James Simon Wallis Hunt was a British racing driver who won the Formula One World Championship in 1976. After retiring from racing in 1979, Hunt became businessman. Beginning his racing career in touring car racing, Hunt progressed into Formula Three, where he attracted the attention of the Hesketh Racing team and soon came under their wing. Hunt's reckless and action-packed exploits on track earned him the nickname "Hunt the Shunt". Hunt entered Formula One in 1973, he went on to win for Hesketh, driving their own Hesketh 308 car, in both World Championship and non-championship races, before joining the McLaren team at the end of 1975. In his first year with McLaren, Hunt won the 1976 World Drivers' Championship, he remained with the team for a further two years, although with less success, before moving to the Wolf team in early 1979. Following a string of races in which he failed to finish, Hunt retired from driving halfway through the 1979 season. After retiring from motor racing, he established a career commenting on Grands Prix for the BBC. Hunt died from a heart attack aged 45.
James Hunt was born in Belmont, the second child of Wallis Glynn Gunthorpe Hunt, a stockbroker, Susan Noel Wentworth Hunt. He had an elder sister, three younger brothers, Peter and David, one younger sister, Georgina. Hunt's family lived in a flat in Cheam, moved to Sutton when he was 11 and to a larger home in Belmont, he attended St Leonards-on-Sea Sussex. Hunt first learned to drive on a tractor on a farm in Pembrokeshire, Wales while on a family holiday, with instruction from the farm's owner, but he found changing gears frustrating because he lacked the required strength. Hunt passed his driving test one week after his 17th birthday, at which point he said his life "really began". Hunt took up skiing in 1965 in Scotland and made plans for further ski trips. Before his 18th birthday, he went to the home of Chris Ridge, his tennis doubles partner. Ridge's brother Simon, who raced Minis, was preparing his car for a race at Silverstone that weekend; the Ridges took Hunt to see the race. Hunt's racing career started off in a racing Mini.
The first race he entered was at Snetterton but he was prevented from competing by race scrutineers as the Mini was deemed to have many irregularities, which left Hunt and his team mate, Justin Fry, upset. Hunt brought the necessary funding from working as a trainee manager of a telephone company to enter three events, It was at this point that Fry took the decision to part company with the team due to the irregularities and modifications that were happening to the cars they were using, he graduated to Formula Ford in 1968. He drove a Russell-Alexis Mk 14 car, bought through a hire purchase scheme. In his first race at Snetterton, Hunt had lost 15 hp from an incorrect engine ignition setting but managed to finish 5th. Hunt took his first win at Lydden Hill and set the lap record on the Brands Hatch short circuit. Hunt raced in Formula Three in 1969 with a budget provided by Gowrings of Reading which bought a Meryln Mk11A. Gowrings intended to run the car in the final two races of 1968. Hunt won several races and achieved regular high placed finishes, which led to the British Guild of Motoring Writers awarding him a Grovewood Award as one of the three drivers to have promising careers.
Hunt was involved in a controversial incident with Dave Morgan during a battle for second position in the Formula Three Daily Express Trophy race at Crystal Palace on 3 October 1970. Having banged wheels earlier in a closely fought race, Morgan attempted to pass Hunt on the outside of South Tower Corner on the final lap, but instead the cars collided and crashed out of the race. Hunt's car came to rest in the middle of two wheels. Hunt got out, ran over to Morgan and furiously pushed him to the ground, which earned him severe official disapproval. Both men were summoned by the RAC and after hearing evidence from other drivers, Hunt was cleared by a tribunal and Morgan was given a 12-month suspension of his racing licence, but was subsequently allowed to progress to Formula Atlantic in 1971. Hunt met with John Hogan and racing driver Gerry Birrell to obtain sponsorship from Coca-Cola. Hunt's career continued in the works March team for 1972, his first race at Mallory Park saw him finish 3rd, but he was told by race officials he had been excluded from the results, as his engine was deemed to be outside the regulations.
