne Fourmont (with
Arcadio Huang) in 1742
4.
Hanyu Pinyin
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Pinyin, or Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China, Malaysia, Singapore, and Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang and it was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as a standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the standard in Taiwan in 2009. The word Hànyǔ means the language of the Han people. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing and this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing Dynasty scholar-official, the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the effect of the kana syllabaries. This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script, while Song did not himself actually create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. This Sin Wenz or New Writing was much more sophisticated than earlier alphabets. In 1940, several members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Societys new journal. Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Yat-sens son, Sun Fo, Cai Yuanpei, the countrys most prestigious educator, Tao Xingzhi, an educational reformer. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, biographies, some contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooks
Hanyu Pinyin
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A school slogan asking elementary students to speak
Putonghua is annotated with pinyin, but without tonal marks.
Hanyu Pinyin
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In
Yiling,
Yichang,
Hubei, text on road signs appears both in Chinese characters and in Hanyu Pinyin
5.
Cantonese
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Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou in southeastern China. It is the prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong and some neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. In Hong Kong and Macau, Cantonese serves as one of their official languages and it is also spoken amongst overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia and throughout the Western World. When Cantonese and the closely related Yuehai dialects are classified together, Cantonese is viewed as vital part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swathes of southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau. Although Cantonese shares some vocabulary with Mandarin, the two varieties are mutually unintelligible because of differences in pronunciation, grammar and lexicon, sentence structure, in particular the placement of verbs, sometimes differs between the two varieties. This results in the situation in which a Cantonese and a Mandarin text may look similar, in English, the term Cantonese is ambiguous. Cantonese proper is the variety native to the city of Canton and this narrow sense may be specified as Canton language or Guangzhou language in English. However, Cantonese may also refer to the branch of Cantonese that contains Cantonese proper as well as Taishanese and Gaoyang. In this article, Cantonese is used for Cantonese proper, historically, speakers called this variety Canton speech or Guangzhou speech, although this term is now seldom used outside mainland China. In Guangdong province, people call it provincial capital speech or plain speech. In Hong Kong and Macau, as well as among overseas Chinese communities, in mainland China, the term Guangdong speech is also increasingly being used among both native and non-native speakers. Due to its status as a prestige dialect among all the dialects of the Cantonese or Yue branch of Chinese varieties, the official languages of Hong Kong are Chinese and English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law. The Chinese language has different varieties, of which Cantonese is one. Given the traditional predominance of Cantonese within Hong Kong, it is the de facto official spoken form of the Chinese language used in the Hong Kong Government and all courts and it is also used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English. A similar situation exists in neighboring Macau, where Chinese is an official language along with Portuguese. As in Hong Kong, Cantonese is the predominant spoken variety of Chinese used in life and is thus the official form of Chinese used in the government. The variant spoken in Hong Kong and Macau is known as Hong Kong Cantonese, Cantonese first developed around the port city of Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China
Cantonese
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Street in
Chinatown, San Francisco. Cantonese has traditionally been the dominant Chinese variant among Chinese populations in the Western world.
Cantonese
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Gwóngdūng Wah / gwong 2 dung 1 waa 6 (Cantonese) written in
traditional Chinese (left) and
simplified Chinese (right) characters
Cantonese
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Chinese dictionary from Tang dynasty. Modern Cantonese pronunciation is more similar to Middle Chinese from this era than other Chinese varieties.
6.
Jyutping
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Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong, an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanisation Scheme, the LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name Jyutping is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5, only the finals m and ng can be used as standalone nasal syllables. ^ ^ ^ Referring to the pronunciation of these words. There are nine tones in six distinct tone contours in Cantonese, however, as three of the nine are entering tones, which only appear in syllables ending with p, t, and k, they do not have separate tone numbers in Jyutping. Jyutping and the Yale Romanisation of Cantonese represent Cantonese pronunciations with the letters in, The initials, b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw. The vowel, aa, a, e, i, o, u, the coda, i, u, m, n, ng, p, t, k. But they differ in the following, The vowels eo and oe represent /ɵ/ and /œː/ respectively in Jyutping, the initial j represents /j/ in Jyutping whereas y is used instead in Yale. The initial z represents /ts/ in Jyutping whereas j is used instead in Yale, the initial c represents /tsʰ/ in Jyutping whereas ch is used instead in Yale. In Jyutping, if no consonant precedes the vowel yu, then the initial j is appended before the vowel, in Yale, the corresponding initial y is never appended before yu under any circumstances. Jyutping defines three finals not in Yale, eu /ɛːu/, em /ɛːm/, and ep /ɛːp/ and these three finals are used in colloquial Cantonese words, such as deu6, lem2, and gep6. To represent tones, only tone numbers are used in Jyutping whereas Yale traditionally uses tone marks together with the letter h. Jyutping and Cantonese Pinyin represent Cantonese pronunciations with the letters in, The initials, b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw. The vowel, aa, a, e, i, o, u, the coda, i, u, m, n, ng, p, t, k. But they have differences, The vowel oe represents both /ɵ/ and /œː/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas eo and oe represent /ɵ/ and /œː/ respectively in Jyutping. The vowel y represents /y/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas both yu and i are used in Jyutping, the initial dz represents /ts/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas z is used instead in Jyutping. The initial ts represents /tsʰ/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas c is used instead in Jyutping. To represent tones, the numbers 1 to 9 are usually used in Cantonese Pinyin, however, only the numbers 1 to 6 are used in Jyutping
Jyutping
–
Jyutping Romanization.
7.
Numeral system
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A numeral system is a writing system for expressing numbers, that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner. It can be seen as the context that allows the symbols 11 to be interpreted as the symbol for three, the decimal symbol for eleven, or a symbol for other numbers in different bases. The number the numeral represents is called its value, ideally, a numeral system will, Represent a useful set of numbers Give every number represented a unique representation Reflect the algebraic and arithmetic structure of the numbers. For example, the decimal representation of whole numbers gives every nonzero whole number a unique representation as a finite sequence of digits. Etc. all of which have the same meaning except for some scientific, such systems are, however, not the topic of this article. The most commonly used system of numerals is the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, two Indian mathematicians are credited with developing it. Aryabhata of Kusumapura developed the notation in the 5th century. The numeral system and the concept, developed by the Hindus in India, slowly spread to other surrounding countries due to their commercial. The Arabs adopted and modified it, even today, the Arabs call the numerals which they use Rakam Al-Hind or the Hindu numeral system. The Arabs translated Hindu texts on numerology and spread them to the world due to their trade links with them. The Western world modified them and called them the Arabic numerals, hence the current western numeral system is the modified version of the Hindu numeral system developed in India. It also exhibits a great similarity to the Sanskrit–Devanagari notation, which is used in India. The simplest numeral system is the numeral system, in which every natural number is represented by a corresponding number of symbols. If the symbol / is chosen, for example, then the seven would be represented by ///////. Tally marks represent one such system still in common use, the unary system is only useful for small numbers, although it plays an important role in theoretical computer science. Elias gamma coding, which is used in data compression. The unary notation can be abbreviated by introducing different symbols for new values. The ancient Egyptian numeral system was of type, and the Roman numeral system was a modification of this idea
Numeral system
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Numeral systems
8.
Arabic numerals
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In this numeral system, a sequence of digits such as 975 is read as a single number, using the position of the digit in the sequence to interpret its value. The symbol for zero is the key to the effectiveness of the system, the system was adopted by Arab mathematicians in Baghdad and passed on to the Arabs farther west. There is some evidence to suggest that the numerals in their current form developed from Arabic letters in the Maghreb, the current form of the numerals developed in North Africa, distinct in form from the Indian and eastern Arabic numerals. The use of Arabic numerals spread around the world through European trade, books, the term Arabic numerals is ambiguous. It most commonly refers to the widely used in Europe. Arabic numerals is also the name for the entire family of related numerals of Arabic. It may also be intended to mean the numerals used by Arabs and it would be more appropriate to refer to the Arabic numeral system, where the value of a digit in a number depends on its position. The decimal Hindu–Arabic numeral system was developed in India by AD700, the development was gradual, spanning several centuries, but the decisive step was probably provided by Brahmaguptas formulation of zero as a number in AD628. The system was revolutionary by including zero in positional notation, thereby limiting the number of digits to ten. It is considered an important milestone in the development of mathematics, one may distinguish between this positional system, which is identical throughout the family, and the precise glyphs used to write the numerals, which varied regionally. The glyphs most commonly used in conjunction with the Latin script since early modern times are 0123456789. The first universally accepted inscription containing the use of the 0 glyph in India is first recorded in the 9th century, in an inscription at Gwalior in Central India dated to 870. Numerous Indian documents on copper plates exist, with the symbol for zero in them, dated back as far as the 6th century AD. Inscriptions in Indonesia and Cambodia dating to AD683 have also been found and their work was principally responsible for the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration in the Middle East and the West. In the 10th century, Middle-Eastern mathematicians extended the decimal system to include fractions. The decimal point notation was introduced by Sind ibn Ali, who wrote the earliest treatise on Arabic numerals. Ghubar numerals themselves are probably of Roman origin, some popular myths have argued that the original forms of these symbols indicated their numeric value through the number of angles they contained, but no evidence exists of any such origin. In 825 Al-Khwārizmī wrote a treatise in Arabic, On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals, Algoritmi, the translators rendition of the authors name, gave rise to the word algorithm
Arabic numerals
–
Numeral systems
Arabic numerals
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Modern-day Arab telephone keypad with two forms of Arabic numerals: Western Arabic/European numerals on the left and
Eastern Arabic numerals on the right
Arabic numerals
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The numerals used in the
Bakhshali manuscript, dated between the 2nd century BC and the 2nd century AD.
Arabic numerals
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Woodcut showing the 16th century
astronomical clock of
Uppsala Cathedral, with two clockfaces, one with Arabic and one with Roman numerals.
9.
Eastern Arabic numerals
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These numbers are known as أرقام هندية in Arabic. They are sometimes also called Indic numerals in English, however, that is sometimes discouraged as it can lead to confusion with Indian numerals, used in Brahmic scripts of India. Each numeral in the Persian variant has a different Unicode point even if it looks identical to the Eastern Arabic numeral counterpart, however the variants used with Urdu, Sindhi and other South Asian languages are not encoded separately from the Persian variants. See U+0660 through U+0669 and U+06F0 through U+06F9, written numerals are arranged with their lowest-value digit to the right, with higher value positions added to the left. That is identical to the arrangement used by Western texts using Hindu-Arabic numerals even though Arabic script is read from right to left. There is no conflict unless numerical layout is necessary, as is the case for arithmetic problems and lists of numbers, Eastern Arabic numerals remain strongly predominant vis-à-vis Western Arabic numerals in many countries to the East of the Arab world, particularly in Iran and Afghanistan. In Pakistan, Western Arabic numerals are more used as a considerable majority of the population is anglophone. Eastern numerals still continue to see use in Urdu publications and newspapers, in North Africa, only Western Arabic numerals are now commonly used. In medieval times, these used a slightly different set
Eastern Arabic numerals
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Numeral systems
Eastern Arabic numerals
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Arabic style Eastern Arabic numerals on a clock in the
Cairo Metro
Eastern Arabic numerals
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Ottoman clocks tended to use Eastern Arabic numerals styled to look like
Roman
10.
