A glockenspiel is a percussion instrument composed of a set of tuned keys arranged in the fashion of the keyboard of a piano. In this way, it is similar to the xylophone; the glockenspiel, moreover, is smaller and higher in pitch. In German, a carillon is called a Glockenspiel, while in French, the glockenspiel is called a carillon. In music scores the glockenspiel is sometimes designated by the Italian term campanelli; the glockenspiel is limited to the upper register, covers about two and a half to three octaves, but can reach up to three and a half octaves. The glockenspiel is a transposing instrument; when struck, the bars give a pure, bell-like sound. When used in a marching or military band, the bars are sometimes mounted in a portable case and held vertically, sometimes in a lyre-shaped frame. However, sometimes the bars are held horizontally using a harness similar to that found on a marching snare. In orchestral use, the bars are mounted horizontally. A pair of hard, unwrapped mallets with heads made of plastic or metal, are used to strike the bars, although mallet heads can be made of rubber.
If laid out horizontally, a keyboard glockenspiel may be contrived by adding a keyboard to the instrument to facilitate playing chords. Another method of playing chords is to use two per hand. Glockenspiels are quite popular and appear in all genres of music. Percussionist Neil Peart of the rock band Rush uses the glockenspiel in several of the band's arrangements, most notably in the commercial hit songs "The Spirit of Radio" and "Closer to the Heart", in album tracks "Xanadu" and "Circumstances". A keyboard-operated glockenspiel, as played by Danny Federici on such hit songs as "Born to Run" and "Hungry Heart", is considered part of Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band's signature style; the glockenspiel was featured in Jimi Hendrix's classic ballad "Little Wing", Avenged Sevenfold's song "Nightmare" during the intro, as well as in indie folk music by artists such as Paul Duncan of Warm Ghost. George Martin, The Beatles' producer, plays glockenspiel on the band's song "Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!" to help create the atmosphere of the Pablo Fanque circus performance that inspired the song.
John Lennon plays it on "Only a Northern Song". Panic! at the Disco have used glockenspiel in several of their songs, including their hits "I Write Sins Not Tragedies" and "Build God, Then We'll Talk". Radiohead have used glockenspiel on their single "No Surprises" as well as on "The Tourist", "Lull", "Morning Bell/Amnesiac", "Sit Down/Stand Up", "All I Need". Saul, oratorio by George Frideric Handel Symphony No. 4 by Gustav Mahler Finale from act I of the opera The Magic Flute by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Alexander Nevsky, cantata by Serge Prokofiev Piano Concerto No. 1, by Prokofiev Romeo and Juliet, by Prokofiev Scythian Suite by Prokofiev The Carnival of the Animals, by Camille Saint-Saens Waltz, No. 6 from the ballet The Sleeping Beauty by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Capriccio Italien by Tchaikovsky The Nutcracker by Tchaikovsky "Wotan's Farewell" and "Magic Fire Music" from the opera Die Walküre by Wagner "Siegfried's Rhine Journey" from Götterdämmerung by Wagner The Sorcerer's Apprentice by Paul Dukas Other instruments that work on the same struck-bar principle as the glockenspiel include the marimba and the vibraphone.
The Dulcitone has a similar sound to the glockenspiel since its sound is made by hammers striking tuning forks. The dulcitone uses soft hammers which damp the forks, compared to the hard hammers of the glockenspiel, creating a more gentle sound. There are many glockenspiel-like instruments in Indonesian gamelan ensembles. In the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, there is a form of glockenspiel called a bell lyre, bell lyra, or lyra-glockenspiel; the bell lyre is a form of glockenspiel used in marching bands. It is played upright and has an extendable spike, held on a strap; the player plays the instrument upright with a beater. Another variation of the bell lyre exists, held by a strap round the shoulders and back; this variation is played horizontally with two beaters. Since the middle of the 19th century this form of the instrument has been used in military and civil bands in Germany, where it is called a Stahlspiel or Militär-Glockenspiel; the all-percussion Drum and lyre corps in the Philippines uses this as a main instrument.
