Konti–Skan is the name of high-voltage direct-current transmission line between Denmark and Sweden. Kontiskan is a bipolar HVDC scheme. Pole 1 was built in 1965, using mercury arc valves and was able to transmit an up to 250 megawatts of power with an operating voltage of 250 kV; the original mercury arc scheme was taken out of operation and disconnected on 15 August 2006, being replaced by new equipment using thyristors with a power rating of 350 MW. Pole 2, the 1988-built Kontiskan 2, was built with thyristors from the outset and can transmit 300 MW with a voltage of 285 kV. On the Danish side, the converter station used as well by Konti–Skan 1 and 2 is close to Vester Hassing near Aalborg. From Vester Hassing a 34 kilometres long overhead line with two conductors runs to the cable terminal at the Danish coast near Staesnaes; this line, only in the proximity of the converter station and the cable terminal equipped with a ground conductor, was used by the high voltage pole of Konti–Skan 1 and from Vester Hassing until a point a few kilometres south of the cable terminal by the electrode line, which turned there eastwards to the ground electrode at Soera.
At implementation of Konti–Skan 2 the whole overhead electrode line was replaced by two 27 kilometres long underground cables and the second conductor of the overhead line got the high-voltage pole of Konti–Skan 2. The 23 kilometres long submarine cable to the Danish island of Laeso starts at Stensnaes and consists of 3 parallel cables; each of these cables has two copper conductors with a copper cross section of 310 square millimeters. One of these cables was used by Kontiskan 1 and one is used by Kontiskan 2. From the third cable, one conductor was used by Kontiskan 1 and the other is used by Kontiskan 2. Konti–Skan crosses Laeso-Island on a 17 kilometres long overhead line with two conductors. Before the implementation of Konti–Skan 2 both conductors were switched parallel, today one conductor is used for the high voltage pole of Konti–Skan 1, while the other is used by that of Konti–Skan 2. Between Laeso and Sweden each high voltage pole of Konti–Skan uses a monopolar copper cable with a cross section of 1200 square millimetres.
From the Swedish coast a 38 kilometres long overhead power line ran to the original converter station of Konti–Skan 1 near Stenkullen. On the first 9 kilometres of this line the pylons carry the high-voltage conductors of Kontiskan 1 and 2. East of Brännemysten they carry the conductor of the electrode line like a ground conductor on the pinnacle, but of course insulated to the structure of the pylons, it comes from the common grounding electrode of Kontiskan 1 and 2 near Risø in the Baltic Sea and runs after a submarine/underground cable section ending at a cable terminal near Brattas northwards as pole line to the high voltage pole line of Konti–Skan at Brännemysten. The Swedish converters of Kontiskan were situated at different places: that of Kontiskan 1 at Stenkullen, east of Gothenburg and that of Kontiskan 2 and the thyristor replacement of Kontiskan 1 near Lindome south of Gothenburg and south of the route of Kontiskan 1; the last 30 kilometres of Konti–Skan 1 were installed on guyed aluminum framework pylons with an unusually low weight of only 800 kilograms.
