An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Lovis Corinth was a German artist and writer whose mature work as a painter and printmaker realized a synthesis of impressionism and expressionism. Corinth studied in Paris and Munich, joined the Berlin Secession group succeeding Max Liebermann as the group's president, his early work was naturalistic in approach. Corinth was antagonistic towards the expressionist movement, but after a stroke in 1911 his style loosened and took on many expressionistic qualities, his use of color became more vibrant, he created portraits and landscapes of extraordinary vitality and power. Corinth's subject matter included nudes and biblical scenes. Corinth was born Franz Heinrich Louis on 21 July 1858 in Prussia; the son of a tanner, he displayed a talent for drawing as a child. In 1876 he went to study painting in the academy of Königsberg. Intending to become a history painter, he was dissuaded from this course by his chief instructor at the academy, the genre painter Otto Günther. In 1880 he traveled to Munich, which rivaled Paris as the avant-garde art center in Europe at the time.
There he studied with Franz von Defregger before gaining admittance to the Academy of Fine Arts Munich, where he studied under Ludwig von Löfftz. The realism of Corinth's early works was encouraged by Löfftz's teaching, which emphasized careful observation of colors and values. Other important influences were Courbet and the Barbizon school, through their interpretation by the Munich artists Wilhelm Leibl and Wilhelm Trübner. Except for an interruption for military service in 1882–83, Corinth studied with Löfftz until 1884, he traveled to Antwerp, where he admired the paintings of Rubens, in October 1884 to Paris where he studied under William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Tony Robert-Fleury at the Académie Julian. He concentrated on improving his drawing skills, made the female nude his frequent subject, he was disappointed, however, in his repeated failure to win a medal at the Salon, returned to Königsberg in 1888 when he adopted the name "Lovis Corinth". In 1891, Corinth returned to Munich, but in 1892 he abandoned the Munich Academy and joined the Munich Secession.
In 1894 he joined the Free Association, in 1899 he participated in an exhibition organized by the Berlin Secession. These nine years in Munich were not his most productive, he was better known for his ability to drink large amounts of red wine and champagne. Corinth moved to Berlin in 1900, had a one-man exhibition at a gallery owned by Paul Cassirer. In 1902 at the age of 43, he opened a school of painting for women and married his first student, Charlotte Berend, some 20 years his junior. Charlotte was his youthful muse, his spiritual partner, the mother of his two children, she had a profound influence on him, family life became a major theme in his art. Another of his students was Doramaria Purschian, he published numerous essays on art history, in 1908 published Das Erlernen der Malerei. In December 1911, he suffered a stroke, was paralyzed on his left side. Thereafter he walked with a limp, his hands displayed a chronic tremor. With the help of his wife, within a year he was painting again with his right hand.
His disability inspired in the artist an intense interest in the simple, intimate things of daily life. In the summer of 1919, for example, he produced a cycle of casual etchings of his family in their country home, it was at this time that landscapes became a significant part of his oeuvre. These landscapes were set at the Walchensee, a lake in the Bavarian Alps where Corinth owned a house, their lively picturing, in bright colors, tempt many to consider the Walchensee series as his best work. From 1915–25, he served as President of the Berlin Secession. In 1920 an anthology of his art-historical writings was published in Berlin. In 1922 his works were exhibited in the Venice Biennale. Corinth explored every print technique except aquatint, he created his first etching in 1891 and his first lithograph in 1894. He experimented with the woodcut medium but made only 12 woodcuts, all of them between 1919–1924, he was quite prolific, in the last 15 years of his life he produced more than 900 graphic works, including 60 self-portraits.
The landscapes he created between 1919 and 1925 are the most desirable images of his entire graphic oeuvre. He painted numerous self-portraits, made a habit of painting one every year on his birthday as a means of self-examination. In many of his self-portraits he assumed guises such as Samson. A self-portrait of 1924 is in the Museum of New York City. Not all of Corinth's works were appreciated in his lifetime: upon learning of his death, Danish critic Georg Brandes wrote in a letter to his secretary that it was Corinth's “punishment for such a wretched portrait of myself”. On 15 March 1921 Corinth received an honorary doctorate from the University of Königsberg. In 1925, he traveled to the Netherlands to view the works of his favorite Dutch masters, he died in Zandvoort. In 1926, a commemorative exhibition of Corinth's paintings and watercolors was presented at the Nationalgalerie in Berlin, an exhibition of his prints and drawings was held at the Berlin Academy. By 1930 the Nationalgalerie acquired several major paintings by Corinth in addition to those in its collection.