Balafon Timpani Lamellophone Lithophone Mbila Thongophone "Glockenspiel". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. 1911. Glockenspiel at the Vienna Symphonic Library Royalschoolsources Percussion Pages—Online sources for the prescribed music of the Royal Schools of Music practical exams
A carillon is a musical instrument, housed in the bell tower of a church or municipal building. The instrument consists of at least 23 cast bronze, cup-shaped bells, which are played serially to produce a melody, or sounded together to play a chord. A traditional manual carillon is played by striking a keyboard – the stick-like keys of which are called batons – with the fists, by pressing the keys of a pedal keyboard with the feet; the keys mechanically activate levers and wires that connect to metal clappers that strike the inside of the bells, allowing the performer on the bells, or carillonneur/carillonist to vary the intensity of the note according to the force applied to the key. Although unusual, real carillons have been fitted to theatre organs, such as the Christie organ installed at the Regal Cinema, Marble Arch, in London. A carillon-like instrument with fewer than 23 bells is called a chime; the carillon is the second heaviest of all extant musical instruments, only ranking behind the largest pipe organs.
The heaviest carillon in the world weighs over 100 short tons, whereas the Wanamaker Organ in Philadelphia weighs 287 short tons. The word "carillon" is said to originate from the French quadrillon. In German, a carillon is called a Glockenspiel. In medieval times, swinging bells were first used as a way of notifying people of imminent church services, for such as fires, storms and other secular events. However, the use of bells to play melodic musical compositions originated in the 16th century in the Low Countries; the first carillon was in Flanders, where a "fool" performed music on the bells of Oudenaarde Town Hall in 1510 by using a baton keyboard. Major figures in the evolution of the modern carillon were Pieter and François Hemony working in the 17th century, they are credited as being the greatest carillon bell founders in the history of the Low Countries. They developed the carillon, in collaboration with Jacob van Eyck, into a full-fledged musical instrument by casting the first tuned carillon in 1644, installed in Zutphen's Wijnhuistoren tower.
The World Carillon Federation defines a carillon as "A musical instrument composed of tuned bronze bells which are played from a baton keyboard. Only those carillons having at least 23 bells may be taken into consideration."The Guild of Carillonneurs in North America defines a carillon as "a musical instrument consisting of at least two octaves of carillon bells arranged in chromatic series and played from a keyboard permitting control of expression through variation of touch. A carillon bell is a cast bronze cup-shaped bell whose partial tones are in such harmonious relationship to each other as to permit many such bells to be sounded together in varied chords with harmonious and concordant effect." The GCNA defines a "traditional carillon" as one played from a carillon mechanical baton keyboard, a "non-traditional carillon" as a musical instrument with bells, but played by automated mechanical or electro-mechanical means, or from an electrical or electronic keyboard. Since each note is produced by an individual bell, a carillon's musical range is determined by the number of bells it has.
Different names are assigned to instruments based on the number of bells they comprise: Carillons with between 23 and 27 bells are referred to as two-octave carillons. Players of these instruments use music arranged for their limited range of notes. A concert carillon has a range of at least four octaves; this is sometimes referred to as the "standard-sized" carillon. The Riverside Carillon in New York City has the largest tuned carillon bell in the world, which sounds C2. Travelling or mobile carillons can be transported; some of them can be played indoors—in a concert hall or church—like the mobile carillon of Frank Steijns. Poorly tuned bells give an "out of tune" impression and can be out of tune with themselves; this is due to the unusual harmonic characteristics of foundry bells, which have strong overtones above and below the fundamental frequency. There is no standard pitch range for the carillon. In general, a concert carillon will have a minimum of 48 bells; the range of any given instrument depends on funds available for the fabrication and installation of the instrument: more money allows more bells to be cast the larger, more costly ones.