These pylons carried 2 conductors, the high-voltage pole and the electrode line of Konti–Skan 1 on insulators of equal length. The remaining parts of this power line were dismantled in 2012. Shortly before the end of the line to Stenkullen, the line shared two pylons with the three-phase AC line from Stenkullen to Holmbokullen. Apart from the pylons at the terminal of HVDC Volgograd-Donbass at Volga-Hydroelectric Power Plant, these were the only pylons carrying AC and DC circuits. Baltic Cable, cable between Germany and Sweden Estlink, cable between Estonia and Finland Fenno-Skan, cable between Finland and Sweden LitPol Link, cable between Lithuania and Poland SwePol, cable between Poland and Sweden NordBalt, a cable between Sweden and Lithuania https://web.archive.org/web/20070205083032/http://www.abb.com/cawp/GAD02181/22F17C5B4CED084CC1256E27002B3C7D.aspx https://web.archive.org/web/20051115122606/http://www.transmission.bpa.gov/cigresc14/Compendium/KONTI.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20051115122606/http://www.transmission.bpa.gov/cigresc14/Compendium/Konti%20Pictures.pdf Energy infrastructure completed in 1988
Barsebäck Nuclear Power Plant
Barsebäck is a decommissioned boiling water nuclear power plant situated in Barsebäck, Kävlinge Municipality, Skåne, Sweden. Located 20 kilometers from the Danish capital, the Danish government pressed for its closure during the entirety of its operating lifetime; as a result of a now former Swedish nuclear power phase-out, its two reactors have been closed down. The first reactor, Barsebäck 1, was closed November 30, 1999, the second, Barsebäck 2, ceased operations May 31, 2005. At the time of closure, each reactor had a net capacity of 600 megawatts. Unit 1 supplied 93,8 TWh and unit 2 108 TWh to the electrical grid. Land for the plant was bought in 1965 by the energy company Sydkraft, the first of the two BWR reactors was ordered from Asea-Atom in 1969. Unit one first attained criticality on January 18, 1975 and commercial operation began on May 15; the second reactor attained criticality on March 21, 1977 and commercial operation began on July 1. Following a decision in the Riksdag in 1997, the Government of Sweden decided that the first reactor was to close July 1, 1998, the second July 1, 2001.
Due to the operator's appeal of the decision and lack of emission-free replacement, the closure was postponed. The demolition of the facility will await the construction of a storage facility, scheduled to be ready in the 2020s. In December 2018 a strategy was outlined for the "radiological demolition" to be carried out between 2020 and 2028; this will allow the land to be used for other nuclear power related purposes. The plant is operated by Barsebäck Kraft AB, a subsidiary of Sydkraft Nuclear Power AB, owned by Uniper. Home page
Älvkarleby Hydroelectric Power Station
Älvkarleby Hydroelectric Power Plant is a hydroelectric power plant with 5 Francis turbines at Älvkarleby, Sweden. It was built in 1911. From 1988-1991 a new power plant with a single Francis turbine was added, increasing its generation power from 70 MW to 126 MW. List of hydroelectric power stations in Sweden
Vattenfall is a Swedish power company, wholly owned by the Swedish state. Beyond Sweden, the company generates power in Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom; the company's name is Swedish for "waterfall", is an abbreviation of its original name, Royal Waterfall Board. Vattenfall was founded in 1909 as a state-owned enterprise in Sweden. From its founding until the mid-1970s, Vattenfall's business was restricted to Sweden, with a focus on hydroelectric power generation. Only in 1974 did the company begin to build nuclear reactors in Sweden owning seven of Sweden's 12 reactors. In 1992, Vattenfall was reformed as the limited liability company Vattenfall AB. In the years 1990 through 2009, Vattenfall expanded acquiring stakes in Hämeen Sähkö, HEW, the Polish heat production company EW, Elsam A/S, Nuon. In 2002 Vattenfall AB and its acquisitions were incorporated as Vattenfall Europe AG, making it the third-largest electricity producer in Germany. Following the expansion period, Vattenfall started to divest parts of its business in Denmark and Poland during the years following 2009 in a strategy to focus on three core markets: Sweden and Germany.
Write-downs on coal-fired and nuclear power plant assets in Germany and gas power plants in the Netherlands were necessary in a difficult market environment with increasing renewable energy market share and due to the German Nuclear power phase-out decision of 2011. In summer 2013 Vattenfall announced a writedown off the value of its assets by 29.7 billion SEK. A major part of these write-offs were attributed to Nuon Energy NV, a Netherlands-based utility that Vattenfall purchased at a 89 billion SEK price in 2009, but whose values was depreciating by 15 billion SEK since; the gloomy market outlook of decreasing power prices in combination with increasing risks notably on the continental market prompted the board to revise the group strategy by splitting its organizational structure into a Nordic part and a part with operations in continental Europe and the United Kingdom as of 2014. Some analysts have perceived this strategic review as a precursor to a partial retreat from continental European activities with a shift of focus towards activities in the Scandinavian market.