The car, passed scrutineering tests at the next two races at Brands Hatch. In these races, Hunt finished 5th respectively, he collided with two cars at Oulton Park but finished 3rd at Mallory Park after a long duel with Roger Williamson. The cars did not appear at Zandvoort. In May 1972 it was announced by the team that he had been dropped from the STP-March Formula 3 team and replaced by Jochen Mass; when Hunt attempted to contact March, he was unable to get any response from his employers. Hunt decided to consult Chris Marshall, his former team manager, who explained that a spare car was available; this followed a period characterised by a series of mechanical failures. Hunt decided, against the express instructions of March director Max Mosley, to race at Monaco in a March from a different team; this had been vacated by driver Jean-Claude Alzerat, after Hunt's own March had first broken down and been hit by another competitor in a practice lap. 1973Hesketh purchased a March 731 chassis, it was developed by Harvey Postlethwaite.
The Wild Geese
The Wild Geese is a 1978 British-Swiss war film directed by Andrew V. McLaglen about a group of mercenaries in Africa, it stars Richard Burton, Roger Moore, Richard Harris, Hardy Krüger. The film was the result of a long-held ambition of its producer Euan Lloyd to make an all-star adventure film similar to The Guns of Navarone or Where Eagles Dare; the same producer and director were responsible for The Sea Wolves. This was the last film from Allied Artists, before closing from bankruptcy; the screenplay by Reginald Rose was based on an unpublished novel titled The Thin White Line by Daniel Carney. The film was named The Wild Geese after the Wild Goose flag and shoulder patch used by Michael "Mad Mike" Hoare's Five Commando, ANC, which in turn was inspired by a 17th-century Irish mercenary army. Carney's novel was subsequently published by Corgi Books under the same title as the film; the novel was based upon rumours and speculation following the 1968 landing of a mysterious aeroplane in Rhodesia, said to have been loaded with mercenaries and "an African president" believed to have been a dying Moïse Tshombe.
Allen Faulkner, a former British Army colonel turned mercenary, arrives in London to meet merchant banker Sir Edward Matheson. The latter proposes an operation to rescue Julius Limbani, the imprisoned President of a southern African nation, due for execution by General Ndofa. President Limbani is held in a remote prison in Zembala, guarded by a regiment of General Ndofa's troops known as the "Simbas". Faulkner accepts the assignment and begins recruiting forty-nine mercenaries, including officers he had worked with previously: Capt. Rafer Janders, a skilled tactician, Lt. Shawn Fynn, a former RAF pilot. Fynn brings in Pieter Coetzee, a former soldier in the South African Defence Force who wishes only to return home and buy a farm; the mercenaries fly to Swaziland. Before the operation begins, Janders exacts a promise from Faulkner to watch over his only son, should he not survive; because of an unexpected development, Faulkner is given only a day's notice to launch the mission. On Christmas Day, the 50-man mercenary group parachute into Zembala via HALO jump.
One group rescues an alive, though sick, Limbani from a guarded prison, while another group takes over a small, nearby airfield to await pickup. Back in London, Matheson cancels the extraction flight at the last moment, having secured copper mining assets from General Ndofa in exchange for President Limbani. Stranded deep in hostile territory, the abandoned mercenaries fight their way through bush country, pursued by the Simbas. Many men, including Coetzee, are killed along the way; the mercenaries make their way to Limbani's home village, hoping to start a rebellion, but discover his people would not have a chance. An Irish missionary living there informs the group of an old Douglas Dakota transport aircraft nearby that they can use to escape; as the Simbas close in, the mercenaries hold them off in a climatic battle sequence while Fynn starts the Dakota's engines, suffering heavy casualties. Janders is shot in the leg and unable to board the departing airplane. Faulkner is forced to torture.
The thirteen surviving mercenaries manage to land at Kariba Airport, but Limbani dies from a gunshot wound sustained during the escape. Some months Faulkner returns to London and breaks into Matheson's home, forcing him to disgorge the cash in his wall safe — half a million dollars — to compensate the survivors and the families of those who died. Faulkner kills Matheson and makes a swift getaway with Fynn. Faulkner fulfills his promise to Janders by visiting Emile at his boarding school; the film was based on The Wild Geese, which Euan Lloyd read prior to publication. He hired Reginald Rose to write the screenplay; the budget was US$9 million. United Artists was enthusiastic about the film, but insisted Lloyd give the director's job to Michael Winner. Lloyd refused and instead chose Andrew V. McLaglen, son of Victor McLaglen, a British-born American known for making westerns. Euan Lloyd had a friendship with John Ford; the finance for the film was raised by pre-selling it to distributors based on the script and the names of the stars who were set to appear.