Indian numerals
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Indian numerals are the symbols representing numbers in India. These numerals are used in the context of the decimal Hindu–Arabic numeral system. Below is a list of the Indian numerals in their modern Devanagari form, the corresponding Hindu-Arabic equivalents, their Hindi and Sanskrit pronunciation, since Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, it is obvious that the words for numerals closely resemble those of Greek and Latin. The word Shunya for zero was translated into Arabic as صفر sifr, meaning nothing which became the zero in many European languages from Medieval Latin. The five Indian languages that have adapted the Devanagari script to their use also naturally employ the numeral symbols above, of course, for numerals in Tamil language see Tamil numerals. For numerals in Telugu language see Telugu numerals, Tamil and Malayalam scripts also have distinct forms for 10,100,1000 numbers, ௰, ௱, ௲and ൰, ൱, ൲ respectively in tamil and scripts. A decimal place system has been traced back to ca.500 in India, before that epoch, the Brahmi numeral system was in use, that system did not encompass the concept of the place-value of numbers. Instead, Brahmi numerals included additional symbols for the tens, as well as symbols for hundred. The Indian place-system numerals spread to neighboring Persia, where they were picked up by the conquering Arabs, in 662, Severus Sebokht - a Nestorian bishop living in Syria wrote, I will omit all discussion of the science of the Indians. Of their subtle discoveries in astronomy — discoveries that are more ingenious than those of the Greeks, I wish only to say that this computation is done by means of nine signs. But it is in Khmer numerals of modern Cambodia where the first extant material evidence of zero as a numerical figure, as it was from the Arabs that the Europeans learned this system, the Europeans called them Arabic numerals, the Arabs refer to their numerals as Indian numerals. In academic circles they are called the Hindu–Arabic or Indo–Arabic numerals, but what was the net achievement in the field of reckoning, the earliest art practiced by man. An inflexible numeration so crude as to progress well nigh impossible. Man used these devices for thousands of years without contributing an important idea to the system. Even when compared with the growth of ideas during the Dark Ages. When viewed in light, the achievements of the unknown Hindu. Sanskrit Siddham Numbers Karl Menninger, Number Words and Number Symbols - A Cultural History of Numbers ISBN 0-486-27096-3 David Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski, The Hindu-Arabic Numerals
Indian numerals
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Numeral systems
11.
Sinhala numerals
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Sinhalese belongs to the Indo-European language family with its roots deeply associated with Indo-Aryan sub family to which the languages such as Persian and Hindi belong. It is also surmised that Sinhala had evolved from an ancient variant of Apabramsa which is known as ‘Elu’, when tracing history of Elu, it was preceded by Hela or Pali Sihala. The Sinhala script had evolved from Southern Brahmi script from which almost all the Southern Indic Scripts such as Telugu, later Sinhala was influenced by Grantha writing of Southern India. Since 1250 AD, the Sinhala script had remained the same with few changes, although some scholars are of the view that the Brahmi Script arrived with the Buddhism, Mahavamsa speaks of written language even right after the arrival of Vijaya. Archeologists had found pottery fragments in Anuradhapura Sri Lanka with older Brahmi script inscriptions, the earliest Brahmi Script found in India had been dated to 6th Century BC in Tamil Nadu though most of Brahmi writing found in India had been attributed to emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC. Sinhala letters are round-shaped and are written left to right. The evolution of the script to the present shapes may have taken place due to writing on Ola leaves, unlike chiseling on a rock, writing on palm leaves has to be more round-shaped to avoid the stylus ripping the Palm leaf while writing on it. When drawing vertical or horizontal lines on Ola leaf, the leaves would have been ripped. Instead a stylistic stop which was known as ‘Kundaliya’ is used, period and commas were later introduced into Sinhala script after the introduction of paper due to the influence of Western languages. In modern Sinhala, Arabic numerals, which were introduced by Portuguese, Dutch and English, is used for writing numbers and it is accepted that Arabic numerals had evolved from Brahmi numerals. This article will touch upon Brahmi numerals, which were found in Sri Lanka. It had been found five different types of numerations were used in the Sinhala language at the time of the invasion of the Kandyan kingdom by the British. Out of the five types of numerations, two sets of numerations were in use in the century mainly for astrological calculations and to express traditional year. The five types or sets of numerals or numerations are listed below, according to Mr. Gunesekera, these numerals were used for ordinary calculations and to express simple numbers. These numerals had separate Symbols for 10,40,50,100,1000 and these numerals were also regarded as Lith Lakunu or ephemeris numbers by W. A. De Silva in his “Catalogue of Palm leaf manuscripts in the library of Colombo Museum”. This set of numerals was known as Sinhala illakkam or Sinhala archaic numerals, Arabic Figures are now universally used. For the benefit of the student, the old numerals are given in the plate opposite,11 clauses had been numbered in Arabic numerals in the English part of the agreement and in parallel Sinhala clauses were numbered in Sinhala archaic numerals. Numbers of lith illakkam look Sinhala letters and vowel modifiers, the number six is known as ‘akma’ in the Lith Illakkam
Sinhala numerals
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Numeral systems
Sinhala numerals
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Stages
Sinhala numerals
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Archaic Sinhala numerals from ‘Catalogue of Palm leaf manuscripts in the library of Colombo Museum’, Volume I, compiled by W. A. De Silva, published by the Government Printer in 1938.
Sinhala numerals
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A day had sixy Sinhala hora or hours. The watch shows thirty horas or hours in Sinhala Illakkam. Even today Sinhala Astrologers convert time of Birth to Sinhala Hora or Hours for casting horoscopes. This watch was owned by the last of king of Kandy.
12.
Tamil numerals
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Traditionally Vattezhuttu characters were used, but now Arabic numerals have become commonplace. Old Tamil possesses a special character for zero and it is read as andru. But yet Modern Tamil renounces the use of its native character, Modern Tamil words for zero include சுழியம் or பூச்சியம். Tamil has a prefix for each number from 1 to 9. For instance, the word for fifty, ஐம்பது is a combination of ஐ, the prefix for nine changes with respect to the succeeding base 10. தொ+ the unvoiced consonant of the succeeding base 10 forms the prefix for nine, for instance,90 is தொ+ண், hence, தொண்ணூறு). These are typically void in the Tamil language except for some Hindu and Christian religious references, example அட்ட இலட்சுமிகள் in a Hindu context, unlike other Indian languages, Tamil has distinct digits for 10,100, and 1000. It also has characters for other number-based aspects of day-to-day life. − − − − − − − − − − − − There are two systems that can be used in the Tamil language, the Tamil system which is as follows. The following are the numbers of the Ancient Tamil Country. Sanskrit based multiples like lakhs are also followed just like other Indian languages and you can transcribe any fraction, by affixing -இல் after the denominator followed by the numerator. For instance, 1/41 can be said as நாற்பத்து ஒன்றில் ஒன்று, the suffixing of the -இல் requires you to change the last consonant of the number to its இ form. For example, மூன்று+இல் becomes மூன்றில், note the உ has been omitted, common fractions have names already allocated to them, hence, these names are often used rather than the above method. Other fractions are, Anu was considered as lowest fraction by ancient Tamils as size of smallest physical object, later, this term went to Sanskrit to refer directly atom. Decimal point is called புள்ளி in Tamil, for example,1.1 would be read as ஒன்று புள்ளி ஒன்று. Percentage is known as விழுக்காடு in Tamil or சதவீதம் and these words are simply added after a number to form percentages. For instance, four percent is நான்கு சதவீதம் or நான்கு விழுக்காடு, percentage symbol is also recognised and used. Ordinal numbers are formed by adding the suffix -ஆம் after the number, as always, when blending two words into one, an unvoiced form of the consonant as the one that the second starts with, is placed in between to blend
Tamil numerals
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Numeral systems
Tamil numerals
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A milestone which uses both Tamil and Indo-Arabic Numerals (Tanjore Palace Museum).
Tamil numerals
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Tamil is written in a non-Latin script. Tamil text used in this article is transliterated into the Latin script according to the
ISO 15919 standard.
Tamil numerals
13.
Balinese numerals
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The Balinese language has an elaborate decimal numeral system. The numerals 1–10 have basic, combining, and independent forms, the combining forms are used to form higher numbers. In some cases there is more than one word for a numeral, reflecting the Balinese register system, final orthographic -a is a schwa. * A less productive combining form of a-1 is sa- and it, ulung-, and sangang- are from Javanese. Dasa 10 is from Sankrit désa, like English, Balinese has compound forms for the teens and tens, however, it also has a series of compound tweens, 21–29. The teens are based on a root *-welas, the tweens on -likur, hyphens are not used in the orthography, but have been added to the table below to clarify their derivation. The high-register combining forms kalih-2 and tigang-3 are used with -likur, -dasa, and higher numerals, the teens are from Javanese, where the -olas forms are regular, apart from pele-kutus 18, which is suppletive. Sa-laé25, and se-ket 50 are also suppletive, and cognate with Javanese səlawé25, there are additional numerals pasasur ~ sasur 35 and se-timahan ~ se-timan 45, and a compound telung-benang for 75. The unit combining forms are combined with atus 100, atak 200, amas 400, tali 1000, laksa 10,000, keti 100,000, in addition, there is karobelah 150, lebak 175, and sepa for 1600. At least karobelah has a cognate in Javanese, ro-bəlah, where ro- is the form for two
Balinese numerals
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Numeral systems
14.