In this context and in response to a local referendum on re-municipilization of distribution grids, Vattenfall agreed on the sale of company-owned electricity and district-heat grids in Hamburg to the City of Hamburg in early 2014. In each of the second quarters of 2015 and 2016, Vattenfall filed impairments of SEK 28 billion due to lignite power stations in Germany. Operational financials were satisfactory. In 2017, Vattenfall reported a profit of SEK 9,571 billion with an operating profit of SEK 18,644 billion. Outside of Sweden, Vattenfall is known for forcing the Soviet government to publicly reveal the Chernobyl disaster; the Kremlin had tried to cover up the accident for a day, but elevated radiation levels at Vattenfall's Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant forced the Kremlin to admit the accident had occurred. In 2006, Vattenfall began production of the pilot carbon capture and storage plant at Schwarze Pumpe, Germany. In 2007, the Lillgrund Wind Farm off the southern coast of Sweden was commissioned and began delivering electricity.
Vattenfall has power generation branches in Sweden, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Finland. As of 2017, Vattenfall generates electricity from fossil fuels, nuclear power, wind power and "other sources"; some of Vattenfall's most notable power generation plants include the 110 MW Lillgrund Wind Farm off the coast of Malmö, the world's largest offshore wind farm at Thanet, UK, the nuclear reactors Brunsbüttel Nuclear Power Plant, Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant, Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant in Germany, the Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant and Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden. The nuclear power stations of Brunsbüttel and Krümmel have been shut down permanently in response to a governmental order in summer 2011 after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Vattenfall operates biomass and other power plants in Germany and the Netherlands and Denmark; until 2016, Vattenfall owned lignite and hard coal-fired power stations, including the Jänschwalde Power Station, the Boxberg Power Station, the Lippendorf Power Station and the Schwarze Pumpe Power Station.
In 2014, Vattenfall had a lignite turnover of €2.3 billion and a profit of €647 million, but lost money on lignite as power prices decreased from 40 to 20 €/MWh. On 30 September 2016, Vattenfall completed the sale of its German lignite facilities to the Czech energy group EPH and its financial partner PPF Investments. In January 2016 Vattenfall announced that its Swedish nuclear power plants, including the newer reactors, were operating at a loss due to low electricity prices and Sweden's nuclear output tax, it warned that if it was forced to shut the plants down, there would be serious consequences to Sweden's electricity supply, argued that the nuclear output tax should be scrapped. In October 2016 Vattenfall began litigation against the German government for its 2011 decision to accelerate the phase-out of nuclear power
The Baltic Cable is a monopolar HVDC power line running beneath the Baltic Sea that interconnects the electric power grids of Germany and Sweden. The Baltic Cable uses a transmission voltage of 450 kV – the highest operating voltage for energy transmission in Germany; the total project cost was 2 billion SEK, the link was put into operation in December 1994. With a length of 250 kilometres, it was the second longest high voltage cable on earth, until Basslink came into service in 2006, it is a monopolar HVDC system with a maximum transmission power of 600 megawatts. The course of the Baltic Cable starts in Germany at the converter station at Lübeck-Herrenwyk, on the site of a former coal-fired power station at 53°53′45.8″N 10°48′08.7″E. It crosses the river Trave in a channel 6 metres below the bottom of the river and follows its course as sea cable laid at the Eastern side of this river. After crossing the peninsula at Priwall the cable runs at first parallel to the coast of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, in order to turn behind Rostock north-easterly toward Sweden.