This became a more common practice in the film industry, but was unusual at the time. Although Lloyd had both Richard Burton and Roger Moore in mind for their respective roles from a early stage, other casting decisions were more difficult; as the mercenaries were composed of military veterans, it was necessary to cast a number of older actors and extras into these physically demanding roles. A number of veterans and actual mercenary soldiers appeared in the film. Northern Irish actor Stephen Boyd, a close friend of Lloyd's, was set to star as Sandy Young, the sergeant major who trains the mercenaries before their mission. However, Boyd died shortly before filming commenced and Jack Watson was chosen as a late replacement, he had played a similar role in McLaglen's 1968 film The Devil's Brigade. Lloyd had offered the part of the banker Matheson to his friend Joseph Cotten. However, scheduling difficulties meant that he had to be replaced, this time by Stewart Granger. Burt Lancaster hoped to play the part of Rafer Janders who in Carney's book was an American living in London.
However, Lancaster wanted the part altered and enlarged. The producers in his place chose Richard Harris. Lloyd had reservations about casting Harris because of his wild reputat
Ibiza is a Spanish island in the Mediterranean Sea off the eastern coast of Spain. It is 150 kilometres from the city of Valencia, it is the third largest of an autonomous community of Spain. Its largest settlements are Ibiza Town, Santa Eulària des Riu, Sant Antoni de Portmany, its highest point, called Sa Talaiassa, is 475 metres above sea level. Ibiza has become well known for its association with nightlife, electronic dance music that originated on the island, for the summer club scene, all of which attract large numbers of tourists drawn to that type of holiday. Several years before 2010, the island's government and the Spanish Tourist Office had been working to promote more family-oriented tourism, with the police closing down clubs that played music at late night hours, but by 2010 this policy was reversed. Around 2015 it was resumed. Ibiza is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Ibiza and the nearby island of Formentera to its south are called the Pine Islands, or "Pityuses"; the official Catalan name is Eivissa.
Its name in Spanish is Ibiza. In British English, the name is pronounced in an approximation of the Spanish, whereas in American English the pronunciation is closer to Latin American Spanish. Phoenician colonists called the island Iboshim, it was known to Romans as Ebusus. The Greeks called the two islands of Formentera the Pityoûssai. In the 18th and 19th centuries the island was known to the British and to the Royal Navy as Ivica. In 654 BC, Phoenician settlers founded a port on Ibiza. With the decline of Phoenicia after the Assyrian invasions, Ibiza came under the control of Carthage a former Phoenician colony; the island produced dye, fish sauce, wool. A shrine with offerings to the goddess Tanit was established in the cave at Es Cuieram, the rest of the Balearic Islands entered Eivissa's commercial orbit after 400 BC. Ibiza was a major trading post along the Mediterranean routes. Ibiza began establishing its own trading stations along the nearby Balearic island of Majorca, such as Na Guardis, "Na Galera" where numerous Balearic mercenaries hired on, no doubt as slingers, to fight for Carthage.
During the Second Punic War, the island was assaulted by the two Scipio brothers in 217 BC but remained loyal to Carthage. With the Carthaginian military failing on the Iberian mainland, Ibiza was last used, 205 B. C, by the fleeing Carthaginian General Mago to gather supplies and men before sailing to Menorca and to Liguria. Ibiza negotiated a favorable treaty with the Romans, which spared Ibiza from further destruction and allowed it to continue its Carthaginian-Punic institutions and coinage well into the Empire days, when it became an official Roman municipality. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and a brief period of first Vandal and Byzantine rule, the island was conquered by the Moors in 902, the few remaining locals converted to Islam and Berber settlers came in. Under Islamic rule, Ibiza came in close contact with the city of Dénia—the closest port in the nearby Iberian peninsula, located in the Valencian Community—and the two areas were administered jointly by the Taifa of Dénia during some time.