During the Third Reich, Corinth's work was condemned by the Nazis as degenerate art. In 1937, Nazi authorities removed 295 of his works from public collections, transported seven of them to Munich where they were displayed in March 1937 in the Degenerate Art Exhibition. In 1910 Corinth had
Museo del Prado
The Prado Museum is the main Spanish national art museum, located in central Madrid. It is considered to have one of the world's finest collections of European art, dating from the 12th century to the early 20th century, based on the former Spanish Royal Collection, the single best collection of Spanish art. Founded as a museum of paintings and sculpture in 1819, it contains important collections of other types of works. El Prado is one of the most visited sites in the world, it is considered one of the greatest art museums in the world; the numerous works by Francisco Goya, the single most extensively represented artist, as well as by Hieronymus Bosch, El Greco, Peter Paul Rubens and Diego Velázquez, are some of the highlights of the collection. The collection comprises around 8,200 drawings, 7,600 paintings, 4,800 prints, 1,000 sculptures, in addition to a large number of other works of art and historic documents; as of 2012, the museum displayed about 1,300 works in the main buildings, while around 3,100 works were on temporary loan to various museums and official institutions.
The remainder were in storage. The museum received 2.8 million visitors in 2012. It is one of the largest museums in Spain; the best-known work on display at the museum is Las Meninas by Velázquez. Velázquez and his keen eye and sensibility were responsible for bringing much of the museum's fine collection of Italian masters to Spain, now the largest outside Italy; the museum is planning a 16% extension in the nearby Salón de Reinos, to be opened in 2019. The building, now the home of the Museo Nacional del Prado was designed in 1785 by architect of the Enlightenment in Spain Juan de Villanueva on the orders of Charles III to house the Natural History Cabinet. Nonetheless, the building's final function was not decided until the monarch's grandson, Ferdinand VII, encouraged by his wife, Queen María Isabel de Braganza, decided to use it as a new Royal Museum of Paintings and Sculptures; the Royal Museum, which would soon become known as the National Museum of Painting and Sculpture, subsequently the Museo Nacional del Prado, opened to the public for the first time in November 1819.
It was created with the double aim of showing the works of art belonging to the Spanish Crown and to demonstrate to the rest of Europe that Spanish art was of equal merit to any other national school. The first catalogue of the Museum, published in 1819 and devoted to Spanish painting, included 311 paintings, although at that time the Museum housed 1,510 from the various royal residences, the Reales Sitios, including works from other schools; the exceptionally important royal collection, which forms the nucleus of the present-day Museo del Prado, started to increase in the 16th century during the time of Charles V and continued under the succeeding Habsburg and Bourbon monarchs. Their efforts and determination led to the Royal Collection being enriched by some of the masterpieces now to be seen in the Prado; these include The Descent from the Cross by Rogier van der Weyden, The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymous Bosch, Knight with his Hand on his Breast by El Greco, The Death of the Virgin by Mantegna, The Holy Family, known as "La Perla", by Raphael, Charles V at Mülhberg by Titian, Christ Washing the Disciples’ Feet by Tintoretto, Dürer's Self-portrait, Las Meninas by Velázquez, The Three Graces by Rubens, The Family of Charles IV by Goya.
In addition to works from the Spanish royal collection, other holdings increased and enriched the Museum with further masterpieces, such as the two Majas by Goya. Among the now closed museums whose collections have been added to that of the Prado were the Museo de la Trinidad in 1872, the Museo de Arte Moderno in 1971. In addition, numerous legacies and purchases have been of crucial importance for the growth of the collection. Various works entered the Prado from the Museo de la Trinidad, including The Fountain of Grace by the School of Van Eyck, the Santo Domingo and San Pedro Martír altarpieces painted for the monastery of Santo Tomás in Ávila by Pedro Berruguete, the five canvases by El Greco executed for the Colegio de doña María de Aragón. Most of the Museum's 19th-century paintings come from the former Museo de Arte Moderno, including works by the Madrazos, José de Madrazo y Agudo and Federico de Madrazo, Vicente López, Carlos de Haes, Eduardo Rosales and Sorolla. Upon the deposition of Isabella II in 1868, the museum was nationalized and acquired the new name of "Museo del Prado".