At 54°17′31″N 12°04′38″E, it crosses the submarine cable of HVDC Kontek. This is the only crossing of two submarine HVDC cables in the Baltic Sea and one of the only few worldwide. From the landing point at the southern coast of Sweden at 55°23′16″N 13°0′47″E, the Baltic-Cable runs a further 5.5 kilometres as an underground cable until a point east of the road E6 at 55°25′27″N 13°03′43.3″E, where inside a fenced area the transition from underground cable to overhead powerline takes place. From there the powerline runs as overhead line over two suspension pylons in north-northwesterly direction until the first strainer at 55°25′50.1″N 13°3′12″E. There the line turns into north-northeasterly direction and runs over seven suspension pylons past Södra Häslov to the next strainer at 55°27′8.1″N 13°2′56.2″E. Its track goes now further on 8 suspension pylons in northeasterly direction to the third strainer at 55°28′33.3″N 13°04′02.2″E. The next section consists of 15 suspension pylons from which the third tower situated at 55°28′38.5″N 13°04′49.1″E, the ninth tower situated at 55°28′59.4″N 13°06′15.2″E and the 12th tower situated at 55°29′9.6″N 13°07′12.6″E are angle suspension pylons.
It ends at a strainer east of Västra Ingelstad at 55°29′29.7″N 13°8′18.3″E. From this strainer the line runs on one suspension pylons, one angle suspension pylon situated at 55°29′52″N 13°08′33.6″E and the termination tower in northeasterly direction to Kruseberg converter station at 55°30′01.1″N 13°08′45″E. This facility, known as Arrie converter station, is attached to a 400 kV/130 kV substation of the Swedish power grid; the total count of pylons of the 12.1-kilometre long overhead line is 40. All these pylons have a single crossbar, on which two conductors are mounted on 6-metre long insulators; each conductor is a bundle of two ropes with 910 mm2 cross section. Both conductors are connected with each other at the ends of the overhead line, so this line is monopolar, although it looks bipolar; the anode, situated in the Baltic Sea at 55°19′23″N 13°19′09″E consists of 40 titanium nets each with a surface of 20 m2, which are laid on the sea bottom under plastic tubes and stones. It is connected to Kruseberg converter station with a 23-kilometre-long underground and submarine power line, which consists of two parallel-connected XLPE-insulated cables with 630 mm2 cross section, entering the Baltic Sea at 55°20′33″N 13°19′17″E and at 55°20′24″N 13°20′14″E.
The cathode is situated in the Baltic Sea north of Elmenhorst at 54°1′42″N 11°8′24″E. It consists of a bare copper ring with a 2-kilometre diameter, it is connected to the static inverter plant in Lübeck-Herrenwyk with a 32-kilometre-long XLPE-insulated cable. The first 20 kilometres of this cable have a cross section of 1400 mm2 and the last of 800 mm2; this cable is laid in the tunnel under Trave River close to the high voltage cable and from until a point situated at 54°02′00.6″N 11°03′11.5″E in a distance of 2.5 metres to the high voltage cable. By this the magnetic field, which may affect compasses of vessels in this frequented area is reduced; the remaining way to the cathode it runs on a separate way. As Baltic-Cable is a monopolar line it produces much higher magnetic fields than bipolar cables with the same ratings; because this overhead line can generate radio interference, there is a effective active filter system installed at the Kruseberg converter station. In the Lübeck-Herrenwyk converter station, there is no requirement for such a system, because there is no overhead powerline section on the German side.