Ibiza together with the islands of Formentera and Menorca were invaded by the Norwegian King Sigurd I of Norway in the spring of 1110 on his crusade to Jerusalem. The king had conquered the cities of Sintra and Alcácer do Sal and given them over to Christian rulers, in an effort to weaken the Muslim grip on the Iberian peninsula. King Sigurd continued to Sicily; the island was conquered by Aragonese King James I in 1235. The local Muslim population got deported as was the case with neighboring Majorca and elsewhere, Christians arrived from Girona; the island maintained its own self-government in several forms until 1715, when King Philip V of Spain abolished the local government's autonomy. The arrival of democracy in the late 1970s led to the Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands. Today, the island is part of the Balearic Autonomous Community, along with Majorca and Formentera. Though known for its party scene, large portions of the island are registered as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, thus protected from the development and commercialization of the main cities.
A notable example includes the Renaissance walls of the old town of Ibiza City which were awarded UNESCO World Heritage Status in 1999, they are one of the few world's Renaissance walls that were not demolished, part of the medieval wall is still visible. At "God's Finger" in the Benirràs Bay there are some of the more traditional Ibizan cultural sites such as the remains of the first Phoenician settlement at Sa Caleta. Other sites are still under threat from the developers, such as Ses Feixes Wetlands, but this site has now been recognised as a threatened environment, it is expected that steps will be taken to preserve this wetland. Ibiza is a rock island covering an area of 572.56 square kilometres six times smaller than Majorca, but over five times larger than Mykonos or 10 times larger than Manhattan in New York City. Ibiza is the larger of a group of the western Balearic archipelago called the "Pitiusas" or "Pine Islands" composed of itself and Formentera; the Balearic island chain includes over 50 islands.
The highest point of the island is Sa Talaiassa known as Sa Talaia or Sa Talaia de Sant Josep at 475 metres. Ibiza is adm
Antigua known as Waladli or Wadadli by the native population, is an island in the West Indies. It is one of the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean region and the main island of the country of Antigua and Barbuda. Antigua and Barbuda became an independent state within the Commonwealth of Nations on 1 November 1981. Antigua means "ancient" in Spanish after an icon in Seville Cathedral, "Santa Maria de la Antigua" — St. Mary of the Old Cathedral; the name Waladli comes from the indigenous inhabitants and means "our own". The island's circumference is 87 km and its area 281 km2, its population was 80,161. The economy is reliant on tourism, with the agricultural sector serving the domestic market. Over 32,000 people live in the capital city, St. John's; the capital is situated in the north-west and has a deep harbour, able to accommodate large cruise ships. Other leading population settlements are All Liberta, according to the 2001 census. English Harbour on the south-eastern coast is famed for its protected shelter during violent storms.
It is the site of a restored British colonial naval station called "Nelson's Dockyard" after Captain Horatio Nelson. Today English Harbour and the neighbouring village of Falmouth are known as a yachting and sailing destination and provisioning centre. During Antigua Sailing Week, at the end of April and beginning of May, an annual regatta brings a number of sailing vessels and sailors to the island to play sports. On 6 September 2017, the Category 5 Hurricane Irma destroyed 90 percent of the buildings on the island of Barbuda. Residents were evacuated to Antigua; the first residents were the Guanahatabey people. The Arawak migrated from the mainland, followed by the Carib. Prior to European colonialism, Christopher Columbus was the first European to visit Antigua, in 1493; the Arawak were the first well-documented group of indigenous people to settle Antigua. They paddled to the island by canoe from present-day Venezuela, pushed out by the Carib, another indigenous people; the Arawak introduced agriculture to Barbuda.
Among other crops, they cultivated. They cultivated: Corn Sweet potatoes Chili peppers Guava Tobacco CottonSome of the vegetables listed, such as corn and sweet potatoes, still are staples of Antiguan cuisine. Colonists took them to Europe, from there, they spread around the world. For example, a popular Antiguan dish, dukuna, is a sweet, steamed dumpling made from grated sweet potatoes and spices. Another staple, fungi, is a cooked paste made of water. Most of the Arawak left Antigua about A. D. 1100. Those who remained were raided by the Carib coming from Venezuela. According to The Catholic Encyclopedia, the Caribs' superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most Arawak nations in the West Indies, they enslaved cannibalised others. Watson points out; the indigenous people of the West Indies made excellent sea vessels, which they used to sail the Atlantic and Caribbean. As a result, the Arawak and Carib populated much of the Caribbean islands, their descendants live throughout South America Brazil and Colombia.