Burmese numerals
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Burmese numerals are a set of numerals traditionally used in the Burmese language, although the Arabic numerals are also used. Burmese numerals follow the Hindu-Arabic numeral system used in the rest of the world. 1 Burmese for zero comes from Sanskrit śūnya.2 Can be abbreviated to IPA, in list contexts, spoken Burmese has innate pronunciation rules that govern numbers when they are combined with another word, be it a numerical place or a measure word. Other suffixes such as ထောင်, သောင်း, သိန်း, and သန်း all shift to, for six and eight, no pronunciation shift occurs. These pronunciation shifts are exclusively confined to spoken Burmese and are not spelt any differently,1 Shifts to voiced consonant following three, four, five, and nine. Ten to nineteen are almost always expressed without including တစ်, another pronunciation rule shifts numerical place name from the low tone to the creaky tone. Number places from 10 up to 107 has increment of 101, beyond those Number places, larger number places have increment of 107. 1014 up to 10140 has increment of 107, numbers in the hundreds place, shift from ရာ to ရာ့, except for numbers divisible by 100. Numbers in the place, shift from ထောင် to ထောင့်. Hence, a number like 301 is pronounced, while 300 is pronounced, the digits of a number are expressed in order of decreasing digits place. When a number is used as an adjective, the word order is. However, for numbers, the word order is flipped to. The exception to rule is the number 10, which follows the standard word order. Ordinal numbers, from first to tenth, are Burmese pronunciations of their Pali equivalents and they are prefixed to the noun. Beyond that, cardinal numbers can be raised to the ordinal by suffixing the particle မြောက် to the number in the order, number + measure word + မြောက်. Colloquially, decimal numbers are formed by saying ဒသမ where the separator is located. For example,10.1 is ဆယ် ဒသမ တစ်, half is expressed primarily by တစ်ဝက်, although ထက်ဝက်, အခွဲ and အခြမ်း are also used. Quarter is expressed with အစိတ် or တစ်စိတ်, other fractional numbers are verbally expressed as follows, denominator + ပုံ + numerator + ပုံ
Burmese numerals
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Numeral systems
Burmese numerals
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Burmese numerals in various script styles
15.
Dzongkha numerals
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Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan, has two numeral systems, one vigesimal, and a modern decimal system. The vigesimal system remains in robust use, ten is an auxiliary base, the teens are formed with ten and the numerals 1–9. *When it appears on its own, ten is usually said cu-tʰãm a full ten, in combinations it is simply cu. Factors of 20 are formed from kʰe, intermediate factors of ten are formed with pɟʱe-da half to,400 ɲiɕu is the next unit, ɲiɕu ciː400, ɲiɕu ɲi 800, etc. Higher powers are 8000 kʰecʰe and jãːcʰe 160,000, the decimal system is the same as the vigesimal system up to 19. Then decades, however, are formed as unit–ten, as in Chinese,20 is reported to be ɲiɕu, the vigesimal numeral 400, this may be lexical interference for the expected *ɲi-cu. Mazaudon & Lacito,2002, Les principes de construction du nombre dans les langues tibeto-birmanes, in François, ed
Dzongkha numerals
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Numeral systems
16.
Gujarati numerals
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Gujarati numerals is the numeral system of the Gujarati script of South Asia, which is a derivative of Devanagari numerals. It is the numeral system of Gujarat, India. It is also recognized in India and as a minor script in Pakistan. The following table shows Gujarati numbers and the Gujarati word for each of them in various scripts, Gujarati script Gurmukhi numerals Devanagari alphabet
Gujarati numerals
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Gujarati
17.
Javanese numerals
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The Javanese language has a decimal numeral system with distinct words for the tweens from 21 to 29, called likuran. The basic numerals 1–10 have independent and combining forms, the latter derived via a suffix -ng, the combining forms are used to form the tens, hundreds, thousands, and millions. The numerals 1–5 and 10 have distinct high-register and low register forms, the halus forms are listed below in italics. Like English, Javanese has compound forms for the teens, however, it also has a series of compound tweens, the teens are based on a root -las, the tweens on -likur, and the tens are formed by the combining forms. Hyphens are not used in the orthography, but have added to the table below to clarify their derivation. Final orthographic -a tends to in many dialects, as does any preceding a, parallel to the tens are the hundreds, the thousands, and the millions, except that the compounds of five and six are formed with limang- and nem-. The names of the Old Javanese numerals were derived from their names in the Sanskrit language, balinese numerals, a related but yet more complex numeral system
Javanese numerals
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Numeral systems
18.
Khmer numerals
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Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language. They have been in use since at least the early 7th century, with the earliest known use being on a stele dated to AD604 found in Prasat Bayang, Cambodia, having been derived from the Hindu numerals, modern Khmer numerals also represent a decimal positional notation system. It is the script with the first extant material evidence of zero as a figure, dating its use back to the seventh century. However, Old Khmer, or Angkorian Khmer, also possessed separate symbols for the numbers 10,20 and this inconsistency with its decimal system suggests that spoken Angkorian Khmer used a vigesimal system. For example,6 is formed from 5 plus 1, with the exception of the number 0, which stems from Sanskrit, the etymology of the Khmer numbers from 1 to 5 is of proto-Mon–Khmer origin. For details of the various alternative romanization systems, see Romanization of Khmer, some authors may alternatively mark as the pronunciation for the word two, and either or for the word three. In neighbouring Thailand the number three is thought to bring good luck, however, in Cambodia, taking a picture with three people in it is considered bad luck, as it is believed that the person situated in the middle will die an early death. As mentioned above, the numbers from 6 to 9 may be constructed by adding any number between 1 and 4 to the base number 5, so that 7 is literally constructed as 5 plus 2. Beyond that, Khmer uses a base, so that 14 is constructed as 10 plus 4, rather than 2 times 5 plus 4. In constructions from 6 to 9 that use 5 as a base, /pram/ may alternatively be pronounced, giving and this is especially true in dialects which elide /r/, but not necessarily restricted to them, as the pattern also follows Khmers minor syllable pattern. The numbers from thirty to ninety in Khmer bear many resemblances to both the modern Thai and Cantonese numbers, informally, a speaker may choose to omit the final and the number is still understood. For example, it is possible to say instead of the full, Language Comparisons, Words in parenthesis indicate literary pronunciations, while words preceded with an asterisk mark are non-productive. The standard Khmer numbers starting from one hundred are as follows, Although មួយកោដិ is most commonly used to mean ten million, in some areas this is also colloquially used to refer to one billion. In order to avoid confusion, sometimes ដប់លាន is used to mean ten million, along with មួយរយលាន for one hundred million, different Cambodian dialects may also employ different base number constructions to form greater numbers above one thousand. As a result of prolonged literary influence from both the Sanskrit and Pali languages, Khmer may occasionally use borrowed words for counting. One reason for the decline of numbers is that a Khmer nationalism movement. The Khmer Rouge also attempted to cleanse the language by removing all words which were considered politically incorrect, Khmer ordinal numbers are formed by placing the word ទី in front of a cardinal number. This is similar to the use of ที่ thi in Thai and it is generally assumed that the Angkorian and pre-Angkorian numbers also represented a dual base system, with both base 5 and base 20 in use
Khmer numerals
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The number 605 in Khmer numerals, from the Sambor inscriptions in 683 AD. The earliest known material use of zero as a decimal figure.
Khmer numerals
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Numeral systems
19.
Lao alphabet
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Lao script, or Akson Lao, is the primary script used to write the Lao language and other minority languages in Laos. It was also used to write the Isan language, but was replaced by the Thai script and it has 27 consonants,7 consonantal ligatures,33 vowels, and 4 tone marks. Akson Lao is a system to the Thai script, with which it shares many similarities. However, Lao has fewer characters and is formed in a curvilinear fashion than Thai. Lao is traditionally written from left to right, Lao is considered an abugida, in which certain implied vowels are unwritten. However, due to spelling reforms by the communist Lao Peoples Revolutionary Party, despite this, most Lao outside of Laos, and many inside Laos, continue to write according to former spelling standards, so vernacular Lao functions as a pure abugida. For example, the old spelling of ສເລີມ to hold a ceremony, vowels can be written above, below, in front of, or behind consonants, with some vowel combinations written before, over and after. Spaces for separating words and punctuation were traditionally not used, but a space is used, the letters have no majuscule or minuscule differentiation. The Lao script was standardized in the Mekong River valley after the various Tai principalities of the region were merged under Lan Xang in the 14th century. This script, sometimes known as Tai Noi, has changed little since its inception and continued use in the Lao-speaking regions of modern-day Laos, conversely, the Thai alphabet continued to evolve, but the scripts still share similarities. This script was derived locally from the Khmer script of Angkor with additional influence from Mon, traditionally, only secular literature were written with the Lao alphabet. Religious literature was written in Tua Tham, a Mon-based script that is still used for the Tai Khün, Tai Lue. Mystical, magical, and some literature was written in a modified version of the Khmer alphabet. Essentially Thai and Lao are almost typographic variants of other just as in the Javanese and Balinese scripts. The Lao and Thai alphabets share the same roots, but Lao has fewer characters and is written in a curvilinear fashion than Thai. However this is apparent today due to the communist party simplifying the spelling to be phonetic. There is speculation that the Lao and Thai script both derive from a common script due to the similarities between the scripts. When examining older forms of Thai scripts, many letters are almost identical to the Lao alphabet, some minority languages use separate writing systems, The Hmong have adopted the Roman Alphabet
Lao alphabet
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Numeral systems
Lao alphabet
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Lao
20.
Thai numerals
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The Thai language lacks grammatical number. A count is expressed in the form of an uninflected noun followed by a number. In Thai, counting is kannap, the classifier, laksananam Variations to this pattern do occur, a partial list of Thai words that also classify nouns can be found in Wiktionary category, Thai classifiers. Thai sūn is written as oval 0 when using Arabic numerals, but a small circle ๐ when using traditional numerals and it is from Sanskrit śūnya, as are the alternate names for numbers one to four given below, but not the counting 1. Thai names for N +1 and the regular digits 2 through 9 as shown in the table, below, resemble those in Chinese varieties as spoken in Southern China, Thai and Lao words for numerals are almost identical, however, the numerical digits vary somewhat in shape. Shown below is a comparison between three languages using Cantonese and Minnan characters and pronunciations, the Thai transliteration uses the Royal Thai General System of Transcription. Sanskrit lakh designates the place value of a digit, which are named for the powers of ten, the place is lak nuai, tens place, lak sip, hundreds place, lak roi. The number one following any multiple of sip becomes et, the number ten is the same as Minnan 十. Numbers from twenty to twenty nine begin with yi sip, names of the lak sip for 30 to 90, and for the lak of 100,1000,10,000,100,000 and million, are almost identical to those of the like Khmer numerals. For the numbers twenty-one through twenty-nine, the part signifying twenty, yi sip, see the alternate numbers section below. The hundreds are formed by combining roi with the tens and ones values, for example, two hundred and thirty-two is song roi sam sip song. The words roi, phan, muen, and saen should occur with a preceding numeral, nueng never precedes sip, so song roi nueng sip is incorrect. Native speakers will sometimes use roi nueng with different tones on nueng to distinguish one hundred from one hundred, however, such distinction is often not made, and ambiguity may follow. To resolve this problem, if the number 101 is intended, numbers above a million are constructed by prefixing lan with a multiplier. For example, ten million is sip lan, and a trillion is lan lan, colloquially, decimal numbers are formed by saying chut where the decimal separator is located. For example,1.01 is nueng chut sun nueng, fractional numbers are formed by placing nai between the numerator and denominator or using x suan y to clearly indicate. For example, ⅓ is nueng nai sam or nueng suan sam, the word set can be omitted. The word khrueng is used for half and it precedes the measure word if used alone, but it follows the measure word when used with another number
Thai numerals
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Numeral systems
21.