Older carillons can be transposing instruments transposing upward. Most modern instruments sound at concert pitch. A carillon clavier has both a pedal keyboard. Carillon music is written on two staves. Notes written in the bass clef are played by the feet. Notes written in the treble clef are played with the hands. Pedals may continue up to two and half octaves. In the North American Standard keyboard, all notes can be played on the manual; because of the acoustic peculiarities of a carillon bell, music written for other instruments needs to be arranged for the carillon. The combination of carillon and other instruments, while possible, is not a happy marriage; the carillon is far too loud to perform with most other concert instruments. The great exceptions to this are some late twentieth- and early twenty-first century compositions involving electronic media and carillon. In these compositions
The Shōgun was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868. The shogunate was their government. In most of this period, the shōguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a ceremonial formality; the shōguns held absolute power over territories through military means. An unusual situation occurred in the Kamakura period upon the death of the first shōgun, whereby the Hōjō clan's hereditary titles of shikken and tokusō dominated the shogunate as dictatorial positions, collectively known as the Regent Rule; the shōguns during this 134-year period met the same fate as the Emperor and were reduced to figurehead status until a coup d'état in 1333, when the shōgun was restored to power in the name of the Emperor. Shōgun is the short form of Sei-i Taishōgun, the individual governing the country at various times in the history of Japan, ending when Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished the office to Emperor Meiji in 1867; the tent symbolized the field commander but denoted that such an office was meant to be temporary.
The shōgun's officials were collectively the bakufu, were those who carried out the actual duties of administration, while the imperial court retained only nominal authority. In this context, the office of the shōgun had a status equivalent to that of a viceroy or governor-general, but in reality, shōguns dictated orders to everyone including the reigning Emperor. In contemporary terms, the role of the shōgun was equivalent to that of a generalissimo; the title of Sei-i Taishōgun was given to military commanders during the early Heian period for the duration of military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Ōtomo no Otomaro was the first Sei-i Taishōgun. The most famous of these shōguns was Sakanoue no Tamuramaro. In the Heian period, one more shōgun was appointed. Minamoto no Yoshinaka was named sei-i taishōgun during the Genpei War, only to be killed shortly thereafter by Minamoto no Yoshitsune. In the early 11th century, daimyō protected by samurai came to dominate internal Japanese politics.
Two of the most powerful families – the Taira and Minamoto – fought for control over the declining imperial court. The Taira family seized control from 1160 to 1185, but was defeated by the Minamoto in the Battle of Dan-no-ura. Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the central government and aristocracy and established a feudal system based in Kamakura in which the private military, the samurai, gained some political powers while the Emperor and the aristocracy remained the de jure rulers. In 1192, Yoritomo was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun by the Emperor and the political system he developed with a succession of shōguns as the head became known as a shogunate. Yoritomo's wife's family, the Hōjō, seized power from the Kamakura shōguns; when Yoritomo's sons and heirs were assassinated, the shōgun himself became a hereditary figurehead. Real power rested with the Hōjō regents; the Kamakura shogunate lasted for 150 years, from 1192 to 1333. In 1274 and 1281, the Mongol Empire launched invasions against Japan.
An attempt by Emperor Go-Daigo to restore imperial rule in the Kenmu Restoration in 1331 was unsuccessful, but weakened the shogunate and led to its eventual downfall. The end of the Kamakura shogunate came when Kamakura fell in 1333, the Hōjō Regency was destroyed. Two imperial families – the senior Northern Court and the junior Southern Court – had a claim to the throne; the problem was solved with the intercession of the Kamakura shogunate, who had the two lines alternate. This lasted until 1331, when Emperor Go-Daigo tried to overthrow the shogunate to stop the alternation; as a result, Daigo was exiled. Around 1334 -- 1336, Ashikaga Takauji helped; the fight against the shogunate left the Emperor with too many people claiming a limited supply of land. Takauji turned against the Emperor when the discontent about the distribution of land grew great enough. In 1336 Daigo was banished again, in favor of a new Emperor. During the Kenmu Restoration, after the fall of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, another short-lived shōgun arose.