The building housed the royal collection of arts, it proved too small. The first enlargement to the museum took place in 1918. Since the creation of the Museo del Prado more than 2,300 paintings have been incorporated into its collection, as well as a large number of sculptures, prints and works of art through bequests and purchases, which account for most of the New Acquisitions. Numerous bequests have enriched the Museum's holdings, such as the outstanding collection of medals left to the Museum by Pablo Bosch. Important donations include Barón Emile d'Erlanger's gift of Goya's Black Paintings in 1881. Among the numerous works that have entered the collection through purchase are some outstanding ones acquired in recent years including two works by El Greco, The Fable and The Flight into Egypt acquired in 1993 and 2001, Goya's Countess of Chinchón bought in 2000, Velázquez's portrait of The Pope's Barber, acquired in 2003 and Fra Angelico's Madonna of the Pomegranate purchased in 2016. Between 1873
Saltsjöbaden is a locality in Nacka Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden with 9,491 inhabitants in 2010. It lies on the Baltic Sea coast. Saltsjöbaden was developed as a resort by Knut Agathon Wallenberg, a member of the wealthy and influential Wallenberg family, from farmland which he bought in 1891 through a newly created railway company. Saltsjöbaden was an independent municipality from 1909 to 1970. In 1971 it was reintegrated into Nacka Municipality; the local railway, built by Wallenberg and completed in 1893, connected Saltsjöbaden with Stockholm, with its terminus at Slussen. The railway was taken over by Storstockholms Lokaltrafik in the late 1960s and integrated in the Stockholm public transport system. Two luxurious hotels and a sanatorium were designed by architect Erik Josephson; the parish church, Uppenbarelsekyrkan, was built in 1910–13 and designed by Ferdinand Boberg with decoration by Olle Hjortzberg and Carl Milles, among others. The remainder of the land bought by the railway company was subdivided into plots.
The Stockholm Observatory was located in Saltsjöbaden from 1931 to 2001. The asteroid 36614 Saltis, discovered there in 2000, was named after a common nickname of the place; the larger of the two hotels, Grand Hotel Saltsjöbaden, was the location of the negotiations between the Swedish Employers Association and the Swedish Trade Union Confederation, which led to the Saltsjöbaden Agreement on 20 December 1938. The agreement materialized into the social democratic class compromise, or form of industrial relations in Sweden, the so-called "Saltsjöbaden spirit", marked by willingness to co-operate and a cross-class, collective sense of responsibility for developments in the national labour market and in the Swedish economy generally. In the world of chess, Saltsjöbaden is famous for the 1948 Interzonal tournament won by David Bronstein of the USSR, the 1952 Interzonal won by Alexander Kotov of the USSR. Grand Hotel Saltsjöbaden hosted the annual meeting of the Bilderberg Group in 1962, 1973 and 1984.
Kang Youwei, the reformer of Late Imperial China, visited Sweden after the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform. He bought an islet off Saltsjöbaden in 1904 and stayed there until he left Sweden in 1907; the islet is sometimes referred to in Chinese as Kang Youwei Island. Ivar Wickman, physician who discovered the epidemic and contagious character of poliomyelitis in 1907. Alice Habsburg and Polish resistance figure, died in Saltsjöbaden in 1985. John Engelbert, member in the rock duo Johnossi grew up in Saltsjöbaden. Fredrik Kessiakoff, two times Swedish Olympian grew up in Saltsjöbaden. Inger Brattström, author of many books for children, lived in Saltjsöbaden and died there in 2018, 97 years old. 2013 Saltsjöbanan train crash Media related to Saltsjöbaden at Wikimedia Commons
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Konstfack, or University of Arts and Design, is a university college for higher education in the area of art and design in Stockholm, Sweden. Konstfack has had several different names since it was founded in 1844 by the ethnologist and artist Nils Månsson Mandelgren as a part-time art school for artisans, under the name "Söndags-Rit-skola för Handtverkare"; the school was taken over by Svenska Slöjdföreningen the next year and renamed Svenska Slöjdföreningens skola. In 1857, the first two female students were accepted, the following year female students were invited to apply, it became a state school and was renamed Slöjdskolan i Stockholm in 1859. From 1945 it was known as Konstfackskolan, when the institution was divided into the departments devoted to distinct disciplines that remain today: Textile, Decorative art, Ceramics and Interior Design and Advertising and Printing; the school obtained official status and had a two-year day school and a three-year arts and craft evening school. To this was added a two-year higher Arts and Crafts school and a three-year Art Teacher institute.