Chinese numerals
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Chinese numerals are words and characters used to denote numbers in Chinese. Today speakers of Chinese use three written numeral systems, the system of Arabic numerals used worldwide, and two indigenous systems, the more familiar indigenous system is based on Chinese characters that correspond to numerals in the spoken language. These are shared with languages of the Chinese cultural sphere such as Japanese, Korean. The other indigenous system is the Suzhou numerals, or huama, a positional system and these were once used by Chinese mathematicians, and later in Chinese markets, such as those in Hong Kong before the 1990s, but have been gradually supplanted by Arabic numerals. The Chinese character numeral system consists of the Chinese characters used by the Chinese written language to write spoken numerals, similar to spelling-out numbers in English, it is not an independent system per se. Since it reflects spoken language, it not use the positional system as in Arabic numerals. There are characters representing the numbers zero through nine, and other characters representing larger numbers such as tens, hundreds, thousands, there are two sets of characters for Chinese numerals, one for everyday writing and one for use in commercial or financial contexts known as dàxiě. A forger could easily change the everyday characters 三十 to 五千 just by adding a few strokes and that would not be possible when writing using the financial characters 參拾 and 伍仟. They are also referred to as bankers numerals, anti-fraud numerals, for the same reason, rod numerals were never used in commercial records. T denotes Traditional Chinese characters, S denotes Simplified Chinese characters, in the PLA, some numbers will have altered names when used for clearer radio communications. They are,0, renamed 洞 lit, hole 1, renamed 幺 lit. small 2, renamed 两 lit. Double 7, renamed 拐 lit. cane, kidnap, turn 9, hook For numbers larger than 10,000, similarly to the long and short scales in the West, there have been four systems in ancient and modern usage. The original one, with names for all powers of ten up to the 14th, is ascribed to the Yellow Emperor in the 6th century book by Zhen Luan. To avoid problems arising from the ambiguity, the PRC government never uses this character in official documents, the ROC government in Taiwan uses 兆 to mean 1012 in official documents. Numerals beyond 載 zài come from Buddhist texts in Sanskrit, but are found in ancient texts. Some of the words are still being used today. The following are characters used to denote small order of magnitude in Chinese historically, with the introduction of SI units, some of them have been incorporated as SI prefixes, while the rest have fallen into disuse. In the Peoples Republic of China, the translations for the SI prefixes in 1981 were different from those used today, the Republic of China defined 百萬 as the translation for mega
Chinese numerals
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Numeral systems
Chinese numerals
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Chinese and Arabic numerals may coexist, as on this kilometer marker: 1620 km on
Hwy G209 (G二〇九)
Chinese numerals
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Counting rod numerals
Chinese numerals
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Shang oracle bone numerals of 14th century B.C.
22.
Japanese numerals
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The system of Japanese numerals is the system of number names used in the Japanese language. The Japanese numerals in writing are based on the Chinese numerals. Two sets of pronunciations for the numerals exist in Japanese, one is based on Sino-Japanese readings of the Chinese characters, there are two ways of writing the numbers in Japanese, in Hindu-Arabic numerals or in Chinese numerals. The Hindu-Arabic numerals are often used in horizontal writing. Numerals with multiple On readings use the Go-on and Kan-on variants respectively, * The special reading 〇 maru is also found. It may be used when reading individual digits of a number one after another. A popular example is the famous 109 store in Shibuya, Tokyo which is read as ichi-maru-kyū and this usage of maru for numerical 0 is similar to reading numeral 0 in English as oh. However, as a number, it is written as 0 or rei. Additionally, two and five are pronounced with a vowel in phone numbers Starting at 万, numbers begin with 一 if no digit would otherwise precede. That is,100 is just 百 hyaku, and 1000 is just 千 sen and this differs from Chinese as numbers begin with 一 if no digit would otherwise precede starting at 百. And, if 千 sen directly precedes the name of powers of myriad, 一 ichi is normally attached before 千 sen and that is,10,000,000 is normally read as 一千万 issenman. But if 千 sen does not directly precede the name of powers of myriad or if numbers are lower than 2,000 and that is,15,000,000 is read as 千五百万 sengohyakuman or 一千五百万 issengohyakuman, and 1,500 as 千五百 sengohyaku or 一千五百 issengohyaku. The numbers 4 and 9 are considered unlucky in Japanese,4, pronounced shi, is a homophone for death,9, the number 13 is sometimes considered unlucky, though this is a carryover from Western tradition. On the contrary, numbers 7 and sometimes 8 are considered lucky in Japanese, in modern Japanese, cardinal numbers are given the on readings except 4 and 7, which are called yon and nana respectively. Alternate readings are used in names, day-of-month names. For instance, the decimal fraction 4.79 is always read yon-ten nana kyū, though April, July, and September are called shi-gatsu, shichi-gatsu, the on readings are also used when shouting out headcounts. Intermediate numbers are made by combining elements, Tens from 20 to 90 are -jū as in 二十 to 九十. Hundreds from 200 to 900 are -hyaku, thousands from 2000 to 9000 are -sen
Japanese numerals
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Numeral systems
23.
Korean numerals
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The Korean language has two regularly used sets of numerals, a native Korean system and Sino-Korean system. For both native and Sino- Korean numerals, the teens are represented by a combination of tens, for instance,15 would be sib-o, but not usually il-sib-o in the Sino-Korean system, and yeol-daseot in native Korean. Twenty through ninety are likewise represented in this manner in the Sino-Korean system, while Native Korean has its own unique set of words. The grouping of large numbers in Korean follow the Chinese tradition of myriads rather than thousands, the Sino-Korean system is nearly entirely based on the Chinese numerals. The distinction between the two systems is very important. Everything that can be counted will use one of the two systems, but seldom both, Sino-Korean words are sometimes used to mark ordinal usage, yeol beon means ten times while sip beon means number ten. When denoting the age of a person, one will usually use sal for the native Korean numerals, for example, seumul-daseot sal and i-sib-o se both mean twenty-five-year-old. See also East Asian age reckoning, the Sino-Korean numerals are used to denote the minute of time. For example, sam-sib-o bun means __,35 or thirty-five minutes, the native Korean numerals are used for the hours in the 12-hour system and for the hours 0,00 to 12,00 in the 24-hour system. The hours 13,00 to 24,00 in the 24-hour system are denoted using both the native Korean numerals and the Sino-Korean numerals. For example, se si means 03,00 or 3,00 a. m. /p. m. for counting above 100, Sino-Korean words are used, sometimes in combination,101 can be baek-hana or baeg-il. The usual liaison and consonant-tensing rules apply, so for example, 예순여섯 yesun-yeoseot is pronounced like, beon, ho, cha, and hoe are always used with Sino-Korean or Arabic ordinal numerals. For example, Yihoseon is Line Number Two in a subway system. 906호 is Apt #906 in a mailing address,906 without ho is not used in spoken Korean to imply apartment number or office suite number. The special prefix je is usually used in combination with suffixes to designate a specific event in sequential things such as the Olympics, in commerce or the financial sector, some hanja for each Sino-Korean numbers are replaced by alternative ones to prevent ambiguity or retouching. For verbally communicating number sequences such as numbers, ID numbers, etc. especially over the phone. For the same reason, military transmissions are known to use mixed native Korean and Sino-Korean numerals, note 1, ^ Korean assimilation rules apply as if the underlying form were 십륙 |sip. ryuk|, giving sim-nyuk instead of the expected sib-yuk. Note 2, ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ These names are considered archaic, note 3, ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ The numbers higher than 1020 are not usually used
Korean numerals
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Numeral systems
24.
Vietnamese numerals
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Historically Vietnamese has two sets of numbers, one is etymologically native Vietnamese, the other uses Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary. In the modern language the native Vietnamese vocabulary is used for both everyday counting and mathematical purposes, the Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary is used only in fixed expressions or in Sino-Vietnamese words. This is somewhat analogous to the way in which Latin and Greek numerals are used in modern English, Sino-Vietnamese words are also used for units of ten thousand or above, where native vocabulary was lacking. Among the languages of the Chinese cultural sphere, Japanese and Korean both use two systems, one native and one Chinese-based. The Chinese-based vocabulary is the one in common use, in Vietnamese, on the other hand, the Chinese-based system is not in everyday use. Numbers from 1 to 1000 are expressed using native Vietnamese vocabulary, in the modern Vietnamese writing system, numbers are written in the romanized script quốc ngữ or Arabic numerals. Prior to the 20th century Vietnam officially used Classical Chinese as a written language, for non-official purposes Vietnamese also had a writing system known as Hán-Nôm. Under this system, Sino-Vietnamese numbers were written in Hán tự, basic features of the Vietnamese numbering system include the following, Unlike other sinoxenic numbering systems, Vietnamese separates place values in thousands rather than myriads. The Sino-Vietnamese numbers are not in frequent use in modern Vietnamese, number values for these words follow usage in Ancient China, with each numeral increasing tenfold in digit value, 億 being the number for 105, 兆 for 106, et cetera. As a result, the value of triệu differs from modern Chinese 兆, outside of fixed Sino-Vietnamese expressions, Sino-Vietnamese words are usually used in combination with native Vietnamese words. For instance, mười triệu combines native mười and Sino-Vietnamese triệu, the following table is an overview of the basic Vietnamese numeric figures, provided in both Native and Sino-Viet forms. For each number, the form that is commonly used is highlighted. Where there are differences between the Hanoi and Saigon dialects of Vietnamese, readings between each are differentiated below within the notes, when the number 1 appears after 20 in the unit digit, the pronunciation changes to mốt. When the number 4 appears after 20 in the digit, it is more common to use Sino-Viet tư／四. When the number 5 appears after 10 in the unit digit, when mười appears after 20, the pronunciation changes to mươi. Vietnamese ordinal numbers are preceded by the prefix thứ, which is a Sino-Viet word which corresponds to 次. For the ordinal numbers of one and four, the Sino-Viet readings nhất／一 and tư／四 are more commonly used, in all other cases, the native Vietnamese number is used. Chinese numerals Japanese numerals Korean numerals
Vietnamese numerals
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Numeral systems
25.