Prince Moriyoshi, son of Go-Daigo, was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun. However, Prince Moriyoshi was put under house arrest and, in 1335, killed by Ashikaga Tadayoshi. In 1338, Ashikaga Takauji, like Minamoto no Yoritomo, a descendant of the Minamoto princes, was awarded the title of sei-i taishōgun and established the Ashikaga shogunate, which lasted until 1573; the Ashikaga had their headquarters in the Muromachi district of Kyoto, the time during which they ruled is known as the Muromachi period. While the title of Shōgun went into abeyance due to technical reasons, Oda Nobunaga and his successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who obtained the position of Imperial Regent, gained far greater power than any of their predecessors had. Hideyoshi is considered by many historians to be among Japan's greatest rulers. Tokugawa Ieyasu seized power and established a government at Edo in 1600, he received the title sei-i taishōgun in 1603, after he forged a family tree to show he was of Minamoto descent.
The Tokugawa shogunate lasted until 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned as shōgun and abdicated his authority to Emperor Meiji. Ieyasu set a precedent in 1605 when he retired as shōgun in favour of his son Tokugawa Hidetada, though he maintained power from b
A church bell in the Christian tradition is a bell, rung in a church for a variety of ceremonial purposes, can be heard outside the building. Traditionally they were used to call worshippers to the church for a communal service, to announce times of daily prayer, called the canonical hours, they are rung on special occasions such as a wedding, or a funeral service. In some religious traditions they are used within the liturgy of the church service to signify to people that a particular part of the service has been reached; the ringing of church bells, in the Christian tradition, was believed to drive out demons. The traditional European church bell used in Christian churches worldwide consists of a cup-shaped metal resonator with a pivoted clapper hanging inside which strikes the sides when the bell is swung, it is hung within a steeple or belltower of a church or religious building, so the sound can reach a wide area. Such bells are either hung from a pivoted beam so they can swing to and fro.
A rope hangs from a lever or wheel attached to the headstock, when the bell ringer pulls on the rope the bell swings back and forth and the clapper hits the inside, sounding the bell. Bells that are hung dead are sounded by hitting the sound bow with a hammer or by a rope which pulls the internal clapper against the bell. A church may have a collection of bells which are tuned to a common scale, they may be stationary and chimed, rung randomly by swinging through a small arc, or swung through a full circle to enable the high degree of control of English change ringing. Before modern communications, church bells were a common way to call the community together for all purposes, both sacred and secular. In Christianity, some Anglican and Lutheran churches ring their church bells from belltowers three times a day, at 6:00 a.m. 12:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m. summoning the Christian faithful to recite the Lord’s Prayer, or the Angelus, a prayer recited in honour of the Incarnation of God. The injunction to pray the Lord's prayer thrice daily was given in Didache 8, 2 f. which, in turn, was influenced by the Jewish practice of praying thrice daily found in the Old Testament in Psalm 55:17, which suggests "evening and morning and at noon", Daniel 6:10, in which Daniel prays thrice a day.
As such, the Catechism of the Catholic Church states that the Early Church prayed the Lord's Prayer thrice a day, supplanting the former Amidah predominant in the Hebrew tradition. In the Book of Common Prayer, the Daily Office, central to Anglican spirituality includes the Lord's Prayer, along with "a selection from the Psalter, readings from the Holy Scriptures, one or more canticles"; some Protestant Churches ring church bells during the congregational recitation of the Lord's Prayer, after the sermon, in order to alert those who are unable to be present to "unite themselves in spirit with the congregation". In many historic Christian Churches, church bells are rung on All Hallows' Eve, as well as during the processions of Candlemas and Palm Sunday; the Christian tradition of the ringing of church bells from a belltower is analogous to the Islamic tradition of the adhan from a minaret. Most Christian denominations ring church bells to call the faithful to worship, signalling the start of a mass or service of worship.