Christopher Columbus named the island "Antigua" in 1493 in honour of the "Virgin of the Old Cathedral" found in Seville Cathedral in southern Spain. On his 1493 voyage, honouring a vow, he named many islands after different aspects of St. Mary, including Montserrat and Guadaloupe. In 1632, a group of English colonists left St. Kitts to settle on Antigua. Sir Christopher Codrington, an Englishman, established the first permanent European settlement. From that point on, Antigua history took a dramatic turn. Codrington guided development on the island as a profitable sugar colony. For a large portion of Antigua history, the island was considered Britain's "Gateway to the Caribbean", it was located on the major sailing routes among the region's resource-rich colonies. Lord Horatio Nelson, a major figure in Antigua history, arrived in the late 18th century to preserve the island's commercial shipping prowess. According to A Brief History of the Caribbean, European diseases and slavery destroyed the vast majority of the Caribbean's native population.
There are some differences of opinions as to the relative importance of these causes. In fact, some historians believe that the abundant, but starchy, low-protein diet may have contributed to severe malnutrition of the "Indians" who were used to a diet fortified with protein from sealife. Others believe that the psychological stress of slavery may have played a part in the massive number of native deaths while in servitude. Sugar became Antigua's main crop in about 1674, when Christopher Codrington settled at Betty's Hope plantation, he came from Barbados. Betty's Hope, Antigua's first full-scale sugar plantation, was so successful that other planters turned from tobacco to sugar; this resulted in their importing slaves to work the sugar cane crops. According to A Brief History of the Caribbean, many West Indian colonists tried to use locals as slaves; these groups succumbed to disease and/or malnutrition, died by the thousands. The enslaved Africans adapted better to the new environment and thus became the number one choice of unpaid labour.
However, according to a Smith
Haiti the Republic of Haiti and called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole. The region was inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain landed on the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic; when Columbus landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or China. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus's flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade; as a consequence, Columbus ordered his men to salvage what they could from the ship, he created the first European settlement in the Americas, naming it La Navidad after the day the ship was destroyed. The island was claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century.
Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France, which named it Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa, were established by colonists. In the midst of the French Revolution and free people of color revolted in the Haitian Revolution, culminating in the abolition of slavery and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte's army at the Battle of Vertières. Afterward the sovereign state of Haiti was established on 1 January 1804—the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt; the rebellion that began in 1791 was led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture, whose military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into an independent country. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty and became the first Emperor of Haiti, Jacques I.
The Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years. The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas. Henri Christophe—former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I—built it to withstand a possible foreign attack, it is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States, Association of Caribbean States, the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, it has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Most in February 2004, a coup d'état originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti; the name Haiti comes from the indigenous Taíno language, the native name given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, "land of high mountains."
The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti has a diacritical mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately, as in the word naïve. In English, this rule for the pronunciation is disregarded, thus the spelling Haiti is used. There are different anglicizations for its pronunciation such as HIGH-ti, high-EE-ti and haa-EE-ti, which are still in use, but HAY-ti is the most widespread and best-established; the name was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. In French, Haiti's nickname is the "Pearl of the Antilles" because of both its natural beauty, the amount of wealth it accumulated for the Kingdom of France. At the time of European conquest, the island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti occupies the western three-eighths, was one of many Caribbean islands inhabited by the Taíno Native Americans, speakers of an Arawakan language called Taino, preserved in the Haitian Creole language.
The Taíno name for the entire island was Haiti. The people had migrated over centuries into the Caribbean islands from South America. Genetic studies show, they originated in Central and South America. After migrating to Caribbean islands, in the 15th century, the Taíno were pushed into the northeast Caribbean islands by the Caribs. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean islands, the largest unit of political organization was led by a cacique, or chief, as the Europeans understood them; the island of Haiti was divided among five Caciquats: the Magua in the north east, the Marien in the north west, the Xaragua in the south west, the Maguana in the center region of Cibao and the Higuey in the south east. The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests. Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country; these have become national symbols of tourist attractions. Modern-day Léogane started as a French colonial town in the southwest, is beside the former capital of the caciquedom of Xaragua.