Counting rods
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Counting rods are small bars, typically 3–14 cm long, that were used by mathematicians for calculation in ancient China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. They are placed horizontally or vertically to represent any integer or rational number. The written forms based on them are called rod numerals and they are a true positional numeral system with digits for 1–9 and a blank for 0, from the Warring states period to the 16th century. Counting rods were used by ancient Chinese for more two thousand years. In 1954, forty-odd counting rods of the Warring States period were found in Zuǒjiāgōngshān Chu Grave No.15 in Changsha, in 1973, archeologists unearthed a number of wood scripts from a Han dynasty tomb in Hubei. On one of the scripts was written, “当利二月定算”. This is one of the earliest examples of using counting rod numerals in writing, in 1976, a bundle of Western Han counting rods made of bones was unearthed from Qianyang County in Shaanxi. The use of counting rods must predate it, Laozi said a good calculator doesnt use counting rods, the Book of Han recorded, they calculate with bamboo, diameter one fen, length six cun, arranged into a hexagonal bundle of two hundred seventy one pieces. At first calculating rods were round in section, but by the time of the Sui dynasty triangular rods were used to represent positive numbers. After the abacus flourished, counting rods were abandoned except in Japan, counting rods represent digits by the number of rods, and the perpendicular rod represents five. To avoid confusion, vertical and horizontal forms are alternately used, generally, vertical rod numbers are used for the position for the units, hundreds, ten thousands, etc. while horizontal rod numbers are used for the tens, thousands, hundred thousands etc. It is written in Sunzi Suanjing that one is vertical, ten is horizontal, red rods represent positive numbers and black rods represent negative numbers. Ancient Chinese clearly understood negative numbers and zero, though they had no symbol for the latter, later, a go stone was sometimes used to represent zero. This alternation of vertical and horizontal rod numeral form is important to understanding written transcription of rod numerals on manuscripts correctly. In the same manuscript,405 was transcribed as, with a space in between for obvious reasons, and could in no way be interpreted as 45. In other words, transcribed rod numerals may not be positional, the value of a number depends on its physical position on the counting board. A9 at the rightmost position on the stands for 9. Moving the batch of rods representing 9 to the one position gives 9 or 90
Counting rods
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Numeral systems
Counting rods
–
Yang Hui (Pascal's)
triangle, as depicted by
Zhu Shijie in 1303, using rod numerals.
Counting rods
–
rod numeral place value from Yongle Encyclopedia: 71,824
Counting rods
–
Japanese counting board with grids
26.
Abjad numerals
–
The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system in which the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet are assigned numerical values. They have been used in the Arabic-speaking world since before the century when Arabic numerals were adopted. In modern Arabic, the word abjadīyah means alphabet in general, in the Abjad system, the first letter of the Arabic alphabet, alif, is used to represent 1, the second letter, bāʾ, is used to represent 2, etc. Individual letters also represent 10s and 100s, yāʾ for 10, kāf for 20, qāf for 100, the word abjad itself derives from the first four letters in the Phoenician alphabet, Aramaic alphabet, Hebrew alphabet and other scripts for Semitic languages. These older alphabets contained only 22 letters, stopping at taw, the Arabic Abjad system continues at this point with letters not found in other alphabets, ṯāʾ=500, etc. The Abjad order of the Arabic alphabet has two different variants. Loss of samekh was compensated for by the split of shin ש into two independent Arabic letters, ش and ﺱ, which moved up to take the place of samekh. The most common Abjad sequence, read right to left, is, This is commonly vocalized as follows. Before the introduction of the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the numbers were used for all mathematical purposes. In modern Arabic, they are used for numbering outlines, items in lists. In English, points of information are sometimes referred to as A, B, and C, the abjad numbers are also used to assign numerical values to Arabic words for purposes of numerology. The common Islamic phrase بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم bismillāh al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm has a value of 786. The name Allāh الله by itself has the value 66, a few of the numerical values are different in the alternative Abjad order. For four Persian letters these values are used, The Abjad numerals are equivalent to the earlier Hebrew numerals up to 400, the Hebrew numeral system is known as Gematria and is used in Kabbalistic texts and numerology. Like the Abjad order, it is used in times for numbering outlines and points of information. The Greek numerals differ in a number of ways from the Abjad ones, the Greek language system of letters-as-numbers is called isopsephy
Abjad numerals
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Numeral systems
27.
Armenian numerals
–
The system of Armenian numerals is a historic numeral system created using the majuscules of the Armenian alphabet. There was no notation for zero in the old system, the principles behind this system are the same as for the Ancient Greek numerals and Hebrew numerals. In modern Armenia, the familiar Arabic numerals are used, Armenian numerals are used more or less like Roman numerals in modern English, e. g. Գարեգին Բ. means Garegin II and Գ. Since not all browsers can render Unicode Armenian letters, the transliteration is given. The final two letters of the Armenian alphabet, o and fe were added to the Armenian alphabet only after Arabic numerals were already in use, thus, they do not have a numerical value assigned to them. Numbers in the Armenian numeral system are obtained by simple addition, although the order of the numerals is irrelevant since only addition is performed, the convention is to write them in decreasing order of value. This is done by drawing a line over them, indicating their value is to be multiplied by 10000, Ա =10000 Ջ =9000000 ՌՃԽԳՌՄԾԵ =11431255
Armenian numerals
–
Numeral systems
28.
Cyrillic numerals
–
Cyrillic numerals are a numeral system derived from the Cyrillic script, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire in the late 10th century. It was used in the First Bulgarian Empire and by South, the system was used in Russia as late as the early 18th century, when Peter the Great replaced it with Arabic numerals as part of his civil script reform initiative. By 1725, Russian Imperial coins had transitioned to Arabic numerals, the Cyrillic numerals may still be found in books written in the Church Slavonic language. The system is an alphabetic system, equivalent to the Ionian numeral system. The order is based on the original Greek alphabet rather than the standard Cyrillic alphabetical order, a separate letter is assigned to each unit, each multiple of ten, and each multiple of one hundred. To distinguish numbers from text, a titlo is drawn over the numbers. Examples, –1706 –7118 To evaluate a Cyrillic number, the values of all the figures are added up, for example, ѰЗ is 700 +7, making 707. If the number is greater than 999, the sign is used to multiply the numbers value, for example, ҂Ѕ is 6000, while ҂Л҂В is parsed as 30,000 +2000. To produce larger numbers, a sign is used to encircle the number being multiplied. Glagolitic numerals are similar to Cyrillic numerals except that values are assigned according to the native alphabetic order of the Glagolitic alphabet. Glyphs for the ones, tens, and hundreds values are combined to form more precise numbers, for example, ⰗⰑⰂ is 500 +80 +3 or 583. As with Cyrillic numerals, the numbers 11 through 19 are typically written with the ones digit before the glyph for 10, for example ⰅⰊ is 6 +10, early Cyrillic alphabet Glagolitic alphabet Relationship of Cyrillic and Glagolitic scripts Greek numerals Combining Cyrillic Millions
Cyrillic numerals
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Numeral systems
Cyrillic numerals
–
Tower clock with Cyrillic numerals in
Suzdal
Cyrillic numerals
Cyrillic numerals
–
– 1706
29.
Georgian numerals
–
The Georgian numerals are the system of number names used in Georgian, a language spoken in the country of Georgia. The Georgian numerals from 30 to 99 are constructed using a system, similar to the scheme used in Basque, French for numbers 80 through 99. An older method for writing numerals exists in which most of letters of the Georgian alphabet are assigned a numeric value. The Georgian cardinal numerals up to ten are primitives, as are the words for 20 and 100, other cardinal numbers are formed from these primitives via a mixture of decimal and vigesimal structural principles. The following chart shows the forms of the primitive numbers. Except for rva and tskhra, these words are all consonant-final stems, numbers from 11 to 19 are formed from 1 through 9, respectively, by prefixing t and adding meti. In some cases, the prefixed t coalesces with the consonant of the root word to form a single consonant. Numbers between 20 and 99 use a vigesimal system. g, the hundreds are formed by linking 2,3. 10 directly to the word for 100,1000 is expressed as atasi, and multiples of 1000 are expressed using atasi — so, for example,2000 is ori atasi. The final i is dropped when a number is added to a multiple of 100. The Georgian numeral system is a system of representing numbers using letters of the Georgian alphabet, numerical values in this system are obtained by simple addition of the component numerals, which are written greatest-to-least from left to right. *Both letters ჳ and უ are equal to 400 in numerical value and these letters have no numerical value
Georgian numerals
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Numeral systems
Georgian numerals
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An inscription at the Motsameta monastery, dating the expansion of the convent to ჩყმვ (1846).
30.
Greek numerals
–
Greek numerals are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet. These alphabetic numerals are known as Ionic or Ionian numerals, Milesian numerals. In modern Greece, they are used for ordinal numbers. For ordinary cardinal numbers, however, Greece uses Arabic numerals, attic numerals, which were later adopted as the basis for Roman numerals, were the first alphabetic set. They were acrophonic, derived from the first letters of the names of the numbers represented and they ran =1, =5, =10, =100, =1000, and =10000. 50,500,5000, and 50000 were represented by the letter with minuscule powers of ten written in the top right corner, the same system was used outside of Attica, but the symbols varied with the local alphabets, in Boeotia, was 1000. The present system probably developed around Miletus in Ionia, 19th-century classicists placed its development in the 3rd century BC, the occasion of its first widespread use. The present system uses the 24 letters adopted by Euclid as well as three Phoenician and Ionic ones that were not carried over, digamma, koppa, and sampi. The position of characters within the numbering system imply that the first two were still in use while the third was not. Greek numerals are decimal, based on powers of 10, the units from 1 to 9 are assigned to the first nine letters of the old Ionic alphabet from alpha to theta. Each multiple of one hundred from 100 to 900 was then assigned its own separate letter as well and this alphabetic system operates on the additive principle in which the numeric values of the letters are added together to obtain the total. For example,241 was represented as, in ancient and medieval manuscripts, these numerals were eventually distinguished from letters using overbars, α, β, γ, etc. In medieval manuscripts of the Book of Revelation, the number of the Beast 666 is written as χξϛ, although the Greek alphabet began with only majuscule forms, surviving papyrus manuscripts from Egypt show that uncial and cursive minuscule forms began early. These new letter forms sometimes replaced the ones, especially in the case of the obscure numerals. The old Q-shaped koppa began to be broken up and simplified, the numeral for 6 changed several times. During antiquity, the letter form of digamma came to be avoided in favor of a special numerical one. By the Byzantine era, the letter was known as episemon and this eventually merged with the sigma-tau ligature stigma. In modern Greek, a number of changes have been made
Greek numerals
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Numeral systems
Greek numerals
–
A
Constantinopolitan map of the British Isles from
Ptolemy 's
Geography (c. 1300), using Greek numerals for its
graticule: 52–63°N of the
equator and 6–33°E from Ptolemy's
Prime Meridian at the
Fortunate Isles.