The cable cannot be operated at the maximum transmission rating of 600 megawatts, because the 380 kV line which begins at the converter station of Lübeck-Herrenwyk ends at the Lübeck-Siems substation. This is the only 380 kV powerline in Germany, which has no direct connection to the Central European 380 kV grid, which caused the Baltic Cable to have a 372 megawatt capacity instead of 600 MW; this bottleneck was solved in 2004. However power flows on 220 kV and 110 kV lines face increased losses of the transmission. In the area of the converter station there is a 110 kV/220 kV sub-station, fed by two 110 kV circuits from the Lübeck-Siems sub-station. There is no transformer for coupling the 380 kV- and the 110 kV-grid in the area of the Lübeck-Herrenwyk converter station. In 2016, the owner Statkraft started a court case against Swedish authorities in disagreements over profits from electricity trade in the cable. In the night from April 16, 2017 to April 17, 2017 on the electrode cable on Priwall peninsula a fault occurred, which resulted in the generation of hydrogen at the fault location as it acted as
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Electric power transmission
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network; this is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is known as the "power grid" in North America, or just "the grid". In the United Kingdom, Myanmar and New Zealand, the network is known as the "National Grid". A wide area synchronous grid known as an "interconnection" in North America, directly connects a large number of generators delivering AC power with the same relative frequency to a large number of consumers. For example, there are four major interconnections in North America. In Europe one large grid connects most of continental Europe. Transmission and distribution lines were owned by the same company, but starting in the 1990s, many countries have liberalized the regulation of the electricity market in ways that have led to the separation of the electricity transmission business from the distribution business.
Most transmission lines are high-voltage three-phase alternating current, although single phase AC is sometimes used in railway electrification systems. High-voltage direct-current technology is used for greater efficiency over long distances. HVDC technology is used in submarine power cables, in the interchange of power between grids that are not mutually synchronized. HVDC links are used to stabilize large power distribution networks where sudden new loads, or blackouts, in one part of a network can result in synchronization problems and cascading failures. Electricity is transmitted at high voltages to reduce the energy loss which occurs in long-distance transmission. Power is transmitted through overhead power lines. Underground power transmission has a higher installation cost and greater operational limitations, but reduced maintenance costs. Underground transmission is sometimes used in environmentally sensitive locations. A lack of electrical energy storage facilities in transmission systems leads to a key limitation.
Electrical energy must be generated at the same rate. A sophisticated control system is required to ensure that the power generation closely matches the demand. If the demand for power exceeds supply, the imbalance can cause generation plant and transmission equipment to automatically disconnect or shut down to prevent damage. In the worst case, this may lead to a cascading series of a major regional blackout. Examples include the US Northeast blackouts of 1965, 1977, 2003, major blackouts in other US regions in 1996 and 2011. Electric transmission networks are interconnected into regional and continent wide networks to reduce the risk of such a failure by providing multiple redundant, alternative routes for power to flow should such shut downs occur. Transmission companies determine the maximum reliable capacity of each line to ensure that spare capacity is available in the event of a failure in another part of the network. High-voltage overhead conductors are not covered by insulation; the conductor material is nearly always an aluminum alloy, made into several strands and reinforced with steel strands.
Copper was sometimes used for overhead transmission, but aluminum is lighter, yields only marginally reduced performance and costs much less. Overhead conductors are a commodity supplied by several companies worldwide. Improved conductor material and shapes are used to allow increased capacity and modernize transmission circuits. Conductor sizes range from 12 mm2 with varying resistance and current-carrying capacity. For normal AC lines thicker wires would lead to a small increase in capacity due to the skin effect; because of this current limitation, multiple parallel cables are used when higher capacity is needed. Bundle conductors are used at high voltages to reduce energy loss caused by corona discharge. Today, transmission-level voltages are considered to be 110 kV and above. Lower voltages, such as 66 kV and 33 kV, are considered subtransmission voltages, but are used on long lines with light loads. Voltages less than 33 kV are used for distribution. Voltages above 765 kV are considered extra high voltage and require different designs compared to equipment used at lower voltages.
Since overhead transmission wires depend on air for insulation, the design of these lines requires minimum clearances to be observed to maintain safety. Adverse weather conditions, such as high wind and low temperatures, can lead to power outages. Wind speeds as low as 23 knots can permit conductors to encroach operating clearances, resulting in a flashover and loss of supply. Oscillatory motion of the physical line can be termed gallop or flutter depending on the frequency and amplitude of oscillation. Electric power can be transmitted by underground power cables instead of overhead power lines. Underground cables take up less right-of-way than overhead lines, have lower visibility, are less affected by bad weather. However, costs of insulated cable and excavation are much higher