British Film Institute
The British Film Institute is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom. It was established by Royal Charter to: Encourage the development of the arts of film and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film and the moving image and their impact on society, to promote access to and appreciation of the widest possible range of British and world cinema and to establish, care for and develop collections reflecting the moving image history and heritage of the United Kingdom; the BFI maintains the world's largest film archive, the BFI National Archive called National Film Library, National Film Archive, National Film and Television Archive. The archive contains more than 50,000 fiction films, over 100,000 non-fiction titles, around 625,000 television programmes; the majority of the collection is British material but it features internationally significant holdings from around the world.
The Archive collects films which feature key British actors and the work of British directors. The BFI runs the BFI Southbank and London IMAX cinema, both located on the south bank of the River Thames in London; the IMAX has the largest cinema screen in the UK and shows popular recent releases and short films showcasing its technology, which includes 3D screenings and 11,600 watts of digital surround sound. BFI Southbank shows films from all over the world critically acclaimed historical & specialised films that may not otherwise get a cinema showing; the BFI distributes archival and cultural cinema to other venues – each year to more than 800 venues all across the UK, as well as to a substantial number of overseas venues. The BFI offers a range of education initiatives, in particular to support the teaching of film and media studies in schools. In late 2012, the BFI received money from the Department For Education to create the BFI Film Academy Network; the BFI runs the annual London Film Festival along with BFI Flare: London LGBT Film Festival and the youth-orientated Future Film Festival.
The BFI publishes the monthly Sound magazine as well as films on Blu-ray, DVD and books. It runs the BFI National Library, maintains the BFI Film & TV Database and Summary of Information on Film and Television, which are databases of credits and other information about film and television productions. SIFT has a collection of about 7 million still frames from television; the BFI has co-produced a number of television series featuring footage from the BFI National Archive, in partnership with the BBC, including The Lost World of Mitchell & Kenyon, The Lost World of Friese-Greene, The Lost World of Tibet. The institute was founded in 1933. Despite its foundation resulting from a recommendation in a report on Film in National Life, at that time the institute was a private company, though it has received public money throughout its history—from the Privy Council and Treasury until 1965 and the various culture departments since then; the institute was restructured following the Radcliffe Report of 1948 which recommended that it should concentrate on developing the appreciation of filmic art, rather than creating film itself.
Thus control of educational film production passed to the National Committee for Visual Aids in Education and the British Film Academy assumed control for promoting production. From 1952–2000, the BFI provided funding for new and experimental filmmakers via the BFI Production Board; the institute received a Royal Charter in 1983. This was updated in 2000, in the same year the newly established UK Film Council took responsibility for providing the BFI's annual grant-in-aid; as an independent registered charity, the BFI is regulated by the Charity Commission and the Privy Council. In 1988, the BFI opened the London Museum of the Moving Image on the South Bank. MOMI was acclaimed internationally and set new standards for education through entertainment, but subsequently it did not receive the high levels of continuing investment that might have enabled it to keep pace with technological developments and ever-rising audience expectations; the Museum was "temporarily" closed in 1999. This did not happen, MOMI's closure became permanent in 2002 when it was decided to redevelop the South Bank site.