31.
Hebrew numerals
–
The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. The system was adapted from that of the Greek numerals in the late 2nd century BC, the current numeral system is also known as the Hebrew alphabetic numerals to contrast with earlier systems of writing numerals used in classical antiquity. The Greek system was adopted in Hellenistic Judaism and had been in use in Greece since about the 5th century BC, in this system, there is no notation for zero, and the numeric values for individual letters are added together. Each unit is assigned a letter, each tens a separate letter. The later hundreds are represented by the sum of two or three letters representing the first four hundreds, to represent numbers from 1,000 to 999,999, the same letters are reused to serve as thousands, tens of thousands, and hundreds of thousands. In Israel today, the system of Arabic numerals is used in almost all cases. The Hebrew numerals are used only in cases, such as when using the Hebrew calendar, or numbering a list. Numbers in Hebrew from zero to one million, Hebrew alphabet are used to a limited extent to represent numbers, widely used on calendars. In other situations Arabic numerals are used, cardinal and ordinal numbers must agree in gender with the noun they are describing. If there is no such noun, the form is used. For ordinal numbers greater than ten the cardinal is used and numbers above the value 20 have no gender, note, For ordinal numbers greater than 10, cardinal numbers are used instead. Note, For numbers greater than 20, gender does not apply, cardinal and ordinal numbers must agree in gender with the noun they are describing. If there is no such noun, the form is used. Ordinal numbers must also agree in number and definite status like other adjectives, the cardinal number precedes the noun, except for the number one which succeeds it. The number two is special - shnayim and shtayim become shney and shtey when followed by the noun they count, for ordinal numbers greater than ten the cardinal is used. The Hebrew numeric system operates on the principle in which the numeric values of the letters are added together to form the total. For example,177 is represented as קעז which corresponds to 100 +70 +7 =177, mathematically, this type of system requires 27 letters. In practice the last letter, tav is used in combination with itself and/or other letters from kof onwards, to numbers from 500
Hebrew numerals
–
Numeral systems
Hebrew numerals
–
The lower clock on the
Jewish Town Hall building in
Prague, with Hebrew numerals in counterclockwise order.
Hebrew numerals
–
Early 20th century pocket watches with Hebrew numerals in clockwise order (
Jewish Museum, Berlin).
32.
Roman numerals
–
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet, Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols, The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. The numbers 1 to 10 are usually expressed in Roman numerals as follows, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, Numbers are formed by combining symbols and adding the values, so II is two and XIII is thirteen. Symbols are placed left to right in order of value. Named after the year of its release,2014 as MMXIV, the year of the games of the XXII Olympic Winter Games The standard forms described above reflect typical modern usage rather than a universally accepted convention. Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and remained inconsistent in medieval, Roman inscriptions, especially in official contexts, seem to show a preference for additive forms such as IIII and VIIII instead of subtractive forms such as IV and IX. Both methods appear in documents from the Roman era, even within the same document, double subtractives also occur, such as XIIX or even IIXX instead of XVIII. Sometimes V and L are not used, with such as IIIIII. Such variation and inconsistency continued through the period and into modern times. Clock faces that use Roman numerals normally show IIII for four o’clock but IX for nine o’clock, however, this is far from universal, for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster in London uses IV. Similarly, at the beginning of the 20th century, different representations of 900 appeared in several inscribed dates. For instance,1910 is shown on Admiralty Arch, London, as MDCCCCX rather than MCMX, although Roman numerals came to be written with letters of the Roman alphabet, they were originally independent symbols. The Etruscans, for example, used
Roman numerals
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Entrance to section LII (52) of the
Colosseum, with numerals still visible
Roman numerals
–
Numeral systems
Roman numerals
–
A typical
clock face with Roman numerals in
Bad Salzdetfurth, Germany
Roman numerals
–
An inscription on
Admiralty Arch, London. The number is 1910, for which MCMX would be more usual
33.
Attic numerals
–
Attic numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd-century manuscript by Herodian. They are also known as acrophonic numerals because the symbols derive from the first letters of the words that the symbols represent, five, ten, hundred, thousand and ten thousand. The use of Η for 100 reflects the date of this numbering system. It wasnt until Aristophanes of Byzantium introduced the various accent markings during the Hellenistic period that the spiritus asper began to represent /h/, thus the word for a hundred would originally have been written ΗΕΚΑΤΟΝ, as compared to the now more familiar spelling ἑκατόν. In modern Greek, the /h/ phoneme has disappeared altogether, unlike the more familiar Modern Roman numeral system, the Attic system contains only additive forms. Thus, the number 4 is written ΙΙΙΙ, not ΙΠ, the numerals representing 50,500, and 5,000 were composites of pi and a tiny version of the applicable power of ten. For example, is five times one thousand, specific numeral symbols were used to represent one drachma, to represent talents and staters, to represent ten mnas and to represent one half and one quarter. Attic numerals in Unicode Etruscan numerals
Attic numerals
–
Numeral systems
34.
Babylonian numerals
–
Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. The Babylonians, who were famous for their observations and calculations. Neither of the predecessors was a positional system and this system first appeared around 2000 BC, its structure reflects the decimal lexical numerals of Semitic languages rather than Sumerian lexical numbers. However, the use of a special Sumerian sign for 60 attests to a relation with the Sumerian system. The Babylonian system is credited as being the first known positional numeral system and this was an extremely important development, because non-place-value systems require unique symbols to represent each power of a base, which can make calculations more difficult. Only two symbols were used to notate the 59 non-zero digits and these symbols and their values were combined to form a digit in a sign-value notation quite similar to that of Roman numerals, for example, the combination represented the digit for 23. A space was left to indicate a place value, similar to the modern-day zero. Babylonians later devised a sign to represent this empty place and they lacked a symbol to serve the function of radix point, so the place of the units had to be inferred from context, could have represented 23 or 23×60 or 23×60×60 or 23/60, etc. A common theory is that 60, a highly composite number, was chosen due to its prime factorization, 2×2×3×5, which makes it divisible by 1,2,3,4,5,6,10,12,15,20. Integers and fractions were represented identically — a radix point was not written, the Babylonians did not technically have a digit for, nor a concept of, the number zero. Although they understood the idea of nothingness, it was not seen as a number—merely the lack of a number, what the Babylonians had instead was a space to mark the nonexistence of a digit in a certain place value. Babylon Babylonia History of zero Numeral system Menninger, Karl W. Number Words and Number Symbols, Number, From Ancient Civilisations to the Computer. CESCNC - a handy and easy-to use numeral converter
Babylonian numerals
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Numeral systems
Babylonian numerals
–
Babylonian numerals
35.
Brahmi numerals
–
The Brahmi numerals are a numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE. They are the direct ancestors of the modern Indian and Hindu–Arabic numerals. However, they were distinct from these later systems, as they were not used as a positional system with a zero. Rather, there were separate numerals for each of the tens, there were also symbols for 100 and 1000 which were combined in ligatures with the units to signify 200,300,2000,3000, etc. In the oldest inscriptions,4 is a +, reminiscent of the X of neighboring Kharoṣṭhī, however, the other unit numerals appear to be arbitrary symbols in even the oldest inscriptions. Likewise, the units for the tens are not obviously related to other or to the units. With a similar writing instrument, the forms of such groups of strokes could easily be broadly similar as well. Another possibility is that the numerals were acrophonic, like the Attic numerals, and based on the Kharoṣṭhī alphabet. For instance, chatur 4 early on took a ¥ shape much like the Kharosthi letter ch, panca 5 looks remarkably like Kharosthi p, and so on through shat 6, sapta 7, however, there are problems of timing and lack of records. The full set of numerals is not attested until the 1st-2nd century CE,400 years after Ashoka, both suggestions, that the numerals derive from tallies or that theyre alphabetic, are purely speculative at this point, with little evidence to decide between them. Brahmi script Georges Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers, From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer, translated by David Bellos, Sophie Wood, pub. Karl Menninger, Number Words and Number Symbols - A Cultural History of Numbers ISBN 0-486-27096-3 David Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski, The Hindu-Arabic Numerals
Brahmi numerals
–
Numeral systems
Brahmi numerals
–
This article includes a
list of references, related reading or
external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks
inline citations. Please
improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (July 2012)
36.
Egyptian numerals
–
The system of ancient Egyptian numerals was used in Ancient Egypt around 3000 BC until the early first millennium AD. It was a system of numeration based on the scale of ten, often rounded off to the power, written in hieroglyphs. The hieratic form of numerals stressed an exact finite series notation, the Ancient Egyptian system used bases of ten. The following hieroglyphics were used to denote powers of ten, Multiples of these values were expressed by repeating the symbol as many times as needed, for instance, a stone carving from Karnak shows the number 4622 as Egyptian hieroglyphs could be written in both directions. The symbol nfr, meaning beautiful, was used to indicate the base level in drawings of tombs and pyramids. Rational numbers could also be expressed, but only as sums of fractions, i. e. sums of reciprocals of positive integers, except for 2⁄3. The hieroglyph indicating a fraction looked like a mouth, which meant part, Fractions were written with this fractional solidus, i. e. the numerator 1, and the positive denominator below. As with most modern day languages, the ancient Egyptian language could also write out numerals as words phonetically, just like one can write thirty instead of 30 in English. The word, for instance, was written as while the numeral was This was, however, uncommon for most numbers other than one, instances of numerals written in hieratic can be found as far back as the Early Dynastic Period. The Old Kingdom Abusir Papyri are an important corpus of texts that utilize hieratic numerals. A large number like 9999 could thus be written only four signs—combining the signs for 9000,900,90. Boyer saw the new hieratic numerals as ciphered, mapping one number onto one Egyptian letter for the first time in human history, greeks adopted the new system, mapping their counting numbers onto two of their alphabets, the Doric and Ionian. In the oldest hieratic texts the individual numerals were written in a ciphered relationship to the Egyptian alphabet. But during the Old Kingdom a series of standardized writings had developed for sign-groups containing more than one numeral, however, repetition of the same numeral for each place-value was not allowed in the hieratic script. As the hieratic writing system developed over time, these sign-groups were further simplified for quick writing, two famous mathematical papyri using hieratic script are the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus and the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. The majuscule letter A in some reconstructed forms means that the quality of that remains uncertain, Ancient Egypt Egyptian language Egyptian mathematics Allen. Middle Egyptian, An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, Egyptian Grammar, Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. Hieratische Paläographie, Die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der Fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit, Introduction Egyptian numerals Numbers and dates http, //egyptianmath. blogspot. com
Egyptian numerals
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Numeral systems
37.