In the United Kingdom predominantly in the Anglican church, there is a strong tradition of change ringing on full-circle tower bells for about half an hour before a service. This originated from the early 17th century when bell ringers found that swinging a bell through a large arc gave more control over the time between successive strikes of the clapper; this culminated in ringing bells through a full circle, which let ringers produce different striking sequences. In Christianity, the ringing of church bells was traditionally believed to drive out demons and other unclean spirits. Inscriptions on church bells relating to this purpose of church bells, as well as the purpose of serving as a call to prayer and worship, were customary, for example "the sound of this bell vanquishes tempests, repels demons, summons men"; some churches have several bells with the justification that "the more bells a church had, the more loudly they rang, the greater the distance over which they could be heard, the less it was that evil forces would trouble the parish."
The ringing of a church bell in the English tradition to announce a death is called a death knell. The pattern of striking depended on the person; the age of the deceased was rung out. In small settlements this could identify who had just died. There were three occasions surrounding a death. There was the "Passing Bell" to warn of impending death, the second the Death Knell to announce the death, the last was the "Lych Bell", or "Corpse Bell", rung at the funeral as the procession approached the church; this latter is known today as the Funeral toll. A more modern tradition where there are full-circle bells is to use "half-muffles" when sounding one bell as a tolled bell, or all the bells in change-ringing; this means a leather muffle is placed on the clapper of each bell so that there is a loud "open" strike followed by a muffled strike, which has a sonorous and mournful effect. The tradition in the United Kingdom is that bells are only muffled for
A ship's bell is a bell on a ship, used for the indication of time as well as other traditional functions. The bell itself is made of brass or bronze, has the ship's name engraved or cast on it. Unlike civil clock bells, the strikes of a ship's bell do not accord to the number of the hour. Instead, there are one for each half-hour of a four-hour watch. In the age of sailing, watches were timed with a 30-minute hourglass. Bells would be struck every time the glass was turned, in a pattern of pairs for easier counting, with any odd bells at the end of the sequence; the classical, or traditional, system was: Most of the crew of a ship would be divided into two to four groups, called watches. Each watch would take its turn with the essential activities of manning the helm, trimming sails, keeping a lookout; the hours between 16:00 and 20:00 are so arranged. The odd number of watches aimed to give each man a different watch each day; some "ship's bell" clocks use a simpler system: Ship's bells are used for safety in foggy conditions, their most important modern use.
On US naval vessels, bells additionally are rung as "boat gongs" for officers and dignitaries coming aboard or leaving the ship, in a number equivalent to the number of sideboys to which the visitor is entitled. At midnight on New Year's Eve, 16 bells would be struck – eight bells for the old year and eight bells for the new; when a sailor has died he or she can be honoured with the sounding of eight bells. The term "eight bells" can be used in an obituary, as a nautical euphemism for finished; the ship's name is traditionally engraved or cast onto the surface of the bell with the year the ship was launched, as well. The earliest ship's bell was recovered from the wreck-site of a Portuguese armada ship off the coast of Oman; the bell was dated 1498. The bell will carry the name of the shipyard that built the ship. If a ship's name is changed, maritime tradition is that the original bell carrying the original name will remain with the vessel. A ship's bell is a prized possession when a ship is broken up and provides the only positive means of identification in the case of a shipwreck.
Most United States Navy ships of the post–World War II era have carried two ship's bells: the official bell on deck and a smaller one in the pilot house and at the quarterdeck at the 1MC station, used when the ship is underway. According to seafaring legend, the ship's cooks and boatswain's mates had a duty arrangement to give the cooks more sleep; the boatswain's mates, who worked 24 hours a day on watches, would build the fire in the stove, so the cook could get up a little while and the fire would be going so he could begin preparing breakfast. In return, between meals, the cooks would shine the bell, traditionally the boatswain's mates' responsibility, it is a naval tradition to baptize children using the ship's bell as a baptismal font and to engrave the names of the children on the bell afterwards. Christening information from the bells held by the Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt Museum has been entered into a searchable data archive. Watch system Watchstanding When Eight Bells Toll Media related to Ships' bells at Wikimedia Commons "Discovery of a ship's bell by underwater archaeologists on a colonial shipwreck lost off St. Augustine, Florida in the late 1700s".