It was given the status of a högskola in 1978. From 1993 it was called just Konstfack, the short form of the name used colloquially. Long located on Norrmalm, between Klara kyrka and Hötorget, the school was in 1959 moved to a new building on Valhallavägen with well-equipped workshops, designed by architects Gösta Åberg and Tage Hertzell. In 2004, it once again moved to the former headquarters of LM Ericsson at Telefonplan in Stockholm Municipality; the 20,300-square metre interior of the old factory building was redesigned by among others architect Gert Wingårdh. Following the standards of the Bologna process, Konstfack offers bachelor's degree programmes, master's degree programmes. There are Art Education programmes; the 2-year Animation education existed between 1996 and 2005. There are seven Bachelor's Programmes: Ceramics and Glass Fine Art Graphic Design and Illustration Industrial Design Interior Architecture and Furniture Design Textiles Metal DesignThe Undergraduate Program is conducted in Swedish.
There are five Master's Programmes: Craft Design Fine Art, Visual Communication Visual Culture and LearningOne goal of Konstfack's two-year Graduate Programmes is to attract both Swedish and international students, the education is held in English. There is a doctoral program given in collaboration with Royal Institute of Technology: Art and Design Konstfack has four departments: Craft, Interior architecture and Visual communications, Fine Art and Department of Visual Arts and Sloyd Education; the third year of the bachelor's program and the second year of the master's includes a degree project, ten weeks at BFA-level and twenty at MFA-level, ending with a public examination and, if the student passes the examination, an exhibition for all graduating students: the Spring Exhibition. The annual exhibition takes place at Konstfack during two weeks in May, with around 150 exhibiting students, attracts thousands of visitors. Link to the official website for the Spring Exhibition 2015. A selection of some distinguished former students at the different departments at Konstfack:Graphic Design & Illustration: Carl Johan De Geer, Lasse Åberg, Brita Granström, Lotta Kühlhorn, Lars Hall, Oskar Korsár, Tuulikki Pietilä, RBG6, REALA, Stina Wirsén, Ana Biscaia.
Interior Architecture & Furniture Design: Claesson Koivisto Rune, Gunilla Allard, Jonas Bohlin, Mats Theselius, Stefan Borselius, Thomas Bernstrand, Greta Magnusson-Grossman. Industrial Design: A & E Design, Katja Pettersson, Veryday, No Picnic, Transformator Design. Fine Arts: Stig Lindberg, Annika von Hausswolff, Carl Milles, Dorinel Marc, Johanna Billing, Maria Miesenberger, Miriam Bäckström, Caroline Schlyter. Ceramics & Glass: Bertil Vallien, Per B. Sundberg, Zandra Ahl, Christian Pontus Andersson. Art Education: Cecilia Torudd, Elsa Beskow, Gert Z Nordström, Jan Stenmark, Jockum Nordström. Textiles: Astrid Sampe, Hans Krondahl, Mah-Jong. Metal Design: Vivianna Torun Bülow-Hübe, Gunnar Cyrén. Valand School of Fine Arts Royal University College of Fine Arts, Stockholm Official website The Spring Exhibition 2007 The website for the Spring Exhibition 2007; the Spring Exhibition 2008 The website for the Spring Exhibition 2008. The Spring Exhibition 2009 The website for the Master Spring Exhibition 2009.