Etruscan numerals
–
The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. The system was adapted from the Greek Attic numerals and formed the inspiration for the later Roman numerals via the Old Italic script, there is very little surviving evidence of these numerals. Examples are known of the symbols for numbers, but it is unknown which symbol represents which number. Thanks to the written out on the Tuscania dice, there is agreement that zal, ci, huθ. The assignment depends on whether the numbers on opposite faces of Etruscan dice add up to seven, some dice found did not show this proposed pattern. An aspect of the Etruscan numeral system is that some numbers, so 17 is not written *semφ-śar as users of the Hindu-Arabic numerals might reason. One instead finds ci-em zaθrum, literally three from twenty, the numbers 17,18 and 19 are all written in this way. The general agreement among Etruscologists nowadays is the following, Archaeological evidence strongly supports the correspondence 4/huth and 6/sa. In the same necropolis, in the Tomb of the Anina, which contains six burial places, an inscription reads, sa suthi cherichunce, however, other scholars disagree with this attribution. In this connection, in October 2011, Artioli and colleagues presented evidence from 93 Etruscan dice allowing the firm attribution of the numeral 6 to the graphical value huth and 4 to sa. In 2006, S. A. Yatsemirsky presented evidence that zar = śar meant ‘12’ while halχ meant ‘10’, according to his interpretation, the attested form huθzar was used for ‘sixteen’, not ‘fourteen’, assuming huθ meant four. Much debate has been carried out about a possible Indo-European origin of the Etruscan cardinals, in the words of Larissa Bonfante, What these numerals show, beyond any shadow of a doubt, is the non-Indo-European nature of the Etruscan language
Etruscan numerals
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Numeral systems
Etruscan numerals
–
History
38.
Inuit numerals
–
Inuit, like other Eskimo languages, uses a vigesimal counting system. Inuit counting has sub-bases at 5,10, and 15, arabic numerals, consisting of 10 distinct digits are not adequate to represent a base-20 system. The numeral system has helped to revive counting in Inuit, which had been falling into disuse among Inuit speakers due to the prevalence of the system in schools. The picture below shows the numerals 1–19 and then 0, twenty is written with a one and a zero, forty with a two and a zero, and four hundred with a one and two zeros. The corresponding spoken forms are, In Greenlandic Inuit language
Inuit numerals
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Numeral systems
39.
Maya numerals
–
The Maya numeral system is a vigesimal positional notation used in the Maya civilization to represent numbers. The numerals are made up of three symbols, zero, one and five, for example, thirteen is written as three dots in a horizontal row above two horizontal lines stacked above each other. Numbers after 19 were written vertically in powers of twenty, for example, thirty-three would be written as one dot above three dots, which are in turn atop two lines. The first dot represents one twenty or 1×20, which is added to three dots and two bars, or thirteen, upon reaching 202 or 400, another row is started. The number 429 would be written as one dot above one dot above four dots, the powers of twenty are numerals, just as the Hindu-Arabic numeral system uses powers of tens. Other than the bar and dot notation, Maya numerals can be illustrated by face type glyphs or pictures, the face glyph for a number represents the deity associated with the number. These face number glyphs were used, and are mostly seen on some of the most elaborate monumental carving. Addition and subtraction, Adding and subtracting numbers below 20 using Maya numerals is very simple, addition is performed by combining the numeric symbols at each level, If five or more dots result from the combination, five dots are removed and replaced by a bar. If four or more bars result, four bars are removed, similarly with subtraction, remove the elements of the subtrahend symbol from the minuend symbol, If there are not enough dots in a minuend position, a bar is replaced by five dots. If there are not enough bars, a dot is removed from the next higher minuend symbol in the column, the Maya/Mesoamerican Long Count calendar required the use of zero as a place-holder within its vigesimal positional numeral system. A shell glyph – – was used as a symbol for these Long Count dates. However, since the eight earliest Long Count dates appear outside the Maya homeland, it is assumed that the use of zero predated the Maya, indeed, many of the earliest Long Count dates were found within the Olmec heartland. However, the Olmec civilization had come to an end by the 4th century BC, in the Long Count portion of the Maya calendar, a variation on the strictly vigesimal numbering is used. The Long Count changes in the place value, it is not 20×20 =400, as would otherwise be expected. This is supposed to be because 360 is roughly the number of days in a year, subsequent place values return to base-twenty. In fact, every known example of large numbers uses this modified vigesimal system and it is reasonable to assume, but not proven by any evidence, that the normal system in use was a pure base-20 system. Maya Mathematics - online converter from decimal numeration to Maya numeral notation, anthropomorphic Maya numbers - online story of number representations
Maya numerals
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Numeral systems
Maya numerals
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Maya numerals
Maya numerals
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Detail showing three columns of glyphs from
La Mojarra Stela 1. The left column uses Maya numerals to show a Long Count date of 8.5.16.9.7, or 156 CE.
40.
Quipu
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Quipus, sometimes known as khipus or talking knots, were recording devices historically used in a number of cultures and particularly in the region of Andean South America. A quipu usually consisted of colored, spun, and plied thread or strings made from cotton or camelid fiber. For the Inca, the system aided in collecting data and keeping records, ranging from monitoring tax obligations, properly collecting census records, calendrical information, the cords contained numeric and other values encoded by knots in a base ten positional system. A quipu could have only a few or up to 2,000 cords, the configuration of the quipus have also been compared to string mops. Archaeological evidence has shown a use of finely carved wood as a supplemental. A relatively small number have survived, objects that can be identified unambiguously as quipus first appear in the archaeological record in the first millennium AD. As the region was subsumed under the invading Spanish Empire, the use of the quipu faded from use, however, in several villages, quipu continued to be important items for the local community, albeit for ritual rather than recording use. It is unclear as to where and how many intact quipus still exist, as many have been stored away in mausoleums, quipu is the Spanish spelling and the most common spelling in English. Khipu is the word for knot in Cusco Quechua, the kh is an aspirated k, in most Quechua varieties, the term is kipu. The word khipu, meaning knot or to knot, comes from the Quechua language word, quipu,1704, most information recorded on the quipus consists of numbers in a decimal system. In the early years of the Spanish conquest of Peru, Spanish officials often relied on the quipus to settle disputes over local tribute payments or goods production, Spanish chroniclers also concluded that quipus were used primarily as mnemonic devices to communicate and record numerical information. Quipucamayocs could be summoned to court, where their bookkeeping was recognised as valid documentation of past payments, some of the knots, as well as other features, such as color, are thought to represent non-numeric information, which has not been deciphered. It is generally thought that the system did not include phonetic symbols analogous to letters of the alphabet, however Gary Urton has suggested that the quipus used a binary system which could record phonological or logographic data. To date, no link has yet been found between a quipu and Quechua, the language of the Peruvian Andes. This suggests that quipus are not a writing system and have no phonetic referent. If this conjecture is correct, quipus are the known example of a complex language recorded in a 3-D system. Marcia and Robert Ascher, after having analyzed several hundred quipus, have shown that most information on quipus is numeric, and these numbers can be read. Each cluster of knots is a digit, and there are three types of knots, simple overhand knots, long knots, consisting of an overhand knot with one or more additional turns
Quipu
–
An example of a quipu from the Inca Empire, currently in the
Larco Museum Collection.
Quipu
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Numeral systems
41.
Prehistoric numerals
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Counting in prehistory was first assisted by using body parts, primarily the fingers. This is reflected in the etymology of certain names, such as in the names of ten and hundred in the Proto-Indo-European numerals. Early systems of counting using tally marks appear in the Upper Paleolithic, the first more complex systems develop in the Ancient Near East together with the development of early writing out of proto-writing systems. Numerals originally developed from the use of tally marks as a counting aid, counting aids like tally marks become more sophisticated in the Near Eastern Neolithic, developing into various types of proto-writing. The Cuneiform script develops out of proto-writing associated with keeping track of goods during the Chalcolithic, the Moksha people, whose existence dates to about the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, had a numeral system. The numerals were tally marks carved on wood, drawn on clay or birch bark, in some places they were preserved until the beginning of 20th century mostly among small traders, bee-keepers, and village elders. These numerals still can be found on old shepherd and tax-gatherer staffs, apiaries, evans, Writing in Prehistoric Greece, Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
Prehistoric numerals
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Numeral systems
Prehistoric numerals
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Old Mokshan numerals
42.
Positional notation
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Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers. Positional notation is distinguished from other notations for its use of the symbol for the different orders of magnitude. This greatly simplified arithmetic, leading to the spread of the notation across the world. With the use of a point, the notation can be extended to include fractions. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system, base-10, is the most commonly used system in the world today for most calculations, today, the base-10 system, which is likely motivated by counting with the ten fingers, is ubiquitous. Other bases have been used in the past however, and some continue to be used today, for example, the Babylonian numeral system, credited as the first positional numeral system, was base-60, but it lacked a real 0 value. Zero was indicated by a space between sexagesimal numerals, by 300 BC, a punctuation symbol was co-opted as a placeholder in the same Babylonian system. In a tablet unearthed at Kish, the scribe Bêl-bân-aplu wrote his zeros with three hooks, rather than two slanted wedges, the Babylonian placeholder was not a true zero because it was not used alone. Nor was it used at the end of a number, thus numbers like 2 and 120,3 and 180,4 and 240, looked the same because the larger numbers lacked a final sexagesimal placeholder. Counting rods and most abacuses have been used to represent numbers in a numeral system. This approach required no memorization of tables and could produce practical results quickly, for four centuries there was strong disagreement between those who believed in adopting the positional system in writing numbers and those who wanted to stay with the additive-system-plus-abacus. Although electronic calculators have largely replaced the abacus, the continues to be used in Japan. After the French Revolution, the new French government promoted the extension of the decimal system, some of those pro-decimal efforts—such as decimal time and the decimal calendar—were unsuccessful. Other French pro-decimal efforts—currency decimalisation and the metrication of weights and measures—spread widely out of France to almost the whole world. According to Joseph Needham and Lam Lay Yong, decimal fractions were first developed and used by the Chinese in the 1st century BC, the written Chinese decimal fractions were non-positional. However, counting rod fractions were positional, the Jewish mathematician Immanuel Bonfils used decimal fractions around 1350, anticipating Simon Stevin, but did not develop any notation to represent them. A forerunner of modern European decimal notation was introduced by Simon Stevin in the 16th century. A key argument against the system was its susceptibility to easy fraud by simply putting a number at the beginning or end of a quantity, thereby changing 100 into 5100
Positional notation
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Numeral systems
43.