Campanology is the study of bells. It encompasses the technology of bells – how they are cast, tuned and sounded – as well as the history and traditions of bell-ringing as an art, it is common to treat the whole as one musical instrument. Such collections – such as a Flemish carillon, a Russian zvon, or an English "ring of bells" used for change ringing – have their own practices and challenges. In this sense, the word campanology is most used in reference to large bells hung in a tower, it is not applied to assemblages of smaller bells, such as a glockenspiel, a collection of tubular bells, or an Indonesian gamelan. A campanologist is one who studies campanology, though it is popularly mis-used to refer to a bell ringer; the carillon is a collection of tuned bells for playing conventional melodic music. The bells are struck by hammers linked to a clavier keyboard; the instrument is played sitting on a bench by hitting the top keyboard that allows expression through variation of touch, with the underside of the half-clenched fists, the bottom keyboard with the feet, since the lower notes in particular require more physical strength than an organ, the latter not attaining the tonal range of the better carillons: for some of these, their bell producing the lowest tone, the'bourdon', may weigh well over 8 tonnes.
A carillon renders at least two octaves for which it needs 23 bells, though the finest have 47 to 56 bells or extravagantly more, arranged in chromatic sequence, so tuned as to produce concordant harmony when many bells are sounded together. Professional Carillonneurs like Belgian Jef Denyn have widespread fameThe oldest are found in church towers in continental northern Europe in cathedral towers in Belgium and present-day northern France, where some became UNESCO World Heritage Sites – classified with the Belfry of Bruges and its municipal Carillon under'Belfries of Belgium and France'; the carillon of Kirk in the Hills, Bloomfield Hills, United States, along with the one at Hyechon College in Daejoen, South Korea, have the highest number of bells in the world: 77. Modern large carillon edifices have been erected as stand-alone instruments across the world, for instance the Netherlands Carillon at Arlington National Cemetery; the carillon in the Church of St Peter, Gwynedd, Wales is used to play the famous'Bells of Aberdovey' tune.
A carillon-like instrument with fewer than 23 bells is called a chime. American chimes have one to one and a half diatonic octaves. Many chimes play an automated piece such as clock chimes. Chime bells used to lack dynamic variation and inner tuning, or the mathematical balance of a bell's complex sound, to permit use of harmony. Since the 20th century, in Belgium and The Netherlands, clock chime bells have inner tuning and produce complex harmonized music; these chimes should not be confused with another musical instrument called chimes nor with a wind chime. The bells in Russian tradition are sounded by their clappers, attached to ropes. All the ropes are gathered in one place; the ropes are not pulled, but rather pressed with legs. Since one end of every rope is fixed, the ropes are kept in tension, a press or a punch on a rope makes a clapper move; the Russian Tsar Bell is the largest extant bell in the world. In English style full circle ringing the bells in a church tower are hung so that on each stroke the bell swings through a complete circle.
Between strokes, it sits poised'upside-down', with the mouth pointed upwards. Each alternate pull or stroke is identified as either handstroke or backstroke - handstroke where the "sally" is pulled followed by a pull on the plain "tail". At East Bergholt in the English county of Suffolk, there is a unique set of bells that are not in a tower and are rung full circle by hand, they are the heaviest ring of five bells listed in Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers with a tenor of 26 long cwt 0 qr 8 lb and a combined weight of 4 long tons 5 cwt 2 qr 24 lb These rings of bells have few bells, compared with a carillon. The bells are tuned to fall in a diatonic scale without chromatic notes. To swing the heavy bells requires a ringer for each bell. Furthermore, the great inertias involved mean that a ringer has only a limited ability to retard or accelerate his/her bell's cycle. Along with the limited palette of notes available, the upshot is that such rings of bells do not lend themselves to ringing melodies.