This redevelopment was itself further delayed. The BFI is managed on a day-to-day basis by its chief executive, Amanda Nevill. Supreme decision-making authority rests with a board of up to 14 governors; the current chair is Josh Berger, who took up the post in February 2016. He succeeded Greg Dyke, who took office on 1 March 2008. Dyke succeeded the late Anthony Minghella, chair from 2003 until 31 December 2007; the chair of the board is appointed by the BFI's own Board of Governors but requires the consent of the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. Other Governors are co-opted by existing board members; the BFI operates with three sources of income. The largest is public money allocated by the Department for Culture and Sport. In 2011–12, this funding amounted to £20m; the second largest source is commercial activity such as receipts from ticket sales at BFI Southbank or the BFI London IMAX theatre, sales of DVDs, etc. Thirdly and sponsorship of around £5m
Ronald William Howard is an American filmmaker and actor. Howard is best known for playing two high-profile roles in television sitcoms in his youth and directing a number of successful feature films in his career. Howard first came to prominence playing young Opie Taylor, the son of Sheriff Andy Taylor, in the sitcom The Andy Griffith Show from 1960 through 1968. During this time, he appeared in the musical film The Music Man and the comedy film The Courtship of Eddie's Father, he appeared in an episode of Land of the Giants 1968. In 1973, he played Steve Bolander in the classic coming of age film American Graffiti. In 1974, Howard became a household name playing teenager Richie Cunningham in the sitcom Happy Days, continuing in the role for seven years. Howard continued making films during this time, appearing in the western film The Shootist and the comedy film Grand Theft Auto, which he directed. In 1980, Howard left Happy Days to focus on directing, his films include the science-fiction/fantasy film Cocoon, the historical docudrama Apollo 13, the biographical drama A Beautiful Mind, the thriller The Da Vinci Code, the historical drama Frost/Nixon and Solo: A Star Wars Story.
Since 2003, Howard has narrated the Fox comedy series Arrested Development, on which he served as an executive producer and played a semi-fictionalized version of himself. In 2003, Howard was awarded the National Medal of Arts. Asteroid 12561 Howard is named after him, he was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 2013. Howard has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions in the television and motion pictures industries. Howard was born in Duncan, Oklahoma, in 1954, the elder son of Jean Speegle Howard, an actress, Rance Howard, a director and actor, he has German, Scottish and Dutch ancestry. His father was born with the surname "Beckenholdt" and had taken the stage name "Howard" by 1948, for his acting career. Rance Howard was serving three years in the United States Air Force at the time of Ron's birth; the family moved to Hollywood in 1958, the year before the birth of his younger brother, Clint Howard. They rented a house on the block south of the Desilu Studios, where The Andy Griffith Show was filmed.
They lived in Hollywood before moving to Burbank. Howard was tutored at Desilu Studios in his younger years but continued his schooling at Robert Louis Stevenson Elementary and David Star Jordan Junior High when not working in television graduating from John Burroughs High School, he attended the University of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts but did not graduate. Howard has said he knew from a young age he might want to go into directing, thanks to his early experience as an actor. In 1959, Howard had his first credited film role, in The Journey, he appeared in June Allyson's CBS anthology series The DuPont Show with June Allyson in the episode "Child Lost". Howard played "Timmy" in "Counterfeit Gun", Season 4, Episode 2 of the TV series, "The Cheyenne Show." In 1960, Howard was cast as Opie Taylor in The Andy Griffith Show. Credited as "Ronny Howard", he portrayed the son of the title character for all eight seasons of the show. Recalling his experiences as a child actor on set, he commented.
And I was preoccupied with the prop, in my hand, because it was a toy turtle. But I had to pretend it was a real turtle that the audience just wasn't seeing, it was dead, so I was supposed to be crying and emotional, I remember him looking at that little turtle and talking to me about how it was kind of funny to have to pretend, dead. So I recall just a relaxed first impression. In the 1962 film version of The Music Man, Howard played the child with the lisp, he starred in the 1963 film The Courtship of Eddie's Father, with Glenn Ford. He appeared as Barry Stewart on The Eleventh Hour, in the episode "Is Mr. Martian Coming Back?" in 1965. In the 1970s, he appeared in at least one episode of The Bold Ones, as a teenage tennis player with an illness. Howard appeared on Song from the Haunted Mansion, it featured the story of two teenagers and Karen, who get trapped inside the Haunted Mansion. Thurl Ravenscroft plays the Narrator, Pete Reneday plays the Ghost Host, Eleanor Audley plays Madame Leota.
Some of the effects and ideas that were planned but never permanently made it to the attraction are mentioned here: the Raven speaks in the Stretching Room, the Hatbox Ghost is mentioned during the Attic scene. It was reissued in 1998 as a cassette tape titled A Spooky Night in Disney's Haunted Mansion and on CD in 2009. In 1974, Howard guest starred as Set