Radix
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In mathematical numeral systems, the radix or base is the number of unique digits, including zero, used to represent numbers in a positional numeral system. For example, for the system the radix is ten. For example,10 represents the one hundred, while 2 represents the number four. Radix is a Latin word for root, root can be considered a synonym for base in the arithmetical sense. In the system with radix 13, for example, a string of such as 398 denotes the number 3 ×132 +9 ×131 +8 ×130. More generally, in a system with radix b, a string of digits d1 … dn denotes the number d1bn−1 + d2bn−2 + … + dnb0, commonly used numeral systems include, For a larger list, see List of numeral systems. The octal and hexadecimal systems are used in computing because of their ease as shorthand for binary. Every hexadecimal digit corresponds to a sequence of four binary digits, a similar relationship holds between every octal digit and every possible sequence of three binary digits, since eight is the cube of two. However, other systems are possible, e. g. golden ratio base. Base Radix economy Non-standard positional numeral systems Base Convert, a floating-point base calculator MathWorld entry on base
Radix
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Numeral systems
44.
Binary number
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The base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates. Each digit is referred to as a bit, the modern binary number system was devised by Gottfried Leibniz in 1679 and appears in his article Explication de lArithmétique Binaire. Systems related to binary numbers have appeared earlier in multiple cultures including ancient Egypt, China, Leibniz was specifically inspired by the Chinese I Ching. The scribes of ancient Egypt used two different systems for their fractions, Egyptian fractions and Horus-Eye fractions, the method used for ancient Egyptian multiplication is also closely related to binary numbers. This method can be seen in use, for instance, in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, the I Ching dates from the 9th century BC in China. The binary notation in the I Ching is used to interpret its quaternary divination technique and it is based on taoistic duality of yin and yang. Eight trigrams and a set of 64 hexagrams, analogous to the three-bit and six-bit binary numerals, were in use at least as early as the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. The Song Dynasty scholar Shao Yong rearranged the hexagrams in a format that resembles modern binary numbers, the Indian scholar Pingala developed a binary system for describing prosody. He used binary numbers in the form of short and long syllables, Pingalas Hindu classic titled Chandaḥśāstra describes the formation of a matrix in order to give a unique value to each meter. The binary representations in Pingalas system increases towards the right, the residents of the island of Mangareva in French Polynesia were using a hybrid binary-decimal system before 1450. Slit drums with binary tones are used to encode messages across Africa, sets of binary combinations similar to the I Ching have also been used in traditional African divination systems such as Ifá as well as in medieval Western geomancy. The base-2 system utilized in geomancy had long been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. Leibnizs system uses 0 and 1, like the modern binary numeral system, Leibniz was first introduced to the I Ching through his contact with the French Jesuit Joachim Bouvet, who visited China in 1685 as a missionary. Leibniz saw the I Ching hexagrams as an affirmation of the universality of his own beliefs as a Christian. Binary numerals were central to Leibnizs theology and he believed that binary numbers were symbolic of the Christian idea of creatio ex nihilo or creation out of nothing. Is not easy to impart to the pagans, is the ex nihilo through Gods almighty power. In 1854, British mathematician George Boole published a paper detailing an algebraic system of logic that would become known as Boolean algebra
Binary number
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Numeral systems
Binary number
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Arithmetic values represented by parts of the Eye of Horus
Binary number
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Gottfried Leibniz
Binary number
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George Boole
45.
Ternary numeral system
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The ternary numeral system has three as its base. Analogous to a bit, a digit is a trit. One trit is equivalent to bits of information. Representations of integer numbers in ternary do not get uncomfortably lengthy as quickly as in binary, for example, decimal 365 corresponds to binary 101101101 and to ternary 111112. However, they are far less compact than the corresponding representations in bases such as decimal – see below for a compact way to codify ternary using nonary. The value of a number with n bits that are all 1 is 2n −1. Then N = M, N = /, and N = bd −1, for a three-digit ternary number, N =33 −1 =26 =2 ×32 +2 ×31 +2 ×30 =18 +6 +2. Nonary or septemvigesimal can be used for representation of ternary. A base-three system is used in Islam to keep track of counting Tasbih to 99 or to 100 on a hand for counting prayers. In certain analog logic, the state of the circuit is often expressed ternary and this is most commonly seen in Transistor–transistor logic using 7406 open collector logic. The output is said to either be low, high, or open, in this configuration the output of the circuit is actually not connected to any voltage reference at all. Where the signal is usually grounded to a reference, or at a certain voltage level. Thus, the voltage level is sometimes unpredictable. A rare ternary point is used to denote fractional parts of an inning in baseball, since each inning consists of three outs, each out is considered one third of an inning and is denoted as.1. For example, if a player pitched all of the 4th, 5th and 6th innings, plus 2 outs of the 7th inning, his Innings pitched column for that game would be listed as 3.2, meaning 3⅔. In this usage, only the part of the number is written in ternary form. Ternary numbers can be used to convey self-similar structures like the Sierpinski triangle or the Cantor set conveniently, additionally, it turns out that the ternary representation is useful for defining the Cantor set and related point sets, because of the way the Cantor set is constructed. The Cantor set consists of the points from 0 to 1 that have an expression that does not contain any instance of the digit 1
Ternary numeral system
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Numeral systems
46.
Quaternary numeral system
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Quaternary is the base-4 numeral system. It uses the digits 0,1,2 and 3 to represent any real number. Four is the largest number within the range and one of two numbers that is both a square and a highly composite number, making quaternary a convenient choice for a base at this scale. Despite being twice as large, its economy is equal to that of binary. However, it no better in the localization of prime numbers. See decimal and binary for a discussion of these properties, as with the octal and hexadecimal numeral systems, quaternary has a special relation to the binary numeral system. Each radix 4,8 and 16 is a power of 2, so the conversion to and from binary is implemented by matching each digit with 2,3 or 4 binary digits, for example, in base 4,302104 =11001001002. Although octal and hexadecimal are widely used in computing and computer programming in the discussion and analysis of binary arithmetic and logic, by analogy with byte and nybble, a quaternary digit is sometimes called a crumb. There is a surviving list of Ventureño language number words up to 32 written down by a Spanish priest ca, the Kharosthi numerals have a partial base 4 counting system from 1 to decimal 10. Quaternary numbers are used in the representation of 2D Hilbert curves, here a real number between 0 and 1 is converted into the quaternary system. Every single digit now indicates in which of the respective 4 sub-quadrants the number will be projected, parallels can be drawn between quaternary numerals and the way genetic code is represented by DNA. The four DNA nucleotides in order, abbreviated A, C, G and T, can be taken to represent the quaternary digits in numerical order 0,1,2. With this encoding, the complementary digit pairs 0↔3, and 1↔2 match the complementation of the pairs, A↔T and C↔G. For example, the nucleotide sequence GATTACA can be represented by the quaternary number 2033010, quaternary line codes have been used for transmission, from the invention of the telegraph to the 2B1Q code used in modern ISDN circuits
Quaternary numeral system
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Numeral systems
47.
Quinary
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Quinary is a numeral system with five as the base. A possible origination of a system is that there are five fingers on either hand. The base five is stated from 0–4, in the quinary place system, five numerals, from 0 to 4, are used to represent any real number. According to this method, five is written as 10, twenty-five is written as 100, today, the main usage of base 5 is as a biquinary system, which is decimal using five as a sub-base. Another example of a system, is sexagesimal, base 60. Each quinary digit has log25 bits of information, many languages use quinary number systems, including Gumatj, Nunggubuyu, Kuurn Kopan Noot, Luiseño and Saraveca. Gumatj is a true 5–25 language, in which 25 is the group of 5. The Gumatj numerals are shown below, In the video game Riven and subsequent games of the Myst franchise, a decimal system with 2 and 5 as a sub-bases is called biquinary, and is found in Wolof and Khmer. Roman numerals are a biquinary system, the numbers 1,5,10, and 50 are written as I, V, X, and L respectively. Eight is VIII and seventy is LXX, most versions of the abacus use a biquinary system to simulate a decimal system for ease of calculation. Urnfield culture numerals and some tally mark systems are also biquinary, units of currencies are commonly partially or wholly biquinary. A vigesimal system with 4 and 5 as a sub-bases is found in Nahuatl, pentimal system Quibinary Yan Tan Tethera References, Quinary Base Conversion, includes fractional part, from Math Is Fun Media related to Quinary numeral system at Wikimedia Commons
Quinary
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Numeral systems
48.
Senary
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The senary numeral system has six as its base. It has been adopted independently by a number of cultures. Like decimal, it is a semiprime, though being the product of the two consecutive numbers that are both prime it has a high degree of mathematical properties for its size. As six is a highly composite number, many of the arguments made in favor of the duodecimal system also apply to this base-6. Senary may be considered interesting in the study of numbers, since all primes other than 2 and 3. That is, for every number p greater than 3, one has the modular arithmetic relations that either p ≡1 or 5. This property maximizes the probability that the result of an integer multiplication will end in zero, E. g. if three fingers are extended on the left hand and four on the right, 34senary is represented. This is equivalent to 3 ×6 +4 which is 22decimal, flipping the sixes hand around to its backside may help to further disambiguate which hand represents the sixes and which represents the units. While most developed cultures count by fingers up to 5 in very similar ways, beyond 5 non-Western cultures deviate from Western methods, such as with Chinese number gestures. More abstract finger counting systems, such as chisanbop or finger binary, allow counting to 99,1,023, or even higher depending on the method. The English monk and historian Bede, in the first chapter of De temporum ratione, titled Tractatus de computo, vel loquela per gestum digitorum, the Ndom language of Papua New Guinea is reported to have senary numerals. Mer means 6, mer an thef means 6 ×2 =12, nif means 36, another example from Papua New Guinea are the Morehead-Maro languages. In these languages, counting is connected to ritualized yam-counting and these languages count from a base six, employing words for the powers of six, running up to 66 for some of the languages. One example is Kómnzo with the numerals, nimbo, féta, tarumba, ntamno, wärämäkä. Some Niger-Congo languages have been reported to use a number system, usually in addition to another. For some purposes, base 6 might be too small a base for convenience. The choice of 36 as a radix is convenient in that the digits can be represented using the Arabic numerals 0–9 and the Latin letters A–Z, this choice is the basis of the base36 encoding scheme. Base36 encoding scheme Binary Ternary Duodecimal Sexagesimal Shacks Base Six Dialectic Digital base 6 clock Analog Clock Designer capable of rendering a base 6 clock Senary base conversion
Senary
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Numeral systems
Senary
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34 senary = 22 decimal, in senary finger counting
Senary