Instead, a system of change ringing evolved early in the seventeenth century, which centres on mathematical permutations. The ringers begin with rounds, ringing dow
In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Anglicanism, an altar or sanctus bell is a small hand-held bell or set of bells. The primary reason for the use of such bells is to create a joyful noise to the Lord as a way to give thanks for the miracle taking place atop the altar. An ancillary function of the bells is to focus the attention of those attending the Mass that a supernatural event is taking place on the altar; such bells are commonly referred to as the Mass bell, sacring bell, Sacryn bell, saints' bell, sance-bell, or sanctus bell. and are kept on the credence table or some other convenient location within the sanctuary. "A little before the Consecration, when appropriate, a server rings a bell as a signal to the faithful." The usual moment chosen for giving the signal of the approach of the Consecration is when the priest stretches out his hands over the host and the chalice while reciting the epiclesis. Mention of this signal was introduced into the Roman Missal in Pope John XXIII's 1962 revision.
Before 1962 it was common practice to give this signal, although it "ha no authority". All pre-1970 editions of the Roman Missal, including that of 1962, prescribe continuous ringing of the altar bell while the priest recites the words of the Sanctus at Low Mass. but, in line with its abolition of a hard and fast distinction between sung and spoken Mass, the 1970 edition makes no mention of that practice. "According to local custom, the server rings the bell as the priest shows the host and the chalice." Pre-1970 editions of the Roman Missal prescribe either a triple or a continuous ringing of the bell at each showing of the consecrated elements. Pre-1962 editions prescribe that the server should first light a torch, to be extinguished only after the priest has consumed the chalice or has given Communion to any others who are to receive the Eucharist. On 10 September 1898, the Congregation of Sacred Rites declared inappropriate the use of a gong instead of the altar bell; the ringing of an altar bell began in the 13th century.
It is not mentioned in the original 1570 Roman Missal of Pope Pius V and was not introduced into papal Masses until the time of Pope John Paul II. When, before the reintroduction of concelebration, priests said Mass at a side altar while a public celebration was taking place at a nearby altar, the Congregation of Sacred Rites found it necessary to issue a prohibition against ringing a bell at the Mass celebrated at the side altar; the same rule was made for a Solemn Mass celebrated at an altar other than that at which the Blessed Sacrament is publicly exposed, allowed the ringing of the altar bell to be omitted when Mass was celebrated at the altar of exposition. Like all church bells, the altar bell is not rung from the end of the Gloria in excelsis at the Mass of the Lord's Supper until the beginning of the Gloria in excelsis at the Easter Vigil. During this interval a clapper is sometimes used in place of the altar bell. In a few places there is a local custom, not mandated by liturgical law, of not using altar bells during the season of Advent and of ringing them throughout the Gloria at Christmas Midnight Mass to celebrate the resumption of their use.
Bells may be run during Eucharistic adoration and benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. In branches of Lutheranism, altar bells are rung at the two appropriate times during the Words of Institution to signify the real presence. Anglican parishes use the altar bell, rung to signify the Real Presence of Christ in the sacred Elements. During the Eucharist, it is rung three times - once before the Words of Institution, once at each elevation of the Host and of the Chalice, it may be rung to indicate the time that the faithful may come forward to receive Communion. The bells are rung when the monstrance or ciborium is exposed or processed, for example when moving the reserved Sacrament from a side altar to the high altar. Custom differs concerning its use during Lent and Holy Week. In some churches in the Anglo-Catholic tradition, a large gong, struck with a mallet, may be used during the celebration of mass as an alternative to the altar bell. In some Methodist churches the United Methodist Church of the United States, altar bells are used two different times during common services held on Sundays.
The Chimes of the Trinity are rung by an acolyte before the prelude of the service and at the end of the benediction. The Chimes of the Trinity is the ringing of the bell three times to represent the Father and Holy Spirit; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Schulte, Augustin Joseph. "Altar". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 1. New York: Robert Appleton