The Spring Exhibition 2010 The website for the Spring Exhibition 2010. The Spring Exhibition 2011 The website for the Spring Exhibition 2011; the Spring Exhibition 2012 The website for the Spring Exhibi
Paul Klee was a Swiss-born artist. His individual style was influenced by movements in art that included Expressionism and Surrealism. Klee was a natural draftsman who experimented with and deeply explored color theory, writing about it extensively, he and his colleague, Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, both taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture. His works reflect his dry humor and his sometimes childlike perspective, his personal moods and beliefs, his musicality. First of all, the art of living. Paul Klee was born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, as the second child of German music teacher Hans Wilhelm Klee and Swiss singer Ida Marie Klee, née Frick, his sister Mathilde was born on 28 January 1876 in Walzenhausen. Their father came from Tann and studied singing, piano and violin at the Stuttgart Conservatory, meeting there his future wife Ida Frick. Hans Wilhelm Klee was active as a music teacher at the Bern State Seminary in Hofwil near Bern until 1931. Klee was able to develop his music skills as his parents encouraged and inspired him throughout his life.
In 1880, his family moved to Bern, where they in 1897, after a number of changes of residence, moved into their own house in the Kirchenfeld district. From 1886 to 1890, Klee visited primary school and received, at the age of 7, violin classes at the Municipal Music School, he was so talented on violin that, aged 11, he received an invitation to play as an extraordinary member of the Bern Music Association. In his early years, following his parents’ wishes, Klee focused on becoming a musician, he stated, "I didn't find the idea of going in for music creatively attractive in view of the decline in the history of musical achievement." As a musician, he played and felt bound to traditional works of the eighteenth and nineteenth century, but as an artist he craved the freedom to explore radical ideas and styles. At sixteen, Klee’s landscape drawings show considerable skill. Around 1897, Klee started his diary, which he kept until 1918, which has provided scholars with valuable insight into his life and thinking.
During his school years, he avidly drew in his school books, in particular drawing caricatures, demonstrating skill with line and volume. He passed his final exams at the "Gymnasium" of Bern, where he qualified in the Humanities. With his characteristic dry wit, he wrote, "After all, it’s rather difficult to achieve the exact minimum, it involves risks." On his own time, in addition to his deep interests in music and art, Klee was a great reader of literature, a writer on art theory and aesthetics. With his parents' reluctant permission, in 1898 Klee began studying art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich with Heinrich Knirr and Franz von Stuck, he seemed to lack any natural color sense. He recalled, "During the third winter I realized that I would never learn to paint." During these times of youthful adventure, Klee spent much time in pubs and had affairs with lower class women and artists' models. He had an illegitimate son in 1900. After receiving his Fine Arts degree, Klee went to Italy from October 1901 to May 1902 with friend Hermann Haller.
They stayed in Rome and Naples, studied the master painters of past centuries. He exclaimed, "the Vatican have spoken to me. Humanism wants to suffocate me." He responded to the colors of Italy, but sadly noted, "that a long struggle lies in store for me in this field of color." For Klee, color represented the optimism and nobility in art, a hope for relief from the pessimistic nature he expressed in his black-and-white grotesques and satires. Returning to Bern, he lived with his parents for several years, took occasional art classes. By 1905, he was developing some experimental techniques, including drawing with a needle on a blackened pane of glass, resulting in fifty-seven works including his Portrait of My Father. In the years 1903–05 he completed a cycle of eleven zinc-plate etchings called Inventions, his first exhibited works, in which he illustrated several grotesque characters, he commented, "though I'm satisfied with my etchings I can't go on like this. I’m not a specialist." Klee was still dividing his time with music, playing the violin in an orchestra and writing concert and theater reviews.
Klee married Bavarian pianist Lily Stumpf in 1906 and they had one son named Felix Paul in the following year. They lived in a suburb of Munich, while she gave piano lessons and occasional performances, he kept house and tended to his art work, his attempt to be a magazine illustrator failed. Klee's art work progressed for the next five years from having to divide his time with domestic matters, as he tried to find a new approach to his art. In 1910, he had his first solo exhibition in Bern, which travelled to three Swiss cities. In January 1911 Alfred Kubin encouraged him to illustrate Voltaire's Candide, his resultant drawings were published in a 1920 version of the book edited by Kurt Wolff. Around this time